Summary: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.

Top Publications

  2. Wu Y, Siao C, Lu W, Sung T, Frohman M, Milev P, et al. The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin extracellular proteolytic system regulates seizure-induced hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth through a proteoglycan substrate. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:1295-304 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that tPA functions acutely, both through and independently of plasmin, to mediate mossy fiber reorganization. ..
  3. Mec Słomska A, Adamiec Mroczek J, Kuźmicz E, Misiuk Hojło M. Intravitreal ocriplasmin: A breakthrough in the treatment of vitreomacular traction?. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:527-531 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed the results of recent studies comparing ocriplasmin to other widespread treatment options, such as pars plana vitrectomy. ..
  4. Schmidt T, Eriksson P, Gustafsson D, Cosgrove D, Frølund B, Boström J. Discovery and Evaluation of Anti-Fibrinolytic Plasmin Inhibitors Derived from 5-(4-Piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL). J Chem Inf Model. 2017;57:1703-1714 pubmed publisher
    ..A combined method, molecular alignment using Posit and scoring with Tcombo, lead to the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.6). ..
  5. Li C, Graf L. Human pituitary growth hormone: isolation and properties of two biologically active fragments from plasmin digests. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974;71:1197-201 pubmed
    ..The two fragments were active in the rat tibia and pigeon crop-sac tests, as well as in complement fixation experiments. ..
  6. Morton A, Moore E, Moore H, Gonzalez E, Chapman M, Peltz E, et al. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers promote systemic hyperfibrinolysis that is both dependent and independent of plasmin. J Surg Res. 2017;213:166-170 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate the hemoglobin molecule or its components stimulate fibrinolysis by both tPA-dependent and innate mechanisms. ..
  7. Astrup T, MULLERTZ S. The fibrin plate method for estimating fibrinolytic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1952;40:346-51 pubmed
  8. Zhao X, Larkin T, Lauver M, Ahmad S, Ducruet A. Tissue plasminogen activator mediates deleterious complement cascade activation in stroke. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180822 pubmed publisher
  9. Johansson M, Lundh Å, de Vries R, Sjaunja K. Composition and enzymatic activity in bulk milk from dairy farms with conventional or robotic milking systems. J Dairy Res. 2017;84:154-158 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, comparing the quality of bulk milk from commercial dairy herds using AMS and CMS, respectively, several differences were observed, suggesting a significant effect from management system. ..

More Information


  1. Niego B, Lee N, Larsson P, De Silva T, Au A, McCutcheon F, et al. Selective inhibition of brain endothelial Rho-kinase-2 provides optimal protection of an in vitro blood-brain barrier from tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177332 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight ROCK-2 as the key isoform driving BBB impairment and brain endothelial damage by rt-PA and the potential of KD025 to optimally protect the BBB during thrombolysis. ..
  2. Eiamboonsert S, Salama Y, Watarai H, Dhahri D, Tsuda Y, Okada Y, et al. The role of plasmin in the pathogenesis of murine multiple myeloma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;488:387-392 pubmed publisher
  3. Ilich A, Bokarev I, Key N. Global assays of fibrinolysis. Int J Lab Hematol. 2017;39:441-447 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these assays have strengths and limitations. We suggest that some methods may be preferable for detecting hypofibrinolytic conditions, whereas others may be better for detecting hyperfibrinolytic states. ..
  4. Bridge K, Revill C, Macrae F, Bailey M, Yuldasheva N, Wheatcroft S, et al. Inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation may affect development but not progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177117 pubmed publisher
    ..Late treatment with a TAFI inhibitor does not prevent AAA progression. These data may indicate a role for inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation in the early stages of AAA development, but not in its progression. ..
  5. Rosenberg R. Actions and interactions of antithrombin and heparin. N Engl J Med. 1975;292:146-51 pubmed
  6. Kim S, Choi N, Lee W. Fibrin zymography: a direct analysis of fibrinolytic enzymes on gels. Anal Biochem. 1998;263:115-6 pubmed
  7. Oursler M, Riggs B, Spelsberg T. Glucocorticoid-induced activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta by normal human osteoblast-like cells. Endocrinology. 1993;133:2187-96 pubmed
    ..This activation of TGF beta may, therefore, play a role in glucocorticoid regulation of bone cell functions. Furthermore, TGF beta is most likely involved in autocrine and paracrine effects on bone cells. ..
  8. Park J, Keller G, Ferrara N. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms: differential deposition into the subepithelial extracellular matrix and bioactivity of extracellular matrix-bound VEGF. Mol Biol Cell. 1993;4:1317-26 pubmed
    ..ECM-bound VEGF189 and VEGF206 have molecular masses consistent with the intact polypeptides. The ECM may represent an important source of VEGF and angiogenic potential. ..
  9. Kojima S, Nara K, Rifkin D. Requirement for transglutaminase in the activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta in bovine endothelial cells. J Cell Biol. 1993;121:439-48 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that type II TGase is a component required for cell surface, plasmin-mediated LTGF-beta activation process and that increased expression of TGase accompanies retinoid-induced activation of LTGF-beta. ..
  10. Turner J, Huynh H. Role of tissue remodeling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation and morphogenesis. J Dairy Sci. 1991;74:2801-7 pubmed
    ..In vitro results indicate that insulin-like growth factor-I impairs the secretion of plasminogen activator by bovine mammary epithelial cells. As such, a mechanism of action for bST exists. ..
  11. Russell J, Schneider A, Katzhendler J, Kowalski K, Sherwood L. Modification of human placental lactogen with plasmin. Preparation and characterization of a modified hormone with increased biologic activity. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:2296-301 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that plasmin cleaves homologous peptides from hPL and growth hormone and that removal of the hexapeptide from hPL results in enhanced biologic activity. ..
  12. Smyth S, Tsakiris D, Scudder L, Coller B. Structure and function of murine alphaIIbbeta3 (GPIIb/IIIa): studies using monoclonal antibodies and beta3-null mice,. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84:1103-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest fundamental similarities between human and mouse platelet activation and aggregation, but delineate subtle differences that need to be considered when comparing studies from mice and humans. ..
  13. Raghunath M, Unsöld C, Kubitscheck U, Bruckner Tuderman L, Peters R, Meuli M. The cutaneous microfibrillar apparatus contains latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein-1 (LTBP-1) and is a repository for latent TGF-beta1. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:559-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, this major connective tissue structure does not only serve as a force bearing element and scaffold for elastin deposition in the dermis, but also as an important repository for latent TGF-beta in the skin. ..
  14. Chase T, Shaw E. Comparison of the esterase activities of trypsin, plasmin, and thrombin on guanidinobenzoate esters. Titration of the enzymes. Biochemistry. 1969;8:2212-24 pubmed
  15. Tashima Y, Banno F, Kita T, Matsuda Y, Yanamoto H, Miyata T. Plasminogen Tochigi mice exhibit phenotypes similar to wild-type mice under experimental thrombotic conditions. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180981 pubmed publisher
    ..PlgT/T mice can be used to investigate the potential pathophysiological impact of the Plg-A620T mutation. ..
  16. Constantinescu P, Brown R, Wyatt A, Ranson M, Wilson M. Amorphous protein aggregates stimulate plasminogen activation, leading to release of cytotoxic fragments that are clients for extracellular chaperones. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14425-14437 pubmed publisher
  17. Levy J. Antifibrinolytic therapy: new data and new concepts. Lancet. 2010;376:3-4 pubmed publisher
  18. . Ocriplasmin (Jetrea) for vitreomacular adhesion. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2013;55:63-4 pubmed
  19. Saida K, Kawakami H, Ohta M, Iwamura K. Coagulation and vascular abnormalities in Crow-Fukase syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1997;20:486-92 pubmed
    ..Refractory cases responded to combined treatment of prednisolone, human leukocyte interferon, and antithrombin drug. ..
  20. Koolwijk P, Van Erck M, de Vree W, Vermeer M, Weich H, Hanemaaijer R, et al. Cooperative effect of TNFalpha, bFGF, and VEGF on the formation of tubular structures of human microvascular endothelial cells in a fibrin matrix. Role of urokinase activity. J Cell Biol. 1996;132:1177-88 pubmed
    ..These data may provide insight in the mechanism of angiogenesis as occurs in pathological conditions. ..