Genomes and Genes
complement c3 c5 convertases
Summary: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
- Boxx G, Nishiya C, Kozel T, Zhang M. Characteristics of Fc-independent human antimannan antibody-mediated alternative pathway initiation of C3 deposition to Candida albicans. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:473-80 pubmed publisher..Thus, human antimannan antibody has a distinct Fc-independent effector function in regulation of C3 deposition to C. albicans. ..
- Chen H, Ricklin D, Hammel M, Garcia B, McWhorter W, Sfyroera G, et al. Allosteric inhibition of complement function by a staphylococcal immune evasion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17621-6 pubmed publisher..As this enzyme complex is critical for both activation and amplification of the complement response, its allosteric inhibition likely represents a fundamental contribution to the overall immune evasion strategy of S. aureus. ..
- Luo S, Hartmann A, Dahse H, Skerka C, Zipfel P. Secreted pH-regulated antigen 1 of Candida albicans blocks activation and conversion of complement C3. J Immunol. 2010;185:2164-73 pubmed publisher..Thus, Pra1 is, to our knowledge, the first potent fungal complement inhibitor that favors C. albicans immune escape by inactivating and controlling host complement attack at the level of C3...
- Serkova N, Renner B, Larsen B, Stoldt C, Hasebroock K, Bradshaw Pierce E, et al. Renal inflammation: targeted iron oxide nanoparticles for molecular MR imaging in mice. Radiology. 2010;255:517-26 pubmed publisher..Injection of CR2-conjugated SPIO caused a significant reduction in T2-weighted MR imaging signal and T2 relaxation time in nephritic kidneys. ..
- Hoedemaekers C, van Deuren M, Sprong T, Pickkers P, Mollnes T, Klasen I, et al. The complement system is activated in a biphasic pattern after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010;89:710-6 pubmed publisher..Complement activation after cardiac surgery is regulated in a complex biphasic way, with additional inhibitory mechanisms engaged from 8 hours postoperatively onward. ..
- Roumenina L, Jablonski M, Hue C, Blouin J, Dimitrov J, Dragon Durey M, et al. Hyperfunctional C3 convertase leads to complement deposition on endothelial cells and contributes to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Blood. 2009;114:2837-45 pubmed publisher..Therefore, risk factors for aHUS are not only mutations leading to loss of regulation, but also mutations, resulting in hyperactive C3 convertase. ..
- Rooijakkers S, Wu J, Ruyken M, van Domselaar R, Planken K, Tzekou A, et al. Structural and functional implications of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase stabilized by a staphylococcal inhibitor. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:721-7 pubmed publisher..Understanding the mechanistic basis of the central complement-activation step and microbial immune evasion strategies targeting this step will aid in the development of complement therapeutics. ..
- Krishnan V, Ponnuraj K, Xu Y, Macon K, Volanakis J, Narayana S. The crystal structure of cobra venom factor, a cofactor for C3- and C5-convertase CVFBb. Structure. 2009;17:611-9 pubmed publisher..The similarly positioned CUB and slightly displaced C345c domains of CVF could play a vital role in the formation of C3 convertases by providing important primary binding sites for factor B. ..
- Jongerius I, Puister M, Wu J, Ruyken M, Van Strijp J, Rooijakkers S. Staphylococcal complement inhibitor modulates phagocyte responses by dimerization of convertases. J Immunol. 2010;184:420-5 pubmed publisher..The dimerization site of SCIN is essential for its strong antiphagocytic properties. These studies provide critical insights into the unique immune-evasion strategies used by S. aureus. ..
- Zipfel P, Skerka C. Complement regulators and inhibitory proteins. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009;9:729-40 pubmed publisher..Therefore, insights into the mechanisms of complement regulation are crucial for understanding disease pathology and for enabling the development of diagnostic tools and therapies for complement-associated diseases. ..
- Halili M, Ruiz Gómez G, Le G, Abbenante G, Fairlie D. Complement component C2, inhibiting a latent serine protease in the classical pathway of complement activation. Biochemistry. 2009;48:8466-72 pubmed publisher..These results provide a new avenue and valuable new insights to inhibiting CP complement activation relevant to inflammatory diseases. ..
- Heinen S, Hartmann A, Lauer N, Wiehl U, Dahse H, Schirmer S, et al. Factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR-1) inhibits complement C5 convertase activity and terminal complex formation. Blood. 2009;114:2439-47 pubmed publisher..These findings provide new insights into complement regulation on the cell surface and biosurfaces and likely define the role of CFHR1 in human diseases. ..