Summary: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.

Top Publications

  1. Weidner N, Austen K. Heterogeneity of mast cells at multiple body sites. Fluorescent determination of avidin binding and immunofluorescent determination of chymase, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase content. Pathol Res Pract. 1993;189:156-62 pubmed
    ..This study further documents site-dependent diversity among normal human MCs and recognizes a novel third immunophenotype rich in chymase and relatively deficient in tryptase, the MCC cell. ..
  2. Cahill K, Katz H, Cui J, Lai J, Kazani S, Crosby Thompson A, et al. KIT Inhibition by Imatinib in Patients with Severe Refractory Asthma. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1911-1920 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that KIT-dependent processes and mast cells contribute to the pathobiologic basis of severe asthma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; number, NCT01097694 .). ..
  3. Ni W, Cao M, Huang W, Meng L, Wei J. Tryptase inhibitors: a patent review. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2017;27:919-928 pubmed publisher
    ..Tryptase has become the research hotspot to explore many related diseases. Therefore, there has been growing appreciation for the potential importance of the tryptase inhibitors as a target for treating these diseases. ..
  4. Klimek L, Wolf H, Mewes T, Dormann D, Reske Kunz A, Schnitker J, et al. The effect of short-term immunotherapy with molecular standardized grass and rye allergens on eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase in nasal secretions. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:47-53 pubmed
    ..19 ng/mL (7. 79 to 8.62 ng/mL; P <.001) at the after-season visit. Short-term immunotherapy is able to reduce tryptase and ECP in nasal secretions more effectively than drug treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis. ..
  5. Nassiri M, Eckermann O, Babina M, Edenharter G, Worm M. Serum levels of 9?,11?-PGF2 and cysteinyl leukotrienes are useful biomarkers of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137:312-314.e7 pubmed publisher
  6. Serrano Villar S, Perez Somarriba J, Sainz Costa T, Winstanley S, Santillana Lopez T, Escribano Mora L, et al. A 38 year old woman with hypotensive shock at the onset of menstruation: case outcome. BMJ. 2009;338:b247 pubmed publisher
  7. Wang D, Clement P, Smitz J, De Waele M, Derde M. Correlations between complaints, inflammatory cells and mediator concentrations in nasal secretions after nasal allergen challenge and during natural allergen exposure. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1995;106:278-85 pubmed
    ..Infiltration of eosinophils and consequently release of the various late-phase inflammatory mediators into the nasal secretions are certainly believed to be the predominant pathophysiologic condition in the patients. ..
  8. Guhl S, Babina M, Neou A, Zuberbier T, Artuc M. Mast cell lines HMC-1 and LAD2 in comparison with mature human skin mast cells--drastically reduced levels of tryptase and chymase in mast cell lines. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:845-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the minute levels of MC proteases, MC lines can serve as surrogates of tissue MC to a limited degree only. ..
  9. Tamma R, Guidolin D, Annese T, Tortorella C, Ruggieri S, Rega S, et al. Spatial distribution of mast cells and macrophages around tumor glands in human breast ductal carcinoma. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:179-184 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Lin C, Liu H, Zhang H, Cao Y, Li R, Wu S, et al. Tryptase expression as a prognostic marker in patients with resected gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2017;104:1037-1044 pubmed publisher
    ..Tryptase expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall and recurrence-free survival in patients with gastric cancer after surgical resection. ..
  2. Hartmann K, Wagner N, Rabenhorst A, Pflanz L, Leja S, Förster A, et al. Serum IL-31 levels are increased in a subset of patients with mastocytosis and correlate with disease severity in adult patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:232-5 pubmed publisher
  3. Kontou Fili K, Filis C. Prolonged high-dose omalizumab is required to control reactions to venom immunotherapy in mastocytosis. Allergy. 2009;64:1384-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Kube P, Audige L, Küther K, Welle M. Distribution, density and heterogeneity of canine mast cells and influence of fixation techniques. Histochem Cell Biol. 1998;110:129-35 pubmed
    ..This fact has to be taken into consideration when evaluating mast cell subtypes under pathological conditions. ..
  5. Bischoff S, Wedemeyer J, Herrmann A, Meier P, Trautwein C, Cetin Y, et al. Quantitative assessment of intestinal eosinophils and mast cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Histopathology. 1996;28:1-13 pubmed
    ..The present data show that the number of intestinal mast cells and eosinophils is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting that both cell types are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. ..
  6. Pizzichini E, Pizzichini M, Efthimiadis A, Evans S, Morris M, Squillace D, et al. Indices of airway inflammation in induced sputum: reproducibility and validity of cell and fluid-phase measurements. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154:308-17 pubmed
    ..Thus, the methods of measuring cell and fluid phase markers in induced sputum used in this study are reproducible and valid. They can therefore be used to reliably measure these indices of airway inflammation. ..
  7. Schwartz L, Bradford T, Rouse C, Irani A, Rasp G, Van der Zwan J, et al. Development of a new, more sensitive immunoassay for human tryptase: use in systemic anaphylaxis. J Clin Immunol. 1994;14:190-204 pubmed
  8. Górska A, Niedoszytko M, Lange M, Chełmińska M, Nedoszytko B, Wasąg B, et al. Risk factors for anaphylaxis in patients with mastocytosis. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2015;125:46-53 pubmed
    ..Risk factors for anaphylaxis included increased serum tryptase levels and indolent variant of systemic mastocytosis. Standard pharmacological treatment was ineffective in 10% of the patients, who may require biological treatment.   ..
  9. Villar J, Cabrera Benítez N, Valladares F, García Hernández S, Ramos Nuez Ã, Martín Barrasa J, et al. Tryptase is involved in the development of early ventilator-induced pulmonary fibrosis in sepsis-induced lung injury. Crit Care. 2015;19:138 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of these proteins were associated with development of sepsis and ventilator-induced pulmonary fibrosis early in the course of sepsis-induced lung injury. ..
  10. Lin R, Schwartz L, Curry A, Pesola G, Knight R, Lee H, et al. Histamine and tryptase levels in patients with acute allergic reactions: An emergency department-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106:65-71 pubmed
    ..The clinical utility of beta-tryptase determinations in the evaluation of acute allergic reactions needs further study. ..
  11. Wu Y, Long Q, Xu Y, Guo S, Chen T, Wang L, et al. A structural and functional analogue of a Bowman-Birk-type protease inhibitor from Odorrana schmackeri. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
  12. Baba S, Kondo K, Suzukawa M, Ohta K, Yamasoba T. Distribution, subtype population, and IgE positivity of mast cells in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017;119:120-128 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a role for IgE-mediated mast cell activation in the pathogenesis of ECRS. ..