papain

Summary

Summary: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.

Top Publications

  1. Martinez M, Diaz Mendoza M, Carrillo L, Diaz I. Carboxy terminal extended phytocystatins are bifunctional inhibitors of papain and legumain cysteine proteinases. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2914-8 pubmed
    ..Phytocystatins (PhyCys) have been described as plant inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases...
  2. Dou Z, Coppens I, Carruthers V. Non-canonical maturation of two papain-family proteases in Toxoplasma gondii. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3523-34 pubmed publisher
    ..cathepsin B protease (TgCPB) does not undergo self-maturation but instead requires the expression of a second papain-family cathepsin protease, TgCPL...
  3. Sarafeddinov A, Arif A, Peters A, Fuchsbauer H. A novel transglutaminase substrate from Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibiting papain-like cysteine proteases. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:617-26 pubmed
    ..This report now describes a novel substrate that inhibits papain, bromelain, and trypsin...
  4. Shi X, Zhang G, Wang L, Li X, Zhi Y, Wang F, et al. The nonstructural protein 1 papain-like cysteine protease was necessary for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1 to inhibit interferon-? induction. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..syndrome virus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) could be auto-cleaved into nsp1? and nsp1?, both of which had the papain-like cysteine protease activities...
  5. Obregón W, Liggieri C, Morcelle S, Trejo S, Aviles F, Priolo N. Biochemical and PMF MALDI-TOF analyses of two novel papain-like plant proteinases. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:1323-33 pubmed
    ..N-terminal sequences showed a high percentage of identity with cysteine proteinases belonging to the papain family. The peptide mass fingerprint analysis demonstrated a close homology among both proteinases.
  6. Irene D, Chung T, Chen B, Liu T, Li F, Tzen J, et al. Solution structure of a phytocystatin from Ananas comosus and its molecular interaction with papain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47865 pubmed publisher
    ..The three structural motifs (G(45), Q(89)XVXG, and W(120)) putatively responsible for the interaction with papain-like proteases are located in one side of AcCYS...
  7. Chen Z, Wang Y, Ratia K, Mesecar A, Wilkinson K, Baker S. Proteolytic processing and deubiquitinating activity of papain-like proteases of human coronavirus NL63. J Virol. 2007;81:6007-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify HCoV-NL63 replicase gene products and characterize two viral papain-like proteases (PLPs), PLP1 and PLP2, which process the viral replicase polyprotein...
  8. You L, Zhao M, Liu R, Regenstein J. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of loach ( Misgurnus anguillicaudatus ) peptides prepared by papain digestion. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:7948-53 pubmed publisher
    Loach protein hydrolysates (LPH) prepared by papain digestion were fractionated into four fractions, LPH-I (MW > 10 kDa), LPH-II (MW = 5-10 kDa), LPH-III (MW = 3-5 kDa), LPH-IV (MW < 3 kDa), and the in vitro antioxidant and ..
  9. Ratia K, Saikatendu K, Santarsiero B, Barretto N, Baker S, Stevens R, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease: structure of a viral deubiquitinating enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5717-22 pubmed
    ..of the replicase polyprotein by two viral cysteine proteases, a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and a papain-like protease (PLpro)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Barretto N, Jukneliene D, Ratia K, Chen Z, Mesecar A, Baker S. The papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has deubiquitinating activity. J Virol. 2005;79:15189-98 pubmed
    ..syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is mediated by replicase polyproteins that are processed by two viral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro)...
  2. Halim T, Maclaren A, Romanish M, Gold M, McNagny K, Takei F. Retinoic-acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha is required for natural helper cell development and allergic inflammation. Immunity. 2012;37:463-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also identified ROR?-dependent NH cell progenitors in the bone marrow. Thus, all NH cells belong to a unique ROR?-dependent cell lineage separate from other lymphoid cell lineages...
  3. Pastor L, Sánchez Gascón F, Girona J, Bernal Mañas C, Morales E, Beltrán Frutos E, et al. Morphogenesis of rat experimental pulmonary emphysema induced by intratracheally administered papain: changes in elastic fibres. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:1309-19 pubmed publisher
    ..this paper, the morphogenesis of emphysema and alterations of the elastic fibres produced by the instillation of papain are described by light and electron microscopy...
  4. Gianini R, do Amaral F, Florio F, Basting R. Microtensile bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical method. Am J Dent. 2010;23:23-8 pubmed
    ..strength (microTBS) of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems to demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical method...
  5. Kroese M, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Bos de Ruijter J, Peeters B, Meulenberg J, Cornelissen L, et al. The nsp1alpha and nsp1 papain-like autoproteinases are essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:494-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of the replicase polyproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) each contain a papain-like autoproteinase domain, which have been named PCPalpha and PCPbeta, respectively...
  6. Ghosh R, Chakraborty S, Chakrabarti C, Dattagupta J, Biswas S. Structural insights into the substrate specificity and activity of ervatamins, the papain-like cysteine proteases from a tropical plant, Ervatamia coronaria. FEBS J. 2008;275:421-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Ervatamin-A, ervatamin-B and ervatamin-C are three such papain-like cysteine proteases found in the latex of the tropical plant Ervatamia coronaria, and are known not only for ..
  7. Tian M, Win J, Song J, van der Hoorn R, van der Knaap E, Kamoun S. A Phytophthora infestans cystatin-like protein targets a novel tomato papain-like apoplastic protease. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:364-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical functional analyses revealed that EPIC2B interacts with and inhibits a novel papain-like extracellular cysteine protease, termed Phytophthora Inhibited Protease 1 (PIP1)...
  8. Chamani J, Heshmati M. Mechanism for stabilization of the molten globule state of papain by sodium n-alkyl sulfates: spectroscopic and calorimetric approaches. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2008;322:119-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Papain exists in a molten globule (MG) state at pH 2 and in this state protein tends to aggregate in the presence of lower concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl)...
  9. Zheng D, Chen G, Guo B, Cheng G, Tang H. PLP2, a potent deubiquitinase from murine hepatitis virus, strongly inhibits cellular type I interferon production. Cell Res. 2008;18:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that Papain-like protease domain 2 (PLP2), a catalytic domain of the nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) of MHV-A59, can bind to ..
  10. Li M, Su E, You P, Gong X, Sun M, Xu D, et al. Purification and in situ immobilization of papain with aqueous two-phase system. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15168 pubmed publisher
    b>Papain was purified from spray-dried Carica papaya latex using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Then it was recovered from PEG phase by in situ immobilization or preparing cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs)...
  11. Chu M, Liu K, Wu H, Yeh K, Cheng Y. Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins. Planta. 2011;234:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of the tarocystatin-papain complex and the domain interaction between NtD and CtE in tarocystatin have not been determined...
  12. Bar Ziv A, Levy Y, Hak H, Mett A, Belausov E, Citovsky V, et al. The tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) V2 protein interacts with the host papain-like cysteine protease CYP1. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:983-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we show that V2 recognizes and directly binds the tomato CYP1 protein, a member of the family of papain-like cysteine proteases which are involved in plant defense against diverse pathogens...
  13. Hussain S, Khan A, Gul S, Resmini M, Verma C, Thomas E, et al. Identification of interactions involved in the generation of nucleophilic reactivity and of catalytic competence in the catalytic site Cys/His ion pair of papain. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10732-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on members of the papain family of cysteine proteinases, particularly papain (EC 3.4.22.2) itself, continue to contribute to this goal...
  14. Assis D, Gontijo V, de Oliveira Pereira I, Santos J, Camps I, Nagem T, et al. Inhibition of cysteine proteases by a natural biflavone: behavioral evaluation of fukugetin as papain and cruzain inhibitor. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2013;28:661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetic analyses demonstrated that fukugetin inhibited cruzain and papain by a slow reversible type inhibition with K(I) of 1.1 and 13.4 µM, respectively...
  15. Miron T, Listowsky I, Wilchek M. Reaction mechanisms of allicin and allyl-mixed disulfides with proteins and small thiol molecules. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:1912-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Excess cellular glutathione enables several cycles of sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange reactions to occur, extending the hybrid drug's pharmacodynamics. ..
  16. Andrade L, Oliveira A, Ribeiro J, Kiyota S, Vasconcelos I, de Oliveira J, et al. Effects of a novel pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from Crotalaria pallida Roots with papain inhibitory activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:4145-52 pubmed publisher
    A novel pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein with papain inhibitory activity, named CpPRI, was purified from Crotalaria pallida roots by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by three reverse-phase high-performance liquid ..
  17. Liang G, Barker T, Xie Z, Charles N, Rivera J, Druey K. Naive T cells sense the cysteine protease allergen papain through protease-activated receptor 2 and propel TH2 immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:1377-1386.e13 pubmed publisher
    Sensitization to protease allergens, such as papain, or helminth infection is associated with basophil recruitment to draining lymph nodes (LNs)...
  18. Yao Q, Cui J, Zhu Y, Wang G, Hu L, Long C, et al. A bacterial type III effector family uses the papain-like hydrolytic activity to arrest the host cell cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3716-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure of one of the family members, Cif homolog in Burkholderia pseudomallei (CHBP), reveals a papain-like fold and a conserved Cys-His-Gln catalytic triad despite the lack of primary sequence identity...
  19. Carrillo C, Tanaka M, Cesar M, Camargo M, Juliano Y, Novo N. Use of papain gel in disabled patients. J Dent Child (Chic). 2008;75:222-8 pubmed
    ..evaluate complete caries removal time (CCR) and patient acceptance of the chemomechanical caries removal agent and papain gel Papacárie in disabled patients...
  20. Alphey M, Hunter W. High-resolution complex of papain with remnants of a cysteine protease inhibitor derived from Trypanosoma brucei. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:504-8 pubmed
    Attempts to cocrystallize the cysteine protease papain derived from the latex of Carica papaya with an inhibitor of cysteine proteases (ICP) from Trypanosoma brucei were unsuccessful...
  21. Sankalia M, Mashru R, Sankalia J, Sutariya V. Physicochemical characterization of papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked kappa-carrageenan gel beads for stability improvement using Doehlert shell design. J Pharm Sci. 2006;95:1994-2013 pubmed
    This work examines the influence of various process parameters on papain entrapped in cross-linked kappa-carrageenan beads for improvement of its stability...
  22. Su S, Nie H, Zhu L, Chen T. Optimization of adsorption conditions of papain on dye affinity membrane using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:2336-40 pubmed publisher
    The adsorption of papain on Reactive Blue 4 dye-ligand affinity membrane was investigated in a batch system...
  23. Vivares D, Arnoux P, Pignol D. A papain-like enzyme at work: native and acyl-enzyme intermediate structures in phytochelatin synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18848-53 pubmed
    ..0-A resolution shows that NsPCS is a dimer that belongs to the papain superfamily of cysteine proteases, with a conserved catalytic machinery...
  24. Graham R, Denison M. Replication of murine hepatitis virus is regulated by papain-like proteinase 1 processing of nonstructural proteins 1, 2, and 3. J Virol. 2006;80:11610-20 pubmed
    ..In murine hepatitis virus (MHV), nsps 1, 2, and 3 are processed by two papain-like proteinase activities within nsp3 (PLP1 and PLP2) to yield nsp1, an nsp2-3 intermediate, and mature nsp2 and ..
  25. Zhen G, Xue Z, Zhao J, Gu N, Tang Z, Xu Y, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increases expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in papain-induced emphysematous lungs and inhibits apoptosis of lung cells. Cytotherapy. 2010;12:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation ameliorates papain-induced pulmonary emphysema. However, the underlying mechanism is not completely understood...
  26. Liang Y, Zhang L. Bioconjugation of papain on superparamagnetic nanoparticles decorated with carboxymethylated chitosan. Biomacromolecules. 2007;8:1480-6 pubmed
    ..carboxymethylated chitosan were developed and used as a novel magnetic support for the covalent conjugation of papain, one of the most important industrial proteases...
  27. Hyono A, Gaboriaud F, Mazda T, Takata Y, Ohshima H, Duval J. Impacts of papain and neuraminidase enzyme treatment on electrohydrodynamics and IgG-mediated agglutination of type A red blood cells. Langmuir. 2009;25:10873-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties significantly depend on the concentration of proteolytic papain enzyme and protease-free neuraminidase enzyme that the cells are exposed to...
  28. Xue Y, Nie H, Zhu L, Li S, Zhang H. Immobilization of modified papain with anhydride groups on activated cotton fabric. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;160:109-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Papain (EC 3.4.22.2) has been chemically modified using two novel reagents including different anhydrides of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic and pyromellitic acids...
  29. Hatori Y, Majima E, Tsuda T, Toyoshima C. Domain organization and movements in heavy metal ion pumps: papain digestion of CopA, a Cu+-transporting ATPase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25213-21 pubmed
    ..from Thermotoga maritima was cloned, overexpressed, and purified, and then subjected to limited proteolysis using papain. Stable analogs of intermediate states were generated using AMPPCP as a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog and AlFx as a ..
  30. Halim T, Krauss R, Sun A, Takei F. Lung natural helper cells are a critical source of Th2 cell-type cytokines in protease allergen-induced airway inflammation. Immunity. 2012;36:451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Intranasal administration of protease allergen papain induced eosinophil infiltration and mucus hyperproduction in the lung of wild-type and Rag1(-/-) mice, but not in ..
  31. Xing Y, Chen J, Tu J, Zhang B, Chen X, Shi H, et al. The papain-like protease of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus negatively regulates type I interferon pathway by acting as a viral deubiquitinase. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1554-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified PEDV replicase encoded papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) as an IFN antagonist that depends on catalytic activity for its function...
  32. Wang K, Kumar S, Cheng Y, Venkatagiri S, Yang A, Yeh K. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta). FEBS J. 2008;275:4980-9 pubmed publisher
    ..FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated...
  33. Sankalia M, Mashru R, Sankalia J, Sutariya V. Papain entrapment in alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery: physicochemical characterization and factorial optimization using neural network modeling. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2005;6:E209-22 pubmed
    ..process parameters (like sodium alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, and hardening time) on papain entrapped in ionotropically cross-linked alginate beads for stability improvement and site-specific delivery to ..
  34. Romanyuk N, Rigden D, Vatamaniuk O, Lang A, Cahoon R, Jez J, et al. Mutagenic definition of a papain-like catalytic triad, sufficiency of the N-terminal domain for single-site core catalytic enzyme acylation, and C-terminal domain for augmentative metal activation of a eukaryotic phytochelatin synthase. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:858-69 pubmed
    ..been determined that the N-terminal half of AtPCS1 and its equivalents from other sources have the hallmarks of a papain-like, Clan CA Cys protease...
  35. Zhang X, Liu S, Takano T. Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors from Arabidopsis thaliana, AtCYSa and AtCYSb, increasing the salt, drought, oxidation and cold tolerance. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;68:131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..They inhibit the catalytic activity of papain, which is generally taken as evidence for cysteine proteinase inhibitor function...
  36. Esteban Garc a B, Garrido C rdenas J, Alonso D, Garc a Maroto F. A distinct subfamily of papain-like cystein proteinases regulated by senescence and stresses in Glycine max. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:1101-8 pubmed publisher
    GMCP3 encodes a cystein proteinase of Glycine max belonging to the papain-like family (C1A in MEROPS database) that was previously found to be involved in the mobilization of protein reserves during seed germination...
  37. Chan S, Bürki A, Bonel H, Benneker L, Gantenbein Ritter B. Papain-induced in vitro disc degeneration model for the study of injectable nucleus pulposus therapy. Spine J. 2013;13:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteolytic enzyme digestion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) offers a method to simulate a condition of disc degeneration for the study of cell-scaffold constructs in the degenerated disc...
  38. Shokhen M, Khazanov N, Albeck A. The mechanism of papain inhibition by peptidyl aldehydes. Proteins. 2011;79:975-85 pubmed publisher
    Various mechanisms for the reversible formation of a covalent tetrahedral complex (TC) between papain and peptidyl aldehyde inhibitors were simulated by DFT calculations, applying the quantum mechanical/self consistent reaction field (..
  39. Agniswamy J, Nagiec M, Liu M, Schuck P, Musser J, Sun P. Crystal structure of group A streptococcus Mac-1: insight into dimer-mediated specificity for recognition of human IgG. Structure. 2006;14:225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the lack of sequence homology, Mac-1 adopts the canonical papain fold...
  40. Roy S, Choudhury D, Aich P, Dattagupta J, Biswas S. The structure of a thermostable mutant of pro-papain reveals its activation mechanism. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:1591-603 pubmed publisher
    b>Papain is the archetype of a broad class of cysteine proteases (clan C1A) that contain a pro-peptide in the zymogen form which is required for correct folding and spatio-temporal regulation of proteolytic activity in the initial stages ..
  41. Pithon M, Ferraz C, de Oliveira G, Pereira T, Oliveira D, de Souza R, et al. Effect of 10% papain gel on enamel deproteinization before bonding procedure. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:541-5 pubmed publisher
    To test the null hypothesis that enamel deproteinization with 10% papain gel does not increase the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC)...
  42. Prasad R, Atul -, Soni A, Puri S, Sijwali P. Expression, characterization, and cellular localization of knowpains, papain-like cysteine proteases of the Plasmodium knowlesi malaria parasite. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51619 pubmed publisher
    b>Papain-like cysteine proteases of malaria parasites degrade haemoglobin in an acidic food vacuole to provide amino acids for intraerythrocytic parasites...
  43. van Kasteren P, Bailey Elkin B, James T, Ninaber D, Beugeling C, Khajehpour M, et al. Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E838-47 pubmed publisher
    ..are economically important positive-stranded RNA viruses that encode an ovarian tumor (OTU) domain DUB known as papain-like protease 2 (PLP2)...
  44. Motta L, Martins M, Porta K, Bussadori S. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:117-20 pubmed
    ..Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette...
  45. Baker P, Numata K. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of poly(L-alanine) in aqueous environment. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:947-51 pubmed publisher
    L-alanine ethyl ester was polymerized into poly(L-alanine) (polyAla), one of the insoluble polypeptides, by papain in aqueous buffer at varying pH. At neutral pH, a maximum chain length of 11 repeats was observed...
  46. de Beer R, Zarzycka B, Amatdjais Groenen H, Jans S, Nuijens T, Quaedflieg P, et al. Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters. Chembiochem. 2011;12:2201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..for the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, has now been applied for the first time in combination with papain, a cheap and commercially available cysteine protease...
  47. Wojdyla J, Manolaridis I, van Kasteren P, Kikkert M, Snijder E, Gorbalenya A, et al. Papain-like protease 1 from transmissible gastroenteritis virus: crystal structure and enzymatic activity toward viral and cellular substrates. J Virol. 2010;84:10063-73 pubmed publisher
    ..encode two classes of cysteine proteases, which have narrow substrate specificities and either a chymotrypsin- or papain-like fold...
  48. Lopes M, Mascarini R, da Silva B, Florio F, Basting R. Effect of a papain-based gel for chemomechanical caries removal on dentin shear bond strength. J Dent Child (Chic). 2007;74:93-7 pubmed
    ..the shear bond strength of an adhesive restorative system on sound and demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based agent...
  49. Oliveira A, Migliolo L, Aquino R, Ribeiro J, Macedo L, Andrade L, et al. Purification and characterization of a trypsin-papain inhibitor from Pithecelobium dumosum seeds and its in vitro effects towards digestive enzymes from insect pests. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:858-65 pubmed
    A novel trypsin-papain inhibitor, named PdKI-2, was purified from the seeds of Pithecelobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. PdKI-2 had an M(r) of 18...
  50. Barretto N, Jukneliene D, Ratia K, Chen Z, Mesecar A, Baker S. Deubiquitinating activity of the SARS-CoV papain-like protease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:37-41 pubmed
  51. Raju T, Scallon B. Glycosylation in the Fc domain of IgG increases resistance to proteolytic cleavage by papain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:797-803 pubmed
    ..fragments of IgGs include Fc, Fab, and F(ab')2 fragments, all of which can be made using the sulfhydryl protease papain, although prolonged digestion times and/or excessive amounts of papain typically result in further cleavage of the ..
  52. Lindner H, Fotouhi Ardakani N, Lytvyn V, Lachance P, Sulea T, Menard R. The papain-like protease from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a deubiquitinating enzyme. J Virol. 2005;79:15199-208 pubmed
    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease (SARS-CoV PLpro) is involved in the processing of the viral polyprotein and, thereby, contributes to the biogenesis of the virus replication complex...
  53. Sadaghiani A, Verhelst S, Gocheva V, Hill K, Majerova E, Stinson S, et al. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of in vivo potency and selectivity of epoxysuccinyl-based inhibitors of papain-family cysteine proteases. Chem Biol. 2007;14:499-511 pubmed
    The papain-family cathepsins are cysteine proteases that are emerging as promising therapeutic targets for a number of human disease conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer...