subtilisin

Summary

Summary: A serine endopeptidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis. It hydrolyzes proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds, and a preference for a large uncharged residue in P1. It also hydrolyzes peptide amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.62.

Top Publications

  1. Alexander P, Ruan B, Bryan P. Cation-dependent stability of subtilisin. Biochemistry. 2001;40:10634-9 pubmed
    b>Subtilisin BPN' contains two cation binding sites. One specifically binds calcium (site A), and the other can bind both divalent and monovalvent metals (site B)...
  2. Tindbaek N, Svendsen A, Oestergaard P, Draborg H. Engineering a substrate-specific cold-adapted subtilisin. Protein Eng Des Sel. 2004;17:149-56 pubmed
    One region predicted to be highly flexible for a psychrophilic enzyme, TA39 subtilisin (S39), was transferred in silico to the mesophilic subtilisin, savinase (EC 3.4.21.62), from Bacillus lentus (clausii)...
  3. Kim J, Kluskens L, de Vos W, Huber R, van der Oost J. Crystal structure of fervidolysin from Fervidobacterium pennivorans, a keratinolytic enzyme related to subtilisin. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:787-97 pubmed
    ..A structural alignment shows a distant relationship between the PD-CD substructure of fervidolysin and pro-subtilisin E...
  4. Rautengarten C, Usadel B, Neumetzler L, Hartmann J, Büssis D, Altmann T. A subtilisin-like serine protease essential for mucilage release from Arabidopsis seed coats. Plant J. 2008;54:466-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant seeds carrying loss-of-function alleles of AtSBT1.7 that encodes one of 56 Arabidopsis thaliana subtilisin-like serine proteases (subtilases) do not release mucilage upon hydration...
  5. Descamps F, Brouta F, Monod M, Zaugg C, Baar D, Losson B, et al. Isolation of a Microsporum canis gene family encoding three subtilisin-like proteases expressed in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:830-5 pubmed
    ..M. canis secretes a 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease as the major component in a culture medium containing cat keratin as the sole nitrogen source...
  6. Lovato D, Amino R, González Y, Miranda A, Schenkman S, Tanaka A. Infestin 1R, an intestinal subtilisin inhibitor from Triatoma infestans able to impair mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129:362-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time, a serine protease inhibitor, derived from T. infestans, was shown to impair cell invasion by T. cruzi, representing possible new target in parasite cell invasion. ..
  7. Melone M, Wilsie L, Palyha O, Strack A, Rashid S. Discovery of a new role of human resistin in hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein receptor suppression mediated in part by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1697-705 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of the treatments on cellular low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels were determined by using real-time polymerase ..
  8. Murayama K, Kato Murayama M, Hosaka T, Sotokawauchi A, Yokoyama S, Arima K, et al. Crystal structure of cucumisin, a subtilisin-like endoprotease from Cucumis melo L. J Mol Biol. 2012;423:386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A structural homology search indicated that the catalytic domain of cucumisin shares structural similarity with subtilisin and subtilisin-like fold enzymes...
  9. Veluchamy P, Sivakumar P, Doble M. Immobilization of subtilisin on polycaprolactam for antimicrobial food packaging applications. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10869-78 pubmed publisher
    b>Subtilisin was immobilized on polycaprolactam and used for food packaging applications to reduce the transference of microorganisms from the packaging material to the packaged food material...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Lagzian M, Asoodeh A. An extremely thermotolerant, alkaliphilic subtilisin-like protease from hyperthermophilic Bacillus sp. MLA64. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;51:960-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The protease was inhibited by PMSF but not by TPCK and TLCK, suggesting that it can be a subtilisin-like protease...
  2. Dickinson J, Murdoch H, Dennis M, Hall G, Bott R, Crabb W, et al. Decontamination of prion protein (BSE301V) using a genetically engineered protease. J Hosp Infect. 2009;72:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we explored the use of MC3, a genetically engineered variant of Bacillus lentus subtilisin. MC3 was used to digest BSE301V infectious mouse brain homogenate (iMBH)...
  3. Coutte L, Antoine R, Drobecq H, Locht C, Jacob Dubuisson F. Subtilisin-like autotransporter serves as maturation protease in a bacterial secretion pathway. EMBO J. 2001;20:5040-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SphB1 is a large exported protein with a subtilisin-like domain and a C-terminal domain typical of bacterial autotransporters...
  4. Dave J, Gey van Pittius N, Beyers A, Ehlers M, Brown G. Mycosin-1, a subtilisin-like serine protease of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is cell wall-associated and expressed during infection of macrophages. BMC Microbiol. 2002;2:30 pubmed
    ..genes (mycP1-5) present within the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv that encode a family of secreted, subtilisin-like serine proteases (the mycosins)...
  5. Kim S, Lee D, Cheigh C, Choe E, Lee S, Hong Y, et al. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic subtilisin-like protease of Bacillus subtilis TP-6 from an Indonesian fermented soybean, Tempeh. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;33:436-44 pubmed
    ..The result demonstrates that TPase is a serine protease of the subtilisin family consisting of 275 amino acid residues in its mature form...
  6. Karlsson C, Andersson M, Collin M, Schmidtchen A, Bjorck L, Frick I. SufA--a novel subtilisin-like serine proteinase of Finegoldia magna. Microbiology. 2007;153:4208-18 pubmed
    ..This study describes a novel subtilisin-like extracellular serine proteinase of F...
  7. Miyaji T, Otta Y, Nakagawa T, Watanabe T, Niimura Y, Tomizuka N. Purification and molecular characterization of subtilisin-like alkaline protease BPP-A from Bacillus pumilus strain MS-1. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;42:242-7 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that BPP-A belonged to the subtilisin family. A zein-degrading bacterium assigned to B...
  8. Brown G, Dave J, Gey Van Pittius N, Stevens L, Ehlers M, Beyers A. The mycosins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: a family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Gene. 2000;254:147-55 pubmed
    ..contains a catalytic triad (Asp, His, Ser) within highly conserved sequences, typical of proteases of the subtilisin family. These genes are also present in M...
  9. Hernández Romano P, Hernandez R, Arroyo R, Alderete J, López Villaseñor I. Identification and characterization of a surface-associated, subtilisin-like serine protease in Trichomonas vaginalis. Parasitology. 2010;137:1621-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we identify and characterize a putative subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1). The sub1 gene encodes a 101-kDa protein...
  10. Fisher K, Ruan B, Alexander P, Wang L, Bryan P. Mechanism of the kinetically-controlled folding reaction of subtilisin. Biochemistry. 2007;46:640-51 pubmed
    Like many secreted proteases, subtilisin is kinetically stable in the mature form but unable to fold without assistance from its prodomain...
  11. Ogawa A, Sumitomo N, Okuda M, Saeki K, Kawai S, Kobayashi T, et al. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a high-molecular-mass subtilisin from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1624:109-14 pubmed
    A high-molecular-mass subtilisin was found in culture broth of the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43...
  12. Martínez S, Alvira E, Cordero L, Ferrer A, Montañés Clemente I, Barletta G. High initial activity but low storage stability observed for several preparations of subtilisin Carslberg suspended in organic solvents. Biotechnol Prog. 2002;18:1462-6 pubmed
    Colyophilization with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin activates subtilisin Carlsberg by more than 200-fold in organic solvents, though this is a short-lived effect...
  13. Choi N, Chang K, Jae Maeng P, Kim S. Cloning, expression, and fibrin (ogen)olytic properties of a subtilisin DJ-4 gene from Bacillus sp. DJ-4. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;236:325-31 pubmed
    Previously, we purified a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (subtilisin DJ-4) from Bacillus sp. DJ-4 and characterized its enzymatic activity...
  14. Jousson O, Léchenne B, Bontems O, Mignon B, Reichard U, Barblan J, et al. Secreted subtilisin gene family in Trichophyton rubrum. Gene. 2004;339:79-88 pubmed
    ..A total of seven genes encoding putative serine proteases of the subtilisin family (SUB) were isolated in Trichophyton rubrum...
  15. Revina T, Speranskaya A, Kladnitskaya G, Shevelev A, Valueva T. Subtilisin protein inhibitor from potato tubers. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2004;69:1092-8 pubmed
    ..The protein effectively inhibits the activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (Ki = 1.67 +/- 0.2 nM) by stoichiometric complexing with the enzyme at the molar ratio of 1 : 1...
  16. Careskey H, Davis R, Alborn W, Troutt J, Cao G, Konrad R. Atorvastatin increases human serum levels of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:394-8 pubmed
    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has gained attention as a key regulator of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels...
  17. Wlodawer A, Li M, Dauter Z, Gustchina A, Uchida K, Oyama H, et al. Carboxyl proteinase from Pseudomonas defines a novel family of subtilisin-like enzymes. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:442-6 pubmed
    ..The fold of PSCP is a superset of the subtilisin fold, and the covalently bound inhibitor is linked to the enzyme through a serine residue...
  18. Bonifait L, de la Cruz Dominguez Punaro M, Vaillancourt K, Bart C, Slater J, Frenette M, et al. The cell envelope subtilisin-like proteinase is a virulence determinant for Streptococcus suis. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:42 pubmed publisher
    ..6 kDa and contained the catalytic triad characteristic of subtilisin family proteinases: motif I (Asp200), motif II (His239), and motif III (Ser568)...
  19. Tanaka S, Saito K, Chon H, Matsumura H, Koga Y, Takano K, et al. Crystal structure of unautoprocessed precursor of subtilisin from a hyperthermophilic archaeon: evidence for Ca2+-induced folding. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8246-55 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structure of an active site mutant of pro-Tk-subtilisin (pro-S324A) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis was determined at 2.3 A resolution...
  20. Zhang D, Lagace T, Garuti R, Zhao Z, McDonald M, Horton J, et al. Binding of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A of low density lipoprotein receptor decreases receptor recycling and increases degradation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18602-12 pubmed
    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR), the major route of clearance of circulating cholesterol...
  21. Ott D. Purification of HIV-1 virions by subtilisin digestion or CD45 immunoaffinity depletion for biochemical studies. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;485:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach, the subtilisin digestion procedure, enzymatically removes the proteins outside the virions...
  22. Zhang D, Wang M, Du G, Zhao Q, Wu J, Chen J. Surfactant protein of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor family inhibits transglutaminase activation in Streptomyces hygroscopicus. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..acid sequencing and a homology search of the purified TAPI revealed that it is a member of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) family. Furthermore, it was found that TAPI (0...
  23. Bryan P. Protein engineering of subtilisin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1543:203-222 pubmed
    The serine protease subtilisin is an important industrial enzyme as well as a model for understanding the enormous rate enhancements affected by enzymes...
  24. Almog O, Kogan A, Leeuw M, Gdalevsky G, Cohen Luria R, Parola A. Structural insights into cold inactivation of tryptophanase and cold adaptation of subtilisin S41. Biopolymers. 2008;89:354-9 pubmed
    ..adaptation, we have looked into the amino acid sequences and the crystal structures of two families of enzymes, subtilisin and tryptophanase...
  25. Poole C, Jin J, McReynolds L. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;155:1-8 pubmed
    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals...
  26. Spreer A, Rüchel R, Reichard U. Characterization of an extracellular subtilisin protease of Rhizopus microsporus and evidence for its expression during invasive rhinoorbital mycosis. Med Mycol. 2006;44:723-31 pubmed
    ..native enzyme was obtained for the first 20 amino acids and revealed high homology to serine proteases of the subtilisin subfamily...
  27. Wong W, Wijeyewickrema L, Kennan R, Reeve S, Steer D, Reboul C, et al. S1 pocket of a bacterially derived subtilisin-like protease underpins effective tissue destruction. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42180-7 pubmed publisher
    The ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus, secretes three subtilisin-like proteases that play an important role in the pathogenesis of footrot through their ability to mediate tissue destruction. Virulent and benign strains of D...
  28. Vartapetian A, Tuzhikov A, Chichkova N, Taliansky M, Wolpert T. A plant alternative to animal caspases: subtilisin-like proteases. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent data showing that some caspase-like activities are attributable to the plant subtilisin-like proteases, saspases and phytaspases...
  29. Poerio E, Di Gennaro S, Di Maro A, Farisei F, Ferranti P, Parente A. Primary structure and reactive site of a novel wheat proteinase inhibitor of subtilisin and chymotrypsin. Biol Chem. 2003;384:295-304 pubmed publisher
    The proteinase inhibitor WSCI, active in inhibiting bacterial subtilisin and a number of animal chymotrypsins, was purified from endosperm of exaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, c.v...
  30. Hu Q, Liu P, Yu Z, Zhao G, Li J, Teng L, et al. Identification of a cell wall-associated subtilisin-like serine protease involved in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Microb Pathog. 2010;48:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A surface-associated subtilisin-like serine protease (SspA) of S...
  31. Shenoy R, Thangamani S, Velazquez Campoy A, Ho B, Ding J, Sivaraman J. Structural basis for dual-inhibition mechanism of a non-classical Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor from horseshoe crab in complex with subtilisin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18838 pubmed publisher
    ..The CrSPIs were biochemically active, especially CrSPI-1, which potently inhibited subtilisin (Ki?=?1.43 nM)...
  32. Sasaki S, de Lima C, Lovato D, Juliano M, Torquato R, Tanaka A. BmSI-7, a novel subtilisin inhibitor from Boophilus microplus, with activity toward Pr1 proteases from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:214-20 pubmed
    BmSI-7 and BmSI-6, two Boophilus microplus subtilisin inhibitors (BmSI) were purified and characterized from eggs...
  33. Okamoto D, Kondo M, Santos J, Nakajima S, Hiraga K, Oda K, et al. Kinetic analysis of salting activation of a subtilisin-like halophilic protease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:367-73 pubmed publisher
  34. Gamble M, Künze G, Dodson E, Wilson K, Jones D. Regulation of an intracellular subtilisin protease activity by a short propeptide sequence through an original combined dual mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3536-41 pubmed publisher
    A distinct class of the biologically important subtilisin family of serine proteases functions exclusively within the cell and forms a major component of the bacilli degradome...
  35. Saeki K, Magallones M, Takimura Y, Hatada Y, Kobayashi T, Kawai S, et al. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of a new subtilisin from an alkaliphilic Bacillus isolate. Curr Microbiol. 2003;47:337-40 pubmed
    The gene for a new subtilisin from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. KSM-LD1 was cloned and sequenced...
  36. Alexander P, Ruan B, Strausberg S, Bryan P. Stabilizing mutations and calcium-dependent stability of subtilisin. Biochemistry. 2001;40:10640-4 pubmed
    Stability is a property of subtilisin which has proven particularly amenable to enhancement via random mutagenesis and screening, yet the effects of most stabilizing mutations are not understood in structural and energetic detail...
  37. Ahman J, Johansson T, Olsson M, Punt P, van den Hondel C, Tunlid A. Improving the pathogenicity of a nematode-trapping fungus by genetic engineering of a subtilisin with nematotoxic activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:3408-15 pubmed
    ..In this paper we report that a subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease designated PII is an important pathogenicity factor in the common nematode-..
  38. Hirano S, Kato J, Ohnishi Y, Horinouchi S. Control of the Streptomyces Subtilisin inhibitor gene by AdpA in the A-factor regulatory cascade in Streptomyces griseus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6207-16 pubmed
    ..The Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) gene, sgiA, in S...
  39. Fontanini D, Jones B. SEP-1 - a subtilisin-like serine endopeptidase from germinated seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex. Planta. 2002;215:885-93 pubmed
    ..Its amino acid sequence was similar to those of other plant subtilisin-like serine peptidases (EC 3.4.21), especially to the cucumisin-like group...
  40. Deng A, Wu J, Zhang G, Wen T. Molecular and structural characterization of a surfactant-stable high-alkaline protease AprB with a novel structural feature unique to subtilisin family. Biochimie. 2011;93:783-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast with members of subtilisin family, such as M-protease and subtilisin BPN', AprB harbored a high content of Glu and Asp residues, and a low ..
  41. Kennan R, Wong W, Dhungyel O, Han X, Wong D, Parker D, et al. The subtilisin-like protease AprV2 is required for virulence and uses a novel disulphide-tethered exosite to bind substrates. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001210 pubmed publisher
    ..D. nodosus secretes three subtilisin-like proteases whose analysis forms the basis of diagnostic tests that differentiate between virulent and benign ..
  42. Ruan B, London V, Fisher K, Gallagher D, Bryan P. Engineering substrate preference in subtilisin: structural and kinetic analysis of a specificity mutant. Biochemistry. 2008;47:6628-36 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus subtilisin has been a popular model protein for engineering altered substrate specificity...
  43. Hosoi T, Ametani A, Kiuchi K, Kaminogawa S. Improved growth and viability of lactobacilli in the presence of Bacillus subtilis (natto), catalase, or subtilisin. Can J Microbiol. 2000;46:892-7 pubmed
    ..subtilis (natto). In addition, a serine protease from B. licheniformis, subtilisin, improved the growth and viability of L. reuteri JCM 1112 and L...
  44. Saouros S, Dou Z, Henry M, Marchant J, Carruthers V, Matthews S. Microneme protein 5 regulates the activity of Toxoplasma subtilisin 1 by mimicking a subtilisin prodomain. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:36029-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The subtilisin protease TgSUB1 trims several MICs on the parasite surface to activate gliding motility and host invasion...
  45. van Kampen V, Merget R. [Occupational airway sensitization due to subtilisin]. Pneumologie. 2002;56:182-6 pubmed
    ..b>Subtilisin, a frequently used enzyme often has been shown to cause airway sensitization...
  46. Donpudsa S, Tassanakajon A, Rimphanitchayakit V. Domain inhibitory and bacteriostatic activities of the five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..domain P1 residues T, A, E, K and E was isolated from the hemocyte cDNA libraries and found to strongly inhibit subtilisin and elastase, and weakly inhibit trypsin...
  47. Pearce G, Yamaguchi Y, Barona G, Ryan C. A subtilisin-like protein from soybean contains an embedded, cryptic signal that activates defense-related genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14921-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The amino acid sequence was determined and was found to be derived from a member of the subtilisin-like protease (subtilase) family...
  48. Dang X, Pan G, Li T, Lin L, Ma Q, Geng L, et al. Characterization of a subtilisin-like protease with apical localization from microsporidian Nosema bombycis. J Invertebr Pathol. 2013;112:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified a subtilisin-like serine protease NbSLP1 which contains an inhibitor_I9 and a peptidase_S8 domain...
  49. Tanaka S, Takeuchi Y, Matsumura H, Koga Y, Takano K, Kanaya S. Crystal structure of Tk-subtilisin folded without propeptide: requirement of propeptide for acceleration of folding. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3875-8 pubmed publisher
    Tk-subtilisin (a subtilisin homologue from Thermococcus kodakaraensis) is matured from Pro-Tk-subtilisin upon autoprocessing and degradation of Tk-propeptide...
  50. Altreuter D, Dordick J, Clark D. Nonaqueous biocatalytic synthesis of new cytotoxic doxorubicin derivatives: exploiting unexpected differences in the regioselectivity of salt-activated and solubilized subtilisin. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:1871-6 pubmed
    Two enzymes, Mucor javanicus lipase and subtilisin Carlsberg (SC), catalyzed the nonaqueous acylation of doxorubicin (DOX)...
  51. Armijos Jaramillo V, Vargas W, Sukno S, Thon M. Horizontal transfer of a subtilisin gene from plants into an ancestor of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Colletotrichum. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59078 pubmed publisher
    ..this hypothesis in the form of phylogenetic analyses as well as a characterization of the similarity of the subtilisin at the primary, secondary and tertiary structural levels...
  52. Davis B, Shang X, DeSantis G, Bott R, Jones J. The controlled introduction of multiple negative charge at single amino acid sites in subtilisin Bacillus lentus. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999;7:2293-301 pubmed
    ..the controlled incorporation of multiple negative charges at single sites in the representative serine protease, subtilisin Bacillus lentus (SBL)...
  53. Micheelsen P, V vodov J, De Maria L, Ostergaard P, Friis E, Wilson K, et al. Structural and mutational analyses of the interaction between the barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and the subtilisin savinase reveal a novel mode of inhibition. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:681-90 pubmed publisher
    ..All interact with subtilisin via an exposed loop covering six interacting residues...
  54. Swenerton R, Knudsen G, Sajid M, Kelly B, McKerrow J. Leishmania subtilisin is a maturase for the trypanothione reductase system and contributes to disease pathology. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31120-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, proteases are druggable targets for the development of new anti-parasitic therapy. The subtilisin protease (SUB; Clan SB, family S8) of Leishmania donovani was cloned and found to possess a unique catalytic ..
  55. Vévodová J, Gamble M, Künze G, Ariza A, Dodson E, Jones D, et al. Crystal structure of an intracellular subtilisin reveals novel structural features unique to this subtilisin family. Structure. 2010;18:744-55 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular subtilisin proteases (ISPs) are the only known members of the important and ubiquitous subtilisin family that function exclusively within the cell, constituting a major component of the degradome in many Gram-positive ..
  56. Tanaka S, Matsumura H, Koga Y, Takano K, Kanaya S. Four new crystal structures of Tk-subtilisin in unautoprocessed, autoprocessed and mature forms: insight into structural changes during maturation. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:1055-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Subtilisin from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis (Tk-subtilisin) is matured from Pro-Tk-subtilisin upon autoprocessing and degradation of the propeptide...
  57. Bogacheva A, Rudenskaya G, Dunaevsky Y, Chestuhina G, Golovkin B. New subtilisin-like collagenase from leaves of common plantain. Biochimie. 2001;83:481-6 pubmed
    A new subtilisin-like proteinase hydrolyzing chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-p-nitroanilide optimally at pH 8.1 was found in common plantain leaves...
  58. Bae S, Kim J, Choi E, Lee K, Kang H, Kim H, et al. Tripartite structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dna2 helicase/endonuclease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3069-79 pubmed
    ..Proteolytic digestion of Dna2 using subtilisin produced a 127 kDa polypeptide that lacked the 45 kDa N-terminal region of Dna2...
  59. Kolkman M, van der Ploeg R, Bertels M, van Dijk M, van der Laan J, van Dijl J, et al. The twin-arginine signal peptide of Bacillus subtilis YwbN can direct either Tat- or Sec-dependent secretion of different cargo proteins: secretion of active subtilisin via the B. subtilis Tat pathway. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis Tat substrates YwbN and PhoD. Remarkably, the YwbN signal peptide directed secretion of active subtilisin, a typical Sec substrate, via the B. subtilis TatAyCy route...
  60. Rowell F, Sykes D, Grieveson L, Theaker B, Sundar L, Cumming R. A near real-time system for continuously monitoring airborne subtilisin-type enzymes in the industrial atmosphere. J Environ Monit. 2007;9:33-43 pubmed
    ..The system is able to monitor airborne concentrations of subtilisin-type enzymes in the workplace atmosphere on a continuous basis...
  61. Takeuchi Y, Tanaka S, Matsumura H, Koga Y, Takano K, Kanaya S. Requirement of a unique Ca(2+)-binding loop for folding of Tk-subtilisin from a hyperthermophilic archaeon. Biochemistry. 2009;48:10637-43 pubmed publisher
    Tk-subtilisin from the hyperthermophiolic archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis matures from Pro-Tk-subtilisin upon autoprocessing and degradation of Tk-propeptide [Tanaka, S., Saito, K., Chon, H., Matsumura, H., Koga, Y., Takano, K...
  62. Pilon J, Nash P, Arver T, Hoglund D, VerCauteren K. Feasibility of infectious prion digestion using mild conditions and commercial subtilisin. J Virol Methods. 2009;161:168-72 pubmed publisher
    Two serine protease enzymes, subtilisin 309 and subtilisin 309-v, were used to digest brain homogenates containing high levels of prion infectivity using mildly alkaline conditions to investigate prion decontamination methods...