acrosin

Summary

Summary: A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.

Top Publications

  1. Furlong L, Harris J, Vazquez Levin M. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1780-90 pubmed
    To characterize proacrosin/acrosin interaction with isolated zona pellucida (ZP) components. Prospective study. Basic research laboratory...
  2. Yu Y, Xu W, Yi Y, Sutovsky P, Oko R. The extracellular protein coat of the inner acrosomal membrane is involved in zona pellucida binding and penetration during fertilization: characterization of its most prominent polypeptide (IAM38). Dev Biol. 2006;290:32-43 pubmed
    ..This study provides a novel approach to obtain direct information on the peripheral and integral protein composition of the IAM for identifying other candidates for sperm-zona interactions. ..
  3. Zalata A, Ahmed A, Allamaneni S, Comhaire F, Agarwal A. Relationship between acrosin activity of human spermatozoa and oxidative stress. Asian J Androl. 2004;6:313-8 pubmed
    To study the association between seminal oxidative stress and human sperm acrosin activity. It is a prospective study consisting of 30 infertile men and 12 fertile normozoospermic volunteers...
  4. De los Reyes M, Barros C. Immunolocalization of proacrosin/acrosin in bovine sperm and sperm penetration through the zona pellucida. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;58:215-28 pubmed
    The aim of the present work was to immunolocalize acrosin in bull spermatozoa incubated for up to 6 h in capacitating culture medium (TALP-heparin), in order to study the kinetics of its release during the acrosome reaction and in vitro ..
  5. Zheng X, Geiger M, Ecke S, Bielek E, Donner P, Eberspächer U, et al. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:C466-72 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the interaction of PCI with acrosin, a serine protease stored in its zymogen form in the acrosome of spermatozoa...
  6. Kawano N, Kang W, Yamashita M, Koga Y, Yamazaki T, Hata T, et al. Mice lacking two sperm serine proteases, ACR and PRSS21, are subfertile, but the mutant sperm are infertile in vitro. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that the sperm trypsinlike activity is still important but not essential for fertilization in vivo in the mouse...
  7. Baba T, Azuma S, Kashiwabara S, Toyoda Y. Sperm from mice carrying a targeted mutation of the acrosin gene can penetrate the oocyte zona pellucida and effect fertilization. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31845-9 pubmed
    The physiological function of mammalian sperm acrosin has long been believed to be involved in the limited proteolysis of the oocyte zona pellucida, thus enabling the sperm to penetrate this extracellular matrix and to gain access to the ..
  8. Yudin A, VandeVoort C, Li M, Overstreet J. PH-20 but not acrosin is involved in sperm penetration of the macaque zona pellucida. Mol Reprod Dev. 1999;53:350-62 pubmed
    In this study, we investigated the functions of PH-20 and acrosin during the interaction of macaque sperm with the zona pellucida...
  9. Chaudhury K, Das T, Chakravarty B, Bhattacharyya A. Acrosin activity as a potential marker for sperm membrane characteristics in unexplained male infertility. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:104-9 pubmed
    ..Release of 5'-nucleotidase (plasma membrane marker), lactate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial marker) and free acrosin, proacrosin, and total acrosin (acrosomal membrane marker)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Baba T, Kashiwabara S, Watanabe K, Itoh H, Michikawa Y, Kimura K, et al. Activation and maturation mechanisms of boar acrosin zymogen based on the deduced primary structure. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:11920-7 pubmed
    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding boar acrosin, a serine protease participating in the initial stage of fertilization, from boar testis lambda gt11 cDNA libraries...
  2. Gupta G, Jain R, Maikhuri J, Shukla P, Kumar M, Roy A, et al. Discovery of substituted isoxazolecarbaldehydes as potent spermicides, acrosin inhibitors and mild anti-fungal agents. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2301-8 pubmed
    ..the discovery of substituted isoxazolecarbaldehydes as a new class of compounds exhibiting both spermicidal and acrosin inhibitory activities simultaneously...
  3. Ciereszko A, Ottobre J, Glogowski J. Effects of season and breed on sperm acrosin activity and semen quality of boars. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;64:89-96 pubmed
    b>Acrosin activity and semen quality (sperm concentration, ejaculate volume and number of spermatozoa) were assessed from March 1997 to March 1998 in semen of Large White, Pietrain and Duroc x Pietrain boars...
  4. Steven F, Griffin M, Chantler E. Inhibition of human and bovine sperm acrosin by divalent metal ions. Possible role of zinc as a regulator of acrosin activity. Int J Androl. 1982;5:401-12 pubmed
    ..been collected and washed repeatedly with isotonic saline to remove seminal plasma inhibitors and activate the acrosin. Then the acrosin activity of the cells was assayed with alpha-N-Benzoyl-DL-Arg-beta-naphthylamide (BANA)...
  5. Adham I, Nayernia K, Engel W. Spermatozoa lacking acrosin protein show delayed fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev. 1997;46:370-6 pubmed
    b>Acrosin (ACR), a serine proteinase located in the acrosome of the sperm, has been presumed to be involved in the recognition and binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida of the ovum and the sperm penetration through the zona pellucida...
  6. Breden T, Berg R, Plotka E. Effects of substrate and separation method on acrosin amidase measurements. J Androl. 1996;17:443-8 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to increase the accuracy and reproducibility of the acrosin amidase assay and to assess the effects of different methods of sperm isolation on total sperm acrosin activity...
  7. Baba T, Niida Y, Michikawa Y, Kashiwabara S, Kodaira K, Takenaka M, et al. An acrosomal protein, sp32, in mammalian sperm is a binding protein specific for two proacrosins and an acrosin intermediate. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:10133-40 pubmed
    ..gel electrophoresis and was characterized as a binding protein specific for 55-, 53-, and 49-kDa forms of (pro)acrosin. This protein was not capable of binding a 43-kDa acrosin intermediate and 35-kDa mature acrosin...
  8. Flörke Gerloff S, Töpfer Petersen E, Muller Esterl W, Schill W, Engel W. Acrosin and the acrosome in human spermatogenesis. Hum Genet. 1983;65:61-7 pubmed
    Using the indirect immunofluorescent staining technique, the developmental patterns of (pro) acrosin and the outer acrosomal membrane were studied in human spermatogenesis...
  9. Adham I, Klemm U, Maier W, Hoyer Fender S, Tsaousidou S, Engel W. Molecular cloning of preproacrosin and analysis of its expression pattern in spermatogenesis. Eur J Biochem. 1989;182:563-8 pubmed
    ..of the serine proteinase super-family and is colinear with that determined by amino acid sequencing of the boar acrosin light chain and of a small region of the NH2-terminal sequence of the heavy chain...
  10. Kashiwabara S, Arai Y, Kodaira K, Baba T. Acrosin biosynthesis in meiotic and postmeiotic spermatogenic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;173:240-5 pubmed
    It has been widely accepted that mammalian sperm acrosin is first synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenic cells...
  11. Aquila S, Sisci D, Gentile M, Carpino A, Middea E, Catalano S, et al. Towards a physiological role for cytochrome P450 aromatase in ejaculated human sperm. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:1650-9 pubmed
    ..When we tested acrosin activity, it emerged that estradiol and aromatizable androgens were also able to induce the acrosome reaction ..
  12. Liu X, Dong G, Zhang J, Qi J, Zheng C, Zhou Y, et al. Discovery of novel human acrosin inhibitors by virtual screening. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2011;25:977-85 pubmed publisher
    Human acrosin is an attractive target for the discovery of male contraceptive drugs. For the first time, structure-based drug design was applied to discover structurally diverse human acrosin inhibitors...
  13. Tranter R, Read J, Jones R, Brady R. Effector sites in the three-dimensional structure of mammalian sperm beta-acrosin. Structure. 2000;8:1179-88 pubmed
    ..During fertilization proacrosin autoactivates to form beta-acrosin, in which there is a "light" chain cross-linked to a "heavy" chain by two disulphide bonds...
  14. Chaudhury K, Bhattacharyya A, Guha S. Studies on the membrane integrity of human sperm treated with a new injectable male contraceptive. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:1826-30 pubmed
    ..The contents of free and total acrosin, and % proacrosin (all acrosome markers) were assayed using 0...
  15. NagDas S, Skudlarek M, Orgebin Crist M, Tulsiani D. Biochemical alterations in the proacrosin-acrosin system during epididymal maturation of the rat spermatozoa. J Androl. 1992;13:36-43 pubmed
    b>Acrosin, an acrosomal serine protease, is believed to have a role in fertilization. The enzyme is synthesized in an enzymatically inactive precursor form, proacrosin, and is processed to enzymatically active form(s)...
  16. Kwok S, Dai G, McMurtry J. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA encoding porcine acrosin inhibitor. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:389-94 pubmed
    A full-length cDNA encoding the porcine acrosin inhibitor has been isolated from a boar seminal vesicle cDNA library...
  17. Dubé C, Leclerc P, Baba T, Reyes Moreno C, Bailey J. The proacrosin binding protein, sp32, is tyrosine phosphorylated during capacitation of pig sperm. J Androl. 2005;26:519-28 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that sp32, a (pro)acrosin binding protein, is the p32, a tyrosine phosphorylated protein related to capacitation...
  18. Furlong L, Veaute C, Vazquez Levin M. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida glycoproteins. II. Participation of mannose residues in the interaction. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1791-6 pubmed
    To assess the interaction of human proacrosin/acrosin with mannose residues coupled to a protein backbone. Prospective study. Basic research laboratory...
  19. Jansen S, Jones R, Jenneckens I, Marschall B, Kriegesmann B, Coadwell J, et al. Site-directed mutagenesis of boar proacrosin reveals residues involved in binding of zona pellucida glycoproteins. Mol Reprod Dev. 1998;51:184-92 pubmed
    Proacrosin, the zymogen form of the serine protease beta-acrosin, is thought to function as a secondary binding molecule between mammalian gametes during fertilization (Jansen et al., 1995: Int J Dev Biol 39, 501-510)...
  20. NagDas S, Winfrey V, Olson G. Proacrosin-acrosomal matrix binding interactions in ejaculated bovine spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 1996;54:111-21 pubmed
    ..matrix of bovine spermatozoa function to maintain a particulate proacrosin pool and to regulate proacrosin/acrosin release...
  21. Richardson R, O Rand M. Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs for rabbit preproacrosin and a novel preproacrosin-related cDNA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1219:215-8 pubmed
    ..et al. (1987) Biol. Reprod. 36, 1063-1068), but apparently lacking proteinase activity. ..
  22. Sasanami T, Yoshizaki N, Dohra H, Kubo H. Sperm acrosin is responsible for the sperm binding to the egg envelope during fertilization in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Reproduction. 2011;142:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the antigen revealed that the mAb recognizes sperm acrosin. When sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized PVM immobilized on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane was incubated ..
  23. Richardson M, Bodine A, Froman D, Thurston R. Turkey acrosin. I. Isolation, purification, and partial characterization. Biol Reprod. 1988;38:645-51 pubmed
    b>Acrosin was extracted from turkey spermatozoa by use of urea together with sonication and freezing, and purified approximately 18-fold by sequential use of chromatofocusing and affinity chromatography...
  24. Hemachand T, Gopalakrishnan B, Salunke D, Totey S, Shaha C. Sperm plasma-membrane-associated glutathione S-transferases as gamete recognition molecules. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2053-65 pubmed
    ..of anti-GST antibodies or solubilised ZP led to aggregation of sperm GSTs, resulting in the release of acrosin. In contrast, inhibition of sperm GST binding to ZP, by saturation of binding sites for sperm GSTs on the ..
  25. Liu X, Chen Q, Zhu J, Fan Y, Ding L, Zhao J, et al. Synthesis and acrosin inhibitory activity of methyl 5-substituted-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl carbamate derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:3554-9 pubmed publisher
    A series of novel methyl 5-substituted 1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylcarbamates were designed, synthesized, and their acrosin inhibitory activities evaluated in vitro...
  26. Chen Q, Tian W, Han G, Qi J, Zheng C, Zhou Y, et al. Design and synthesis of novel benzoheterocyclic derivatives as human acrosin inhibitors by scaffold hopping. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;59:176-82 pubmed publisher
    Human acrosin is an attracting target for the development of novel male contraceptives. Scaffold hopping was used to optimize the isoxazolecarbaldehyde human acrosin inhibitors and extend their structure-activity relationships...
  27. Cechová D, Meloun B. Differences in the evolution of seminal plasma acrosin inhibitors and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitors. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1979;360:1497-500 pubmed
  28. Lin C, Tholen E, Jennen D, Ponsuksili S, Schellander K, Wimmers K. Evidence for effects of testis and epididymis expressed genes on sperm quality and boar fertility traits. Reprod Domest Anim. 2006;41:538-43 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), androgen receptor (AR), relaxin (RLN), acrosin (ACR) and osteopontin (polymorphism in intron 6 named OPNin6; polymorphism in promoter region named OPNprom) were addressed as functional candidate genes ..
  29. Stasiak K, Janicki B, Glogowski J. Determination of sperm acrosin activity in the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus L.)--using method developed for human spermatozoa. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15:799-800 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to adapt a method to determine acrosin activity of human spermatozoa to arctic fox (Alopex lagopus L.) spermatozoa...
  30. Bian S, Zhang W, Zhu H, Ni J, Yao L, Chen L. [Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the sperm acrosin activity]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2002;8:326-8 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the sperm acrosin activity in normal men and positive antisperm antibody (AsAb) men. Sperm acrosin activity was detected by BAEE/ADH method...
  31. Watanabe K, Baba T, Kashiwabara S, Okamoto A, Arai Y. Structure and organization of the mouse acrosin gene. J Biochem. 1991;109:828-33 pubmed
    The genomic region carrying the mouse acrosin gene, including the 5'-flanking sequence, has been isolated and characterized. The acrosin gene consists of five exons separated by four introns...
  32. Kashiwabara S, Baba T, Takada M, Watanabe K, Yano Y, Arai Y. Primary structure of mouse proacrosin deduced from the cDNA sequence and its gene expression during spermatogenesis. J Biochem. 1990;108:785-91 pubmed
    In the present study, we identified cDNA clones of mouse acrosin from a testis lambda gt11 library...
  33. Johnson R, Jakobs K, Schultz G. Extraction of the adenylate cyclase-activating factor of bovine sperm and its identification as a trypsin-like protease. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:114-21 pubmed
    ..alpha-Chymotrypsin, trypsin, and sperm acrosin were comparably effective in stimulating the platelet adenylate cyclase 5- to 8-fold, with concentrations ..
  34. Elce J, McIntyre E. Purification of bovine and human acrosin. Can J Biochem. 1982;60:8-14 pubmed
    b>Acrosin from human spermatozoa was required for studies of immunological interference with fertilization, but not detailed purification scheme was available for the human enzyme...
  35. Moos J, Peknicova J, Tesarik J. Relationship between molecular conversions of acrosin and the progression of exocytosis in the calcium ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1176:199-207 pubmed
    In this study we used a previously characterized monoclonal antibody to analyze the molecular conversions of acrosin during the acrosomal exocytosis induced by ionophore A23187...
  36. Marí S, Rawe V, Biancotti J, Charreau E, Dain L, Vazquez Levin M. Biochemical and molecular studies of the proacrosin/acrosin system in patients with unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril. 2003;79 Suppl 3:1676-9 pubmed
  37. Adham I, Kremling H, Nieter S, Zimmermann S, Hummel M, Schroeter U, et al. The structures of the bovine and porcine proacrosin genes and their conservation among mammals. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1996;377:261-5 pubmed
    Sperm acrosin is a serine protease that is involved in the recognition, binding and penetration of the sperm of the zona pellucida of the ovum. The bovine and porcine genes were cloned and characterized...
  38. Sawada H. Ascidian sperm lysin system. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:139-51 pubmed
    ..We revealed that two sperm trypsin-like proteases, acrosin and spermosin, the latter of which is a novel sperm protease with thrombin-like substrate specificity, are ..
  39. Xu S, Zhan B. [Analysis of relationship between semen quality and sperm acrosin activity]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006;12:438-40 pubmed
    To analyze the activity of human sperm acrosin and semen parameters in male infertile patients and discuss the effect of sperm acrosin activity on semen quality...
  40. Tardif S, Guyonnet B, Cormier N, Cornwall G. Alteration in the processing of the ACRBP/sp32 protein and sperm head/acrosome malformations in proprotein convertase 4 (PCSK4) null mice. Mol Hum Reprod. 2012;18:298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that the sperm fertilization molecule acrosin-binding protein (ACRBP)/sp32, which normally undergoes processing from a 58.5 kDa precursor to a 27...
  41. Codelia V, Cortes C, Moreno R. Inhibition of the vacuolar H(+)-pump with bafilomycin A1 does not induce acrosome reaction or activate proacrosin in mouse spermatozoa. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:1337-44 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that acrosome alkalinization and acrosome reaction are two processes that could be independently regulated during mammalian sperm capacitation. ..
  42. Słowińska M, Ciereszko A. Identification of the second form of acrosin in Turkey spermatozoa. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47:849-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Acrosin from turkey spermatozoa has been recently identified and characterized. In this study, we reported the identification of second form of acrosin (acrosin II) in turkey spermatozoa...
  43. Xiao G, Pan C, Cai Y, Lin H, Fu Z. Effect of benzene, toluene, xylene on the semen quality and the function of accessory gonad of exposed workers. Ind Health. 2001;39:206-10 pubmed
    ..Routine sperm characteristic, acrosin activity, and Lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) relative activity were detected...
  44. Słowińska M, Olczak M, Liszewska E, Watorek W, Ciereszko A. Isolation, characterization and cDNA sequencing of acrosin from turkey spermatozoa. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;157:127-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Acrosin (EC 3.4.21.10) is serine proteinase localized in the sperm acrosome and considered to play an essential role in fertilization...
  45. Nagdas S, Hamilton S, RAYCHOUDHURY S. Identification of acrosomal matrix-specific hydrolases binding proteins of bovine cauda epididymal spermatozoa. J Androl. 2010;31:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..is associated with the luminal surface of the outer acrosomal membrane and exhibits specific binding activity for acrosin. The present study was undertaken to identify the matrix proteins that specifically interact with acrosomal ..
  46. Buffone M, Foster J, Gerton G. The role of the acrosomal matrix in fertilization. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous evidences suggest a more complex role for the acrosome in fertilization in which the acrosomal matrix is a scaffold for sperm-ZP interactions that self-regulates by a controlled disassembly mechanism...
  47. Elisen M, Van Kooij R, Nolte M, Marquart J, Lock T, Bouma B, et al. Protein C inhibitor may modulate human sperm-oocyte interactions. Biol Reprod. 1998;58:670-7 pubmed
    ..Recently it has been reported that proteases of the reproductive system, such as acrosin, prostate-specific antigen, and tissue kallikrein, can also be effectively inhibited by PCI...
  48. Crosby J, Jones R, Barros C, Carvallo P. Characterization of the functional domains of boar acrosin involved in nonenzymatic binding to homologous zona pellucida glycoproteins. Mol Reprod Dev. 1998;49:426-34 pubmed
    During the first steps of the gamete interaction, the proacrosin/acrosin system seems to play a crucial role in the secondary binding, holding acrosome-reacted spermatozoa during their passage through the zona pellucida...
  49. Thurston R, Korn N, Froman D, Bodine A. Proteolytic enzymes in seminal plasma of domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Biol Reprod. 1993;48:393-402 pubmed
    ..One of the three proteins also contained a larger subunit (M(r) 76,000-81,000) thought to be transferrin. Turkey acrosin consisted of three subunits with molecular weights below 20,500...
  50. Kodama E, Baba T, Yokosawa H, Sawada H. cDNA cloning and functional analysis of ascidian sperm proacrosin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24594-600 pubmed
    ..Ascidian acrosin has paired basic residues (Lys(56)-His(57)) in the N-terminal region, which is one of the most characteristic ..
  51. Liu R, Na W, Zhang H, Lin Z, Xue B, Xu Z. Assessment of released acrosin activity as a measurement of the sperm acrosome reaction. Asian J Androl. 2008;10:236-42 pubmed
    To develop a method for assessing sperm function by measuring released acrosin activity during the acrosome reaction (AR). Human semen samples were obtained from 24 healthy donors with proven fertility after 3-7 days of sexual abstinence...
  52. Cross N. A modified and improved assay for sperm amidase activity. J Androl. 1990;11:409-13 pubmed
    ..5 x 10(5) to 2.1 x 10(6) sperm). The within-assay coefficient of variation was 7.8 +/- 1.8% (average +/- SE, n = 12), and the between-assay coefficient of variation was 7.2 +/- 1.2% (n = 3). The sensitivity was 7.6 microIU/well...
  53. Zhang H, Li J, Zhang C. [Study of the changes of acrosomal enzyme and nitric oxide synthase, superoxide dismutase of infertile patients with positive antisperm antibody in seminal plasma]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006;12:349-51 pubmed
    ..01). It may be possible that the positive AsAb in seminal plasma beget infertility through the changes of acrosomal enzyme of spermatozoa, SOD and NOS activities in seminal plasma. ..