furin

Summary

Summary: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.

Top Publications

  1. Tassew N, Charish J, Seidah N, Monnier P. SKI-1 and Furin generate multiple RGMa fragments that regulate axonal growth. Dev Cell. 2012;22:391-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Furin and SKI-1 combine with autocatalytic cleavage and a disulfide bridge to generate four membrane-bound and three ..
  2. Boucher E, Mayer G, Londono I, Bendayan M. Expression and localization of MT1-MMP and furin in the glomerular wall of short- and long-term diabetic rats. Kidney Int. 2006;69:1570-7 pubmed
    ..to trace the expression and localization of membrane type-1 metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) and its activating enzyme furin, key proteins involved in basement membrane turnover, in short- and long-term diabetic rat renal tissues...
  3. Henrich S, Lindberg I, Bode W, Than M. Proprotein convertase models based on the crystal structures of furin and kexin: explanation of their specificity. J Mol Biol. 2005;345:211-27 pubmed
    ..The recently published crystal structures of the soluble mouse furin and yeast kexin ectodomains have revealed the relative arrangement of catalytic and P domains, the exact domain ..
  4. Kibler K, Miyazato A, Yedavalli V, Dayton A, Jacobs B, Dapolito G, et al. Polyarginine inhibits gp160 processing by furin and suppresses productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49055-63 pubmed
    ..into gp120 and gp41 has been attributed to the activity of the cellular subtilisin-like proprotein convertase furin. The prototypic furin recognition cleavage site is Arg-X-Arg/Lys-Arg...
  5. Wick W, Wild Bode C, Frank B, Weller M. BCL-2-induced glioma cell invasiveness depends on furin-like proteases. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1275-83 pubmed
    ..We here report that BCL-2-expressing cells show enhanced expression and activity of the proprotein convertase, furin, which processes metalloproteinases (MMP) and TGF-beta...
  6. Takahashi T, Ida T, Sato T, Nakashima Y, Nakamura Y, Tsuji A, et al. Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells requires prohormone processing protease and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, as well as n-octanoic acid. J Biochem. 2009;146:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that not only PC1/3 but also both PC2 and furin could process proghrelin to the 28-amino acid ghrelin...
  7. Passero C, Mueller G, MYERBURG M, Carattino M, Hughey R, Kleyman T. TMPRSS4-dependent activation of the epithelial sodium channel requires cleavage of the ?-subunit distal to the furin cleavage site. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While cleavage by furin within the biosynthetic pathway releases one inhibitory tract from the ?-subunit and moderately activates the ..
  8. Koo B, Longpre J, Somerville R, Alexander J, Leduc R, Apte S. Cell-surface processing of pro-ADAMTS9 by furin. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12485-94 pubmed
    Processing of polypeptide precursors by proprotein convertases (PCs) such as furin typically occurs within the trans-Golgi network. Here, we show in a variety of cell types that the propeptide of ADAMTS9 is not excised intracellularly...
  9. Antenos M, Lei L, Xu M, Malipatil A, Kiesewetter S, Woodruff T. Role of PCSK5 expression in mouse ovarian follicle development: identification of the inhibin ?- and ?-subunits as candidate substrates. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17348 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Furin is a subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (proconvertase) that activates precursor proteins by cleavage at basic ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Reed C, Rast H, Hu W, Mah D, Nagata L, Masri S. Expression of furin-linked Fab fragments against anthrax toxin in a single mammalian expression vector. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;54:261-6 pubmed
    ..the same heavy and light chains were linked together, using PCR, with an in-frame sequence coding for a furin cleavage site. This construct was cloned into pSecTag2B and expressed in CHOK1 cells...
  2. Walker M, Miller C, Coffin Talbot J, Stock D, Kimmel C. Zebrafish furin mutants reveal intricacies in regulating Endothelin1 signaling in craniofacial patterning. Dev Biol. 2006;295:194-205 pubmed
    ..We show that sturgeon encodes one of two orthologs of Furin present in zebrafish, and that both furin genes may function partially redundantly to activate Edn1 signaling...
  3. Remacle A, Rozanov D, Fugere M, Day R, Strongin A. Furin regulates the intracellular activation and the uptake rate of cell surface-associated MT1-MMP. Oncogene. 2006;25:5648-55 pubmed
    ..There are two potential furin cleavage motifs, R(89)-R-P-R-C(93) and R(108)-R-K-R-Y(112), in the prodomain sequence of MT1-MMP...
  4. Gawlik K, Shiryaev S, Zhu W, Motamedchaboki K, Desjardins R, Day R, et al. Autocatalytic activation of the furin zymogen requires removal of the emerging enzyme's N-terminus from the active site. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5031 pubmed publisher
    Before furin can act on protein substrates, it must go through an ordered process of activation...
  5. Hagiwara S, Murakumo Y, Mii S, Shigetomi T, Yamamoto N, Furue H, et al. Processing of CD109 by furin and its role in the regulation of TGF-beta signaling. Oncogene. 2010;29:2181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..as a 205 kDa glycoprotein, which is then processed in the Golgi apparatus into 180 kDa and 25 kDa proteins by furin (furinase)...
  6. Li M, Wu Y, Qiu Y, Yao Z, Liu S, Liu Y, et al. 2A peptide-based, lentivirus-mediated anti-death receptor 5 chimeric antibody expression prevents tumor growth in nude mice. Mol Ther. 2012;20:46-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of a lentivirus vector constructed by linking the heavy chain and the light chain of the antibody with a 2A/furin self-processing peptide in a single open reading frame that expresses a novel chimeric antibody (named as ..
  7. Dufour E, Desilets A, Longpre J, Leduc R. Stability of mutant serpin/furin complexes: dependence on pH and regulation at the deacylation step. Protein Sci. 2005;14:303-15 pubmed
    b>Furin proteolytically cleaves a wide variety of proprotein substrates mainly within the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but also at the cell membrane and in endosomal compartments where pH is more acidic...
  8. Levesque C, Fugere M, Kwiatkowska A, Couture F, Desjardins R, Routhier S, et al. The Multi-Leu peptide inhibitor discriminates between PACE4 and furin and exhibits antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells. J Med Chem. 2012;55:10501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of the sequence LLLLRVKR, named Multi-Leu (ML)-peptide, that displayed a 20-fold selectivity on PACE4 over furin, two enzymes with similar structural characteristics...
  9. Semenov A, Tamm N, Seferian K, Postnikov A, Karpova N, Serebryanaya D, et al. Processing of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide: furin and corin as candidate convertases. Clin Chem. 2010;56:1166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of 2 candidate convertases, furin and corin, in human proBNP processing. We measured proBNP expression in HEK 293 and furin-deficient LoVo cells...
  10. Bossen C, Tardivel A, Willen L, Fletcher C, Perroud M, Beermann F, et al. Mutation of the BAFF furin cleavage site impairs B-cell homeostasis and antibody responses. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:787-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice expressing BAFF with a mutated furin consensus cleavage site, i.e...
  11. Ho S, Bardor M, Li B, Lee J, Song Z, Tong Y, et al. Comparison of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and Furin-2A (F2A) for monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in CHO cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63247 pubmed publisher
    ..dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in one transcript were designed to compare internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and furin-2A (F2A) for their influence on monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression level and quality in CHO DG44 cells...
  12. Zybert I, van der Ende Metselaar H, Wilschut J, Smit J. Functional importance of dengue virus maturation: infectious properties of immature virions. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:3047-51 pubmed publisher
    ..of flavivirus particles from infected cells, the viral surface protein prM is cleaved to M by the cellular enzyme furin. For dengue virus (DENV), this maturation process appears to be very inefficient since a high proportion of ..
  13. Han J, Wang Y, Wang S, Chi C. Interaction of Mint3 with Furin regulates the localization of Furin in the trans-Golgi network. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2217-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Furin is a proprotein convertase that cycles between the plasma membrane, endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), maintaining a predominant distribution in the latter...
  14. Antenos M, Zhu J, Jetly N, Woodruff T. An activin/furin regulatory loop modulates the processing and secretion of inhibin alpha- and betaB-subunit dimers in pituitary gonadotrope cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneously, activin stimulated the proconvertase furin through a Smad2/3-dependent process...
  15. Chekanov A, Remacle A, Golubkov V, Akatov V, Sikora S, Savinov A, et al. Both PA63 and PA83 are endocytosed within an anthrax protective antigen mixed heptamer: a putative mechanism to overcome a furin deficiency. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;446:52-9 pubmed
    ..A 83 kDa PA monomer (PA83) precursor binds to the cell receptor. Furin-like proprotein convertases (PCs) cleave PA83 to generate cell-bound 63 kDa protein (PA63)...
  16. Siegfried G, Basak A, Prichett Pejic W, Scamuffa N, Ma L, Benjannet S, et al. Regulation of the stepwise proteolytic cleavage and secretion of PDGF-B by the proprotein convertases. Oncogene. 2005;24:6925-35 pubmed
    ..Cotransfection of a Furin-deficient cell line LoVo-C5 with proPDGF-B and different PC members revealed that Furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7 are ..
  17. Becker G, Sielaff F, Than M, Lindberg I, Routhier S, Day R, et al. Potent inhibitors of furin and furin-like proprotein convertases containing decarboxylated P1 arginine mimetics. J Med Chem. 2010;53:1067-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Furin belongs to the family of proprotein convertases (PCs) and is involved in numerous normal physiological and pathogenic processes, such as viral propagation, bacterial toxin activation, cancer, and metastasis...
  18. Rabah N, Gauthier D, Wilkes B, Gauthier D, Lazure C. Single amino acid substitution in the PC1/3 propeptide can induce significant modifications of its inhibitory profile toward its cognate enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7556-67 pubmed
    ..To examine the specificity of mutants, we studied their reactivity toward furin, a closely related convertase...
  19. Ishizaki R, Shin H, Mitsuhashi H, Nakayama K. Redundant roles of BIG2 and BIG1, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for ADP-ribosylation factors in membrane traffic between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2650-60 pubmed publisher
    ..of a subset of proteins associated with the TGN and recycling endosomes and blocks retrograde transport of furin from late endosomes to the TGN...
  20. Wang T, Zhao J, Ren J, Zhang L, Wen W, Zhang R, et al. Recombinant immunoproapoptotic proteins with furin site can translocate and kill HER2-positive cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11830-9 pubmed
    ..Three furin cleavage sequences, including a synthetic polyarginine tract, and two furin cleavable sequences from PEA and ..
  21. Carnevale V, Raugei S, Micheletti C, Carloni P. Large-scale motions and electrostatic properties of furin and HIV-1 protease. J Phys Chem A. 2007;111:12327-32 pubmed
    ..is used to characterize the structural, electrostatic, and electronic properties for the Michaelis complex of furin, a serine protease, and of the aspartic protease from HIV-1...
  22. de Haan C, Haijema B, Schellen P, Wichgers Schreur P, te Lintelo E, Vennema H, et al. Cleavage of group 1 coronavirus spike proteins: how furin cleavage is traded off against heparan sulfate binding upon cell culture adaptation. J Virol. 2008;82:6078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, however, we show that some group 1 coronavirus spike proteins carry a furin enzyme recognition motif and can actually be cleaved, as demonstrated for a feline coronavirus...
  23. Stawowy P, Kallisch H, Kilimnik A, Margeta C, Seidah N, Chretien M, et al. Proprotein convertases regulate insulin-like growth factor 1-induced membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in VSMCs via endoproteolytic activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;321:531-8 pubmed
    ..as larger precursor proproteins, which require endoproteolytic activation by the proprotein convertases (PCs) furin/PC5 to gain full biological activity...
  24. Presser L, Haskett A, Waris G. Hepatitis C virus-induced furin and thrombospondin-1 activate TGF-?1: role of TGF-?1 in HCV replication. Virology. 2011;412:284-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Using siRNA approach we demonstrated that HCV-induced furin and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) are involved in the proteolytic activation of TGF-?1...
  25. Pesu M, Muul L, Kanno Y, O Shea J. Proprotein convertase furin is preferentially expressed in T helper 1 cells and regulates interferon gamma. Blood. 2006;108:983-5 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, a ubiquitously expressed proprotein convertase (PC), furin, was one of the most consistently IL-12-induced genes in T cells, and among PCs was the only one regulated by this ..
  26. Shiryaev S, Ratnikov B, Chekanov A, Sikora S, Rozanov D, Godzik A, et al. Cleavage targets and the D-arginine-based inhibitors of the West Nile virus NS3 processing proteinase. Biochem J. 2006;393:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined that the NS3 proteinase functions in a manner that is distantly similar to furin in cleaving the peptide and protein substrates...
  27. Pang Y, Tan X, Li D, Zheng Z, Lei R, Peng X. Therapeutic potential of furin inhibitors for the chronic infection of hepatitis B virus. Liver Int. 2013;33:1230-8 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is essential for the development of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Furin, a proprotein convertase, plays a key role in processing of HBeAg precursor into maturated HBeAg...
  28. López Vallejo F, Martinez Mayorga K. Furin inhibitors: importance of the positive formal charge and beyond. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012;20:4462-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Furin is the prototype member of the proprotein convertases superfamily. Proprotein convertases are associated with hormonal response, neural degeneration, viral and bacterial activation, and cancer...
  29. Carney T, Feitosa N, Sonntag C, Slanchev K, Kluger J, Kiyozumi D, et al. Genetic analysis of fin development in zebrafish identifies furin and hemicentin1 as potential novel fraser syndrome disease genes. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000907 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease. ..
  30. Essalmani R, Susan Resiga D, Chamberland A, Abifadel M, Creemers J, Boileau C, et al. In vivo evidence that furin from hepatocytes inactivates PCSK9. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Ex vivo data showed that human PCSK9 is inactivated by cleavage at Arg(218)? by the overexpressed convertases furin and PC5/6A...
  31. Duda A, Stange A, Lüftenegger D, Stanke N, Westphal D, Pietschmann T, et al. Prototype foamy virus envelope glycoprotein leader peptide processing is mediated by a furin-like cellular protease, but cleavage is not essential for viral infectivity. J Virol. 2004;78:13865-70 pubmed
    ..Here we provide strong evidence that furin itself or a furin-like protease and not the signal peptidase complex is responsible for both processing events...
  32. Schroeder N, Androwski R, Rashid A, Lee H, Lee J, Barr M. Dauer-specific dendrite arborization in C. elegans is regulated by KPC-1/Furin. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The C. elegans furin homolog KPC-1 is required for dauer IL2 dendritic arborization and dauer-specific nictation behavior...
  33. Creemers J, Khatib A. Knock-out mouse models of proprotein convertases: unique functions or redundancy?. Front Biosci. 2008;13:4960-71 pubmed
    ..at basic residues within the general motif (K/R)-(X)-(K/R) is mediated by the proprotein convertases PC1/3, PC2, Furin, PACE4, PC4, PC5 and PC7, whereas the proteolysis of precursors within hydrophobic residues performed by the ..
  34. Ma Y, Shi C, Zhang Y, Wang L, Liu H, Jia H, et al. The tyrosine kinase c-Src directly mediates growth factor-induced Notch-1 and Furin interaction and Notch-1 activation in pancreatic cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33414 pubmed publisher
    The proteolytic activity of Furin responsible for processing full length Notch-1 (p300) plays a critical role in Notch signaling...
  35. Takayanagi T, Bourne A, Kimura K, Takaguri A, Elliott K, Eguchi K, et al. Constitutive stimulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by angiotensin II derived from an adenovirus encoding a furin-cleavable fusion protein. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:280-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of angiotensin II (Ang II) and obtain relevant signaling information, we have made an adenovirus vector encoding a furin-cleavable Ang II fusion protein...
  36. Zhu J, Declercq J, Roucourt B, Ghassabeh G, Meulemans S, Kinne J, et al. Generation and characterization of non-competitive furin-inhibiting nanobodies. Biochem J. 2012;448:73-82 pubmed publisher
    The PC (proprotein convertase) furin cleaves a large variety of proproteins and hence plays a major role in many pathologies...
  37. Diederich S, Dietzel E, Maisner A. Nipah virus fusion protein: influence of cleavage site mutations on the cleavability by cathepsin L, trypsin and furin. Virus Res. 2009;145:300-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in the cleavage peptide by exogenous trypsin is very inefficient, and introduction of a consensus sequence for furin does not result in cleavage by this ubiquitous protease...
  38. Fu J, Bassi D, Zhang J, Li T, Nicolas E, Klein Szanto A. Transgenic overexpression of the proprotein convertase furin enhances skin tumor growth. Neoplasia. 2012;14:271-82 pubmed
    b>Furin, one of the members of the family of proprotein convertases (PCs), ubiquitously expressed as a type I membrane-bound proteinase, activates several proteins that contribute to tumor progression...
  39. Senzer N, Barve M, Kuhn J, Melnyk A, Beitsch P, Lazar M, et al. Phase I trial of "bi-shRNAi(furin)/GMCSF DNA/autologous tumor cell" vaccine (FANG) in advanced cancer. Mol Ther. 2012;20:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and a novel bifunctional short hairpin RNAi (bi-shRNAi) targeting furin convertase, thereby downregulating endogenous immunosuppressive transforming growth factors (TGF) ?1 and ?2...
  40. Cao J, Rehemtulla A, Pavlaki M, Kozarekar P, Chiarelli C. Furin directly cleaves proMMP-2 in the trans-Golgi network resulting in a nonfunctioning proteinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10974-80 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that a dibasic amino acid convertase, furin, directly cleaves proMMP-2 within the trans-Golgi network leading to an inactive form of matrix metalloproteinase-..
  41. Skiba B, Neill B, Piva T. Gene expression profiles of TNF-alpha, TACE, furin, IL-1beta and matrilysin in UVA- and UVB-irradiated HaCat cells. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2005;21:173-82 pubmed
    ..and UVB irradiation on the expression of genes coding for TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10, FasL, matrilysin, TACE and furin in HaCaT cells over a 48 h period (IL-1beta, interleukin-1beta; FasL, Fas ligand)...
  42. Gagliardo B, Kubat N, Faye A, Jaouen M, Durel B, Deschemin J, et al. Pro-hepcidin is unable to degrade the iron exporter ferroportin unless maturated by a furin-dependent process. J Hepatol. 2009;50:394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..hepcidin is synthesized in the liver as an 84-aa pre-pro-hormone maturated by proteolysis through a consensus furin cleavage site to generate the bioactive 25-aa peptide secreted in the circulation...
  43. Oliver S, Sommer M, Zerboni L, Rajamani J, Grose C, Arvin A. Mutagenesis of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein B: putative fusion loop residues are essential for viral replication, and the furin cleavage motif contributes to pathogenesis in skin tissue in vivo. J Virol. 2009;83:7495-506 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to HSV gB, VZV gB had a furin recognition motif ([R]-X-[KR]-R-|-X, where | indicates the position at which the polypeptide is cleaved) at ..
  44. Lapierre M, Siegfried G, Scamuffa N, Bontemps Y, Calvo F, Seidah N, et al. Opposing function of the proprotein convertases furin and PACE4 on breast cancer cells' malignant phenotypes: role of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9030-4 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data showed the specific and opposing roles of Furin and PACE4 in the regulation of MMP-9/TIMP-1-mediated cell motility and invasion.
  45. Bhattacharjya S, Xu P, Wang P, Osborne M, Ni F. Conformational analyses of a partially-folded bioactive prodomain of human furin. Biopolymers. 2007;86:329-44 pubmed
    The 81-residue multifunctional prodomain of human furin adopts only a partially-folded conformational state under near physiological conditions...
  46. Rousselet E, Benjannet S, Hamelin J, Canuel M, Seidah N. The proprotein convertase PC7: unique zymogen activation and trafficking pathways. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Swapping the transmembrane-cytosolic tail (TMCT) sequences of the convertases Furin and PC7 revealed that PC7(TMCT-Furin) is much more sulfated and hence traffics more efficiently through the ..
  47. De Vos L, Declercq J, Rosas G, Van Damme B, Roebroek A, Vermorken F, et al. MMTV-cre-mediated fur inactivation concomitant with PLAG1 proto-oncogene activation delays salivary gland tumorigenesis in mice. Int J Oncol. 2008;32:1073-83 pubmed
    ..In this study, the role of the proprotein convertase furin in PLAG1 proto-oncogene-induced salivary gland tumorigenesis was investigated...
  48. Valore E, Ganz T. Posttranslational processing of hepcidin in human hepatocytes is mediated by the prohormone convertase furin. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;40:132-8 pubmed
    ..amino acid endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal sequence, and a 35 amino acid proregion (pro) with a consensus furin cleavage site immediately followed by the C-terminal 25 amino acid bioactive iron-regulatory hormone (mature ..
  49. Ottino P, He J, Axelrad T, Bazan H. PAF-induced furin and MT1-MMP expression is independent of MMP-2 activation in corneal myofibroblasts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:487-96 pubmed
    ..Cells were treated with 100 nM cPAF, with or without the PAF antagonist BN 50730 or the furin inhibitor nona-D-arg-NH(2)...
  50. Mukherjee S, Lin T, Dowd K, Manhart C, Pierson T. The infectivity of prM-containing partially mature West Nile virus does not require the activity of cellular furin-like proteases. J Virol. 2011;85:12067-72 pubmed publisher
    Cleavage of the flavivirus prM protein by a cellular furin-like protease is a hallmark of virion maturation. While this cleavage is a required step in the viral life cycle, it can be inefficient...
  51. Bruns J, Carattino M, Sheng S, Maarouf A, Weisz O, Pilewski J, et al. Epithelial Na+ channels are fully activated by furin- and prostasin-dependent release of an inhibitory peptide from the gamma-subunit. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6153-60 pubmed
    ..Maturation and activation of ENaC subunits involves furin-dependent cleavage of the ectodomain at two sites in the alpha subunit and at a single site within the gamma ..
  52. Lei R, Shi H, Peng X, Zhu Y, Cheng J, Chen G. Influence of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the P1 promoter of the furin gene on transcription activity and hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology. 2009;50:763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, this goal is difficult to achieve and requires expensive and time-consuming treatment. Furin, a proprotein convertase, is involved in HBeAg maturation and is therefore a potential therapeutic target or ..
  53. Hampton E, Knuth M, Li J, Harris J, Lesley S, Spraggon G. The self-inhibited structure of full-length PCSK9 at 1.9 A reveals structural homology with resistin within the C-terminal domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14604-9 pubmed
    ..This three-dimensional homology provides insight into the function of PCSK9 at the molecular level and will help to dissect the link between PCSK9 and CHD. ..