cd13 antigens


Summary: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.

Top Publications

  1. Kehlen A, Lendeckel U, Dralle H, Langner J, Hoang Vu C. Biological significance of aminopeptidase N/CD13 in thyroid carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2003;63:8500-6 pubmed
  2. Kido A, Krueger S, Haeckel C, Roessner A. Inhibitory effect of antisense aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) cDNA transfection on the invasive potential of osteosarcoma cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2003;20:585-92 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that APN plays an active role in the cellular attachment and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix in the metastatic process of osteosarcomas. ..
  3. Rajagopal R, Sivakumar S, Agrawal N, Malhotra P, Bhatnagar R. Silencing of midgut aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura by double-stranded RNA establishes its role as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin receptor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46849-51 pubmed
    ..These results directly implicate larval midgut aminopeptidase N as receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins. ..
  4. Agrawal N, Malhotra P, Bhatnagar R. Interaction of gene-cloned and insect cell-expressed aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura with insecticidal crystal protein Cry1C. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:4583-92 pubmed
    ..By these experiments we showed that the bioactive toxin, Cry1C, binds to the recombinant APN, while the nonbioactive toxin, Cry1Ac, showed no interaction...
  5. Hirano T, Kizaki M, Kato K, Abe F, Masuda N, Umezawa K. Enhancement of sensitivity by bestatin of acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells to all-trans retinoic acid. Leuk Res. 2002;26:1097-103 pubmed
    ..Thus bestatin, an immunomodulator clinically used for nonlymphocytic leukemia, synergistically increased the ATRA-induced differentiation of NB4 cells by inhibiting CD13/aminopeptidase N on the cell-surface. ..
  6. Tokuhara T, Hattori N, Ishida H, Hirai T, Higashiyama M, Kodama K, et al. Clinical significance of aminopeptidase N in non-small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3971-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to show the relationship between the expression of APN/CD13 and the prognosis of patients with NSCLC. The inhibition of APN/CD13 may be an effective new molecular target therapy for patients with NSCLC. ..
  7. Ikeda N, Nakajima Y, Tokuhara T, Hattori N, Sho M, Kanehiro H, et al. Clinical significance of aminopeptidase N/CD13 expression in human pancreatic carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:1503-8 pubmed
    ..016). Our data suggest that APN/CD13 may be a new prognostic marker for patients with pancreatic carcinoma and may have a relationship with the angiogenesis for this cancer. ..
  8. Bhagwat S, Petrovic N, Okamoto Y, Shapiro L. The angiogenic regulator CD13/APN is a transcriptional target of Ras signaling pathways in endothelial morphogenesis. Blood. 2003;101:1818-26 pubmed
    ..These studies provide strong evidence that CD13/APN is an important target of Ras signaling in angiogenesis and is a limiting factor in angiogenic progression. ..
  9. Petrovic N, Bhagwat S, Ratzan W, Ostrowski M, Shapiro L. CD13/APN transcription is induced by RAS/MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ets-2 in activated endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49358-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, the phosphorylation of Ets-2 by RAS/MAPK is a prerequisite for CD13/APN endothelial induction and Ets-2 and its targets play essential roles in endothelial cell function. ..

More Information


  1. Miguel B, Pharr G, Wang C. The role of feline aminopeptidase N as a receptor for infectious bronchitis virus. Brief review. Arch Virol. 2002;147:2047-56 pubmed
    ..The hamster cells became permissive to IBV after transfection with a fAPN cDNA suggesting that the feline APN molecule plays a role in IBV entry. ..
  2. Surowiak P, Drag M, Materna V, Suchocki S, Grzywa R, Spaczynski M, et al. Expression of aminopeptidase N/CD13 in human ovarian cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1783-8 pubmed
    ..001). Thus, the data indicate that a potential treatment of ovarian carcinoma with CD13 inhibitors should be performed before chemotherapy or in parallel to first-lapse chemotherapy. ..
  3. Wilmer M, de Graaf Hess A, Blom H, Dijkman H, Monnens L, van den Heuvel L, et al. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:610-4 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis...
  4. Atsumi S, Mizuno E, Hara H, Nakanishi K, Kitami M, Miura N, et al. Location of the Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N type 1 binding site on Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:3966-77 pubmed
    ..We also discuss another area on Cry1Aa toxin as a new candidate site for BmAPN1 binding. ..
  5. Yamashita M, Kajiyama H, Terauchi M, Shibata K, Ino K, Nawa A, et al. Involvement of aminopeptidase N in enhanced chemosensitivity to paclitaxel in ovarian carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2243-50 pubmed
    ..APN/CD13 may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of OVCA in combination with chemotherapy. ..
  6. Pootanakit K, Angsuthanasombat C, Panyim S. Identification of two isoforms of aminopeptidase N in Aedes aegypti larval midgut. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;36:508-13 pubmed
    ..Which of the two isoforms (or other yet unidentified receptor proteins) is involved in the killing of mosquito larvae remains to be elucidated. ..
  7. van Hensbergen Y, Broxterman H, Peters E, Rana S, Elderkamp Y, van Hinsbergh V, et al. Aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin stimulates microvascular endothelial cell invasion in a fibrin matrix. Thromb Haemost. 2003;90:921-9 pubmed
    ..The identification of this novel effect of bestatin is important in the light of the proposed use of bestatin as anti-angiogenic and/or anti-tumor agent. ..
  8. Chang Y, Chen S, Cheng E, Ko Y, Lin Y, Kao Y, et al. CD13 (aminopeptidase N) can associate with tumor-associated antigen L6 and enhance the motility of human lung cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:243-52 pubmed
  9. van Hensbergen Y, Broxterman H, Rana S, van Diest P, Duyndam M, Hoekman K, et al. Reduced growth, increased vascular area, and reduced response to cisplatin in CD13-overexpressing human ovarian cancer xenografts. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1180-91 pubmed
    ..Further elucidation of the mechanism of the observed effects of CD13 is warranted to better understand its role in the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. ..
  10. Hua G, Tsukamoto K, Rasilo M, Ikezawa H. Molecular cloning of a GPI-anchored aminopeptidase N from Bombyx mori midgut: a putative receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA toxin. Gene. 1998;214:177-85 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that the 110-kDa APN is a GPI-anchored protein and a specific receptor protein for B. thuringiensis CryIA delta-endotoxin...
  11. Tresnan D, Levis R, Holmes K. Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I. J Virol. 1996;70:8669-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, host factors in addition to receptor specificity apparently affect the virulence and transmissibility of nonfeline serogroup I coronaviruses in the cat. ..
  12. Shapiro L, Ashmun R, Roberts W, Look A. Separate promoters control transcription of the human aminopeptidase N gene in myeloid and intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:11999-2007 pubmed
    ..Both aminopeptidase N transcripts encode the same polypeptide, indicating that the physically distinct promoters must have evolved to regulate expression of this cell-surface peptidase by cells of different tissues. ..
  13. Ingle S, Trivedi N, Prasad R, Kuruvilla J, Rao K, Chhatpar H. Aminopeptidase-N from the Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) brush border membrane vesicles as a receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis crylac delta-endotoxin. Curr Microbiol. 2001;43:255-9 pubmed
    ..The first 10-amino-acid sequence showed 60-77% similarity with human cysteine-rich secretory protein-1 precursor, inhibin alpha chain precursor. Salmonella flagellar hook protein and yeast carboxypeptidase S. ..
  14. Kido A, Krueger S, Haeckel C, Roessner A. Possible contribution of aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) to invasive potential enhanced by interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor in human osteosarcoma cell lines. Clin Exp Metastasis. 1999;17:857-63 pubmed
    ..Cellular migration correlated highly with APN activity (r = 0.79, P < 0.002). These findings suggest that APN contributes to the invasive potential of human osteosarcomas enhanced by IL-6 and SIL-6R. ..
  15. Pasqualini R, Koivunen E, Kain R, Lahdenranta J, Sakamoto M, Stryhn A, et al. Aminopeptidase N is a receptor for tumor-homing peptides and a target for inhibiting angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2000;60:722-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, APN is involved in angiogenesis and can serve as a target for delivering drugs into tumors and for inhibiting angiogenesis. ..
  16. Riemann D, Kehlen A, Langner J. CD13--not just a marker in leukemia typing. Immunol Today. 1999;20:83-8 pubmed
    ..Here, using aminopeptidase N/CD13 as an example, Dagmar Riemann and colleagues discuss the role of cell-cell contact in peptidase regulation and the influence of peptidases on cellular functions. ..
  17. Yaoi K, Nakanishi K, Kadotani T, Imamura M, Koizumi N, Iwahana H, et al. cDNA cloning and expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin binding 120 kDa aminopeptidase N from Bombyx mori. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1444:131-7 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, the recombinant APN was expressed by Escherichia coli and its Cry1Aa toxin binding ability was analyzed. Ligand blotting showed that Cry1Aa toxin bound to the recombinant APN...
  18. Yeager C, Ashmun R, Williams R, Cardellichio C, Shapiro L, Look A, et al. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E. Nature. 1992;357:420-2 pubmed
  19. Hansen A, Noren O, Sjostrom H, Werdelin O. A mouse aminopeptidase N is a marker for antigen-presenting cells and appears to be co-expressed with major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:2358-64 pubmed
    ..The expression of APN showed a striking correlation with the MHC class II expression in all the cell populations studied. This apparent co-expression suggests a role for APN in antigen processing. ..
  20. Ishii K, Usui S, Sugimura Y, Yoshida S, Hioki T, Tatematsu M, et al. Aminopeptidase N regulated by zinc in human prostate participates in tumor cell invasion. Int J Cancer. 2001;92:49-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, highly expressed AP-N in human cancerous prostate probably plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. ..
  21. Curnis F, Arrigoni G, Sacchi A, Fischetti L, Arap W, Pasqualini R, et al. Differential binding of drugs containing the NGR motif to CD13 isoforms in tumor vessels, epithelia, and myeloid cells. Cancer Res. 2002;62:867-74 pubmed
    ..These findings may explain the selectivity and the tumor-homing properties of NGR-drug conjugates and may have important implications in the development of vascular-targeted therapies based on the NGR/CD13 system. ..
  22. Kolb A, Hegyi A, Siddell S. Identification of residues critical for the human coronavirus 229E receptor function of human aminopeptidase N. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 11):2795-802 pubmed
    ..These changes were sufficient to convert porcine APN into a functional receptor for HCV 229E and thus define a small number of residues that are critically important for the HCV 229E receptor function of human APN. ..
  23. Kehlen A, Egbert I, Thiele K, Fischer K, Riemann D, Langner J. Increased expression of interleukin-8 and aminopeptidase N by cell-cell contact: interleukin-8 is resistant to degradation by aminopeptidase N/CD13. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001;12:316-24 pubmed
    ..The much more sensitive HPLC technique resulted in negative results as well. ..
  24. Jenkins J, Dean D. Binding specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa for purified, native Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like receptors. BMC Biochem. 2001;2:12 pubmed
    ..mori receptors and for toxicity. Moreover, the high-affinity binding of Cry1Aa to native cadherin-like receptor emphasizes the importance of this receptor class for Bt toxin research. ..
  25. Delmas B, Gelfi J, L Haridon R, Vogel L, Sjostrom H, Noren O, et al. Aminopeptidase N is a major receptor for the entero-pathogenic coronavirus TGEV. Nature. 1992;357:417-20 pubmed
    ..First, virions bound specifically to aminopeptidase N that was purified to homogeneity. Second, recombinant expression of aminopeptidase N conferred infectivity by TGEV to an otherwise non-permissive cell line. ..
  26. Mishima Y, Matsumoto Mishima Y, Terui Y, Katsuyama M, Yamada M, Mori M, et al. Leukemic cell-surface CD13/aminopeptidase N and resistance to apoptosis mediated by endothelial cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1020-8 pubmed
    ..The combination of endothelial IL-8 and bestatin induce leukemic cells expressing high levels of CD13/aminopeptidase N to undergo apoptosis. Bestatin may be useful for treating patients with leukemia. ..
  27. Hashida H, Takabayashi A, Kanai M, Adachi M, Kondo K, Kohno N, et al. Aminopeptidase N is involved in cell motility and angiogenesis: its clinical significance in human colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:376-86 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that APN/CD13 is involved in cell motility and angiogenesis, and APN/CD13 expression may be a useful indicator of a poor prognosis for node-positive patients with colon cancer. ..
  28. Lee M, Young B, Dean D. Domain III exchanges of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA toxins affect binding to different gypsy moth midgut receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;216:306-12 pubmed
    ..This is the first direct evidence that domain III is involved in receptor binding and the first to demonstrate that domain III substitutions direct the binding of these toxins to different gypsy moth midgut receptors. ..
  29. Denolf P, Hendrickx K, Van Damme J, Jansens S, Peferoen M, Degheele D, et al. Cloning and characterization of Manduca sexta and Plutella xylostella midgut aminopeptidase N enzymes related to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-binding proteins. Eur J Biochem. 1997;248:748-61 pubmed
    ..Treatment of Sf9 cells expressing the P. xylostella apn1 gene with PtdIns-specific phospholipase C demonstrated that P. xylostella Apn1 is attached to the insect cell membrane by a glycosyl-PtdIns anchor...
  30. Larsen S, Pedersen L, Buus S, Stryhn A. T cell responses affected by aminopeptidase N (CD13)-mediated trimming of major histocompatibility complex class II-bound peptides. J Exp Med. 1996;184:183-9 pubmed
    ..This could be demonstrated both in cell-free systems using purified reagents and in cellular systems. Thus, MHC class II and APN may act in concert to generate the final T cell epitopes. ..
  31. Tusell S, Schittone S, Holmes K. Mutational analysis of aminopeptidase N, a receptor for several group 1 coronaviruses, identifies key determinants of viral host range. J Virol. 2007;81:1261-73 pubmed
    ..Therefore, entry and host range of these group 1 coronaviruses depend on the ability of the viral spike glycoproteins to recognize small, species-specific amino acid differences in the APN proteins of different species. ..
  32. Sarasua S, Mueller P, Kathman S, Campagna D, Uddin M, White M. Confirming the utility of four kidney biomarker tests in a longitudinal follow-up study. Ren Fail. 2003;25:797-817 pubmed
    ..This longitudinal study confirmed the utility of these four kidney biomarker tests as markers of preclinical organ dysfunction among adults with certain preexisting medical conditions. ..
  33. Fox C, Sapinoso L, Zhang H, Zhang W, McLeod H, Petroni G, et al. Altered expression of TFF-1 and CES-2 in Barrett's Esophagus and associated adenocarcinomas. Neoplasia. 2005;7:407-16 pubmed
    ..These potential biomarkers, as well as the relative expression of genes from BE1 versus those from BE2, may be validated in the future to aid in risk stratification and guide treatment protocols in patients with BE and associated AC. ..
  34. Bauvois B, Puiffe M, Bongui J, Paillat S, Monneret C, Dauzonne D. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel flavone-8-acetic acid derivatives as reversible inhibitors of aminopeptidase N/CD13. J Med Chem. 2003;46:3900-13 pubmed
  35. Tusell S, Holmes K. Molecular interactions of group 1 coronaviruses with feline APN. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:289-91 pubmed
  36. Breslin J, Mørk I, Smith M, Vogel L, Hemmila E, Bonavia A, et al. Human coronavirus 229E: receptor binding domain and neutralization by soluble receptor at 37 degrees C. J Virol. 2003;77:4435-8 pubmed
    ..Soluble hAPN neutralized the infectivity of HCoV-229E virions at 37 degrees C, but not 4 degrees C. Binding of hAPN may therefore trigger conformational changes in the viral spike protein at 37 degrees C that facilitate virus entry. ..
  37. Rossi F, Busetto M, Torriani S. Isolation of aminopeptidase N genes of food associated propionibacteria and observation of their transcription in skim milk and acid whey. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2007;91:87-96 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcription coupled with PN5/PN3 and NU1/D1 PCR tests indicated that the pepN genes of P. jensenii and P. freudenreichii are expressed during growth in skim milk and acid whey. ..
  38. Li B, Ma G, Ge J, Li Y. [Porcine aminopeptidase N is a functional receptor for the PEDV coronavirus]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:220-5 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that pAPN is a functional receptor for PEDV. ..
  39. Zödl B, Zeiner M, Sargazi M, Roberts N, Marktl W, Steffan I, et al. Toxic and biochemical effects of zinc in Caco-2 cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2003;97:324-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that the susceptibility to zinc induced damage is equal in both confluentation groups of Caco-2 cells. Risk assessment for high concentrations seems recommendable. ..
  40. Varona A, Silveira P, Irazusta A, Valdivia A, Gil J. Effects of changes in hydromineral balance on rat brain aspartyl, arginyl, and alanyl aminopeptidase activities. Horm Metab Res. 2003;35:36-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that aminopeptidases in the central nervous system may be involved in the physiological regulation of hydromineral balance. ..
  41. Zhang R, Hua G, Andacht T, Adang M. A 106-kDa aminopeptidase is a putative receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba toxin in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..4 nM. Notably, this truncated peptide inhibited Cry11Ba toxicity to An. gambiae larvae. These results are evidence that the 106-kDa GPI-anchored APN is a specific binding protein, and a putative midgut receptor, for Bt Cry11Ba toxin. ..
  42. Sakuma S, Matsumoto T, Yamashita S, Wang Y, Lu Z. Conjugation of poorly absorptive drugs with mucoadhesive polymers for the improvement of oral absorption of drugs. J Control Release. 2007;123:195-202 pubmed
    ..5-fold increase in the oral absorption with statistical significance. This novel approach has a potential to improve oral absorption of drugs with poorly absorptive properties caused by low membrane permeability. ..
  43. Morikawa T, Xie H, Wang T, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M. Acylated flavonol bisdesmosides, sinocrassosides A3-A7 and B3, with aminopeptidase N inhibitory activity from Sinocrassula indica. Chem Biodivers. 2009;6:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, 2 and 6 which have an acyl group in the 3'''-position were found to show strong inhibitory effects on aminopeptidase N activity, which were stronger than that of curcumin...
  44. Bouchet S, Tang R, Fava F, Legrand O, Bauvois B. The CNGRC-GG-D(KLAKLAK)2 peptide induces a caspase-independent, Ca2+-dependent death in human leukemic myeloid cells by targeting surface aminopeptidase N/CD13. Oncotarget. 2016;7:19445-67 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway, and support the link between proMMP-12 activation and progranulin cleavage during cell death. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of tumour biology and treatment. ..
  45. Banks D, Hua G, Adang M. Cloning of a Heliothis virescens 110 kDa aminopeptidase N and expression in Drosophila S2 cells. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:499-508 pubmed
    ..This suggests while the H. virescens 110 kDa APN functions as a Bt toxin binding protein, it does not mediate cytotoxicity when expressed in S2 cells. ..
  46. Lassnig C, Sanchez C, Egerbacher M, Walter I, Majer S, Kolbe T, et al. Development of a transgenic mouse model susceptible to human coronavirus 229E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8275-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these mice provide an important tool for the evaluation of biosafety and efficacy of coronavirus-based vectors. ..
  47. Linardi A, Panunto P, Ferro E, Hyslop S. Peptidase activities in rats treated chronically with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;68:205-14 pubmed
    ..The altered peptidase activities seen in aorta may contribute to modulating vascular responses in this model of hypertension. ..
  48. Naya D, Farfan G, Sabat P, Mendez M, Bozinovic F. Digestive morphology and enzyme activity in the Andean toad Bufo spinulosus: hard-wired or flexible physiology?. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2005;140:165-70 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results indicate that the correlation between feeding frequency and the level of gut up-regulation proposed for interspecific comparisons may also be found at the intraspecific level. ..
  49. Tian L, Liu L, Wang X, Xiao J, Zou P. Impact of trisomy 8 on cytobiological and clinical features of acute myelomonocytic and monocytic leukemia. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2005;13:364-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, trisomy 8 may be an adverse prognostic factor for patients with M(4) or M(5). ..
  50. Zhuang Y, Mwangi W, Brown W, Davis W, Hope J, Palmer G. Characterization of a phenotypically unique population of CD13+ dendritic cells resident in the spleen. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1064-9 pubmed
    ..Upon cytokine-induced maturation, splenic DCs both efficiently present antigen in the stimulation of allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation and recall antigen-specific responses. ..
  51. Ichimura E, Yamada M, Nishikawa K, Abe F, Nakajima T. Immunohistochemical expression of aminopeptidase N (CD13) in human lung squamous cell carcinomas, with special reference to Bestatin adjuvant therapy. Pathol Int. 2006;56:296-300 pubmed
    ..Double immunohistochemistry showed that the majority of CD13-positive cells were slender fibroblastic cells around the blood vessels and some endothelial cells. ..
  52. Liu B, Li G, Sui X, Yin J, Wang H, Ren X. Expression and functional analysis of porcine aminopeptidase N produced in prokaryotic expression system. J Biotechnol. 2009;141:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The pAPN and its specific antibody blocked transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus infection in vitro. Furthermore, the localization of pAPN on the small intestine of swine was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ..
  53. De Bruyn C, Delforge A, Martiat P, Bron D. Ex vivo expansion of neutrophil precursor cells from mobilized peripheral blood cells: similar results in cancer patients and normal donors. Cytotherapy. 2005;7:470-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the ex vivo expansion of CP and ND cells is comparable and achievable even with a low CD34(+) cell number in mobilized peripheral blood. ..
  54. Sivakumar S, Rajagopal R, Venkatesh G, Srivastava A, Bhatnagar R. Knockdown of aminopeptidase-N from Helicoverpa armigera larvae and in transfected Sf21 cells by RNA interference reveals its functional interaction with Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein Cry1Ac. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:7312-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first functional demonstration of insect aminopeptidase-N of H. armigera being a receptor of Cry1Ac protein of B. thuringiensis. ..
  55. John H, Schulz S, Forssmann W. Validated multi-component CZE-UV procedure for the quantification of human hemorphin LVV-H7 in plasma stability studies. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:235-43 pubmed
    ..In addition, our results give useful hints for future drug development of LVV-H7. ..
  56. Taneja Bageshwar S, Strey A, Isaac R, Coast G, Zubrzak P, Pietrantonio P, et al. Biostable agonists that match or exceed activity of native insect kinins on recombinant arthropod GPCRs. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;162:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These potent, biostable analogs represent ideal new tools for endocrinologists studying arthropod kinin-regulated processes in vivo, particularly for ticks in which their role remains to be established. ..
  57. Li S, Li G, Huang H, Xiong F, Liu C, Tu G. The synthesis and preliminary activity assay in vitro of peptide-like derivatives as APN inhibitors. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:1231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The derivatives with methoxy group show better activities than those with other substituted group and could be used as lead compounds for exploring new APN inhibitors in the future. ..
  58. Jullienne B, Vigant F, Muth E, Chaligne R, Bouquet C, Giraudier S, et al. Efficient delivery of angiostatin K1-5 into tumors following insertion of an NGR peptide into adenovirus capsid. Gene Ther. 2009;16:1405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results suggest that NGR-bearing Ad are valuable tools to realize the potential of this anti-angiogenic approach to anti-tumor therapy. ..
  59. Zhang S, Cheng H, Gao Y, Wang G, Liang G, Wu K. Mutation of an aminopeptidase N gene is associated with Helicoverpa armigera resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an allele-specific PCR to monitor whether the apn1 gene in an H. armigera field population produced a similar mutation. No deleted mutants were found in 2250 individuals collected from the field in 2006-2007. ..
  60. Habdas J, Boduszek B. Synthesis of 5-(4'-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4 pyridyl)-porphyrin and its peptidyl phosphonate derivatives. J Pept Sci. 2009;15:305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..All the synthesized compounds could serve as potential photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) method of tumor therapy and displayed activity as inhibitors of aminopeptidase N. ..
  61. Zhang X, Xu W. Aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13) as a target for anti-cancer agent design. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15:2850-65 pubmed
    ..Besides, the structural and electronic requirements of the enzyme active site and the binding pockets, together with the specificity towards the ligands are presented. ..
  62. Wang J, Li X, Li F, Chen X. [Study on the immunophenotypes of bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and its clinical implications]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2002;10:173-4 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the bone marrow cells from MDS patients showed abnormality of more than two series of immunophenotypes, detection of immunophenotype in MDS cells might be contributed to the diagnosis and predicting prognosis. ..
  63. Mitic B, Lazarevic G, Vlahovic P, Rajic M, Stefanovic V. Diagnostic value of the aminopeptidase N, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and dipeptidylpeptidase IV in evaluating tubular dysfunction in patients with glomerulopathies. Ren Fail. 2008;30:896-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased serum PC-1, APN, and DPP IV activities could be also of diagnostic significance. ..
  64. Takano T, Katada Y, Moritoh S, Ogasawara M, Satoh K, Satoh R, et al. Analysis of the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: aminopeptidase N is not important and a process of acidification of the endosome is necessary. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1025-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be very important for understanding the mechanism of ADE of FIPV infection. ..
  65. Pattanapanyasat K, Sukapirom K, Tachavanich K, Kaewmoon S. Flow cytometric quantitation of opsonophagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida albicans using a whole blood microassay. Cytometry A. 2007;71:1027-33 pubmed
    ..This assay provides an alternative method to assess PMN function in small blood samples, which could be especially useful in conditions like thalassemia and pediatric patients. ..
  66. Oca F, Dreux S, Gerard B, Simon Bouy B, de Becdelievre A, Ferec C, et al. Amniotic fluid digestive enzyme analysis is useful for identifying CFTR gene mutations of unclear significance. Clin Chem. 2009;55:2214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The AF-DE pattern (<22 weeks) was typical in 3 cases but abnormal in the last 2 cases. AF-DE analysis is of value for prenatal CF diagnosis in classic forms of CF and could be helpful in nonclassic CF. ..
  67. Lahdenranta J, Sidman R, Pasqualini R, Arap W. Treatment of hypoxia-induced retinopathy with targeted proapoptotic peptidomimetic in a mouse model of disease. FASEB J. 2007;21:3272-8 pubmed
    ..Targeted proapoptotic peptides may prove useful in the management of angiogenic retinal diseases. ..
  68. Cowburn A, Sobolewski A, Reed B, Deighton J, Murray J, Cadwallader K, et al. Aminopeptidase N (CD13) regulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis in human neutrophils. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12458-67 pubmed
    ..This has therapeutic relevance for driving neutrophil apoptosis in vivo. ..
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    ..Therefore, our study underscores the importance of cysteine residues flanking targeting peptides for not only affinity but also specificity of the retargeted Ad. ..