transducin

Summary

Summary: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells.

Top Publications

  1. Brockerhoff S, Rieke F, Matthews H, Taylor M, Kennedy B, Ankoudinova I, et al. Light stimulates a transducin-independent increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and suppression of current in cones from the zebrafish mutant nof. J Neurosci. 2003;23:470-80 pubmed
    ..no optokinetic response f(w21) (nof), with a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of cone transducin. Retinal morphology and levels of phototransduction enzymes are normal in nof retinas, but cone transducin is ..
  2. Sokolov M, Strissel K, Leskov I, Michaud N, Govardovskii V, Arshavsky V. Phosducin facilitates light-driven transducin translocation in rod photoreceptors. Evidence from the phosducin knockout mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19149-56 pubmed
    ..function of phosducin, we tested the hypothesis that it regulates the light-driven translocation of G protein transducin from the outer segments of rod photoreceptors to other compartments of the rod cell...
  3. Kerov V, Natochin M, Artemyev N. Interaction of transducin-alpha with LGN, a G-protein modulator expressed in photoreceptor cells. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2005;28:485-95 pubmed
    ..that, following light-dependent translocation from the outer segments, the alpha-subunit of the visual G-protein transducin (Gtalpha) colocalizes with LGN in the basal part of the inner segments...
  4. Kerov V, Chen D, Moussaif M, Chen Y, Chen C, Artemyev N. Transducin activation state controls its light-dependent translocation in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41069-76 pubmed
    Light-dependent redistribution of transducin between the rod outer segments (OS) and other photoreceptor compartments including the inner segments (IS) and synaptic terminals (ST) is recognized as a critical contributing factor to light ..
  5. Nordström K, Larsson T, Larhammar D. Extensive duplications of phototransduction genes in early vertebrate evolution correlate with block (chromosome) duplications. Genomics. 2004;83:852-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gene duplications in early vertebrate evolution probably helped facilitate the specialization of the retina and the subspecialization of different retinal cell types. ..
  6. Hagiwara K, Wada A, Katadae M, Ito M, Ohya Y, Casey P, et al. Analysis of the molecular interaction of the farnesyl moiety of transducin through the use of a photoreactive farnesyl analogue. Biochemistry. 2004;43:300-9 pubmed
    Farnesylation of the gamma-subunit of the retinal G-protein, transducin (Talpha/Tbetagamma), is indispensable for light-initiated signaling in photoreceptor cells...
  7. Xie G, D Antona A, Edwards P, Fransen M, Standfuss J, Schertler G, et al. Preparation of an activated rhodopsin/transducin complex using a constitutively active mutant of rhodopsin. Biochemistry. 2011;50:10399-407 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of rhodopsin and transducin has been the focus of study for more than 30 years, but only recently have efforts to purify an activated complex in detergent solution materialized...
  8. Nikonov S, Lyubarsky A, Fina M, Nikonova E, Sengupta A, Chinniah C, et al. Cones respond to light in the absence of transducin ? subunit. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5182-94 pubmed publisher
    ..respond to light by closing a cGMP-gated channel via a cascade that includes a heterotrimeric G-protein, cone transducin, comprising G?t2, G?3 and G?t2 subunits. The function of G?? in this cascade has not been examined...
  9. Ruiz C, Wray K, Delay E, Margolskee R, Kinnamon S. Behavioral evidence for a role of alpha-gustducin in glutamate taste. Chem Senses. 2003;28:573-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that alpha-gustducin plays a role in glutamate taste. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen F, Ng P, Faull K, Lee R. Cone photoreceptor betagamma-transducin: posttranslational modification and interaction with phosducin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44:4622-9 pubmed
    To characterize the structure of cone betagamma-transducin (Tbeta3gamma8) and its interaction with phosducin (pdc). The Tgamma8 subunit of Tbeta3gamma8 was isolated by column chromatography for peptide mapping with mass spectrometry...
  2. Finger T, Böttger B, Hansen A, Anderson K, Alimohammadi H, Silver W. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8981-6 pubmed
    ..The trigeminal chemoreceptor cells are likely to be remnants of the phylogenetically ancient population of solitary chemoreceptor cells found in the epithelium of all anamniote aquatic vertebrates. ..
  3. Oka Y, Korsching S. Shared and unique G alpha proteins in the zebrafish versus mammalian senses of taste and smell. Chem Senses. 2011;36:357-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show general similarity to the mammalian situation but also clear-cut differences and as such are essential for using the zebrafish model system to study chemosensory perception...
  4. Scheerer P, Heck M, Goede A, Park J, Choe H, Ernst O, et al. Structural and kinetic modeling of an activating helix switch in the rhodopsin-transducin interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Kinetic analysis of transducin (G(t)alphabetagamma) activation shows that an intermediary R*xG(t)alphabetagamma...
  5. Tizzano M, Merigo F, Sbarbati A. Evidence of solitary chemosensory cells in a large mammal: the diffuse chemosensory system in Bos taurus airways. J Anat. 2006;209:333-7 pubmed
    ..The description of areas with a high density of SCCs in bovine bronchi seems to indicate that the view of the DCS as made up of isolated cells totally devoid of ancillary elements is probably an oversimplification. ..
  6. Clack J, Springmeyer M, Clark C, Witzmann F. Transducin subunit stoichiometry and cellular distribution in rod outer segments. Cell Biol Int. 2006;30:829-35 pubmed
    b>Transducin is a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein found in the outer segment of vertebrate retinas that links the photoactivation of rhodopsin (R*) with activation of a robust type VI cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6)...
  7. Gopalakrishna K, Doddapuneni K, Boyd K, Masuho I, Martemyanov K, Artemyev N. Interaction of transducin with uncoordinated 119 protein (UNC119): implications for the model of transducin trafficking in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28954-62 pubmed publisher
    The key visual G protein, transducin undergoes bi-directional translocations between the outer segment (OS) and inner compartments of rod photoreceptors in a light-dependent manner thereby contributing to adaptation and neuroprotection of ..
  8. He W, Danilova V, Zou S, Hellekant G, Max M, Margolskee R, et al. Partial rescue of taste responses of alpha-gustducin null mice by transgenic expression of alpha-transducin. Chem Senses. 2002;27:719-27 pubmed
    ..Alpha-gustducin, a transducin-like G protein alpha-subunit, and rod alpha-transducin are expressed in taste receptor cells...
  9. Artemyev N. Light-dependent compartmentalization of transducin in rod photoreceptors. Mol Neurobiol. 2008;37:44-51 pubmed publisher
    Three major visual signaling proteins, transducin, arrestin, and recoverin undergo bidirectional translocations between the outer segment and inner compartments of rod photoreceptors in a light-dependent manner...
  10. Hass N, Schwarzenbacher K, Breer H. A cluster of gustducin-expressing cells in the mouse stomach associated with two distinct populations of enteroendocrine cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;128:457-71 pubmed
  11. D Antona A, Xie G, Sligar S, Oprian D. Assembly of an activated rhodopsin-transducin complex in nanoscale lipid bilayers. Biochemistry. 2014;53:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..characterization of an activated complex of the visual pigment rhodopsin and its downstream signaling partner transducin have been the subject of intense focus by several research groups...
  12. Perez C, Huang L, Rong M, Kozak J, Preuss A, Zhang H, et al. A transient receptor potential channel expressed in taste receptor cells. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:1169-76 pubmed
    ..Trpm5 may be responsible for capacitative calcium entry in taste receptor cells that respond to bitter and/or sweet compounds. ..
  13. Ueda K, Fujii M, El Sharaby A, Honma S, Wakisaka S. Human blood group antigen H is not the specific marker for type I cells in the taste buds. Arch Histol Cytol. 2003;66:469-73 pubmed
    ..5-immunoreactive cells). ..
  14. Zhang Z, Melia T, He F, Yuan C, McGough A, Schmid M, et al. How a G protein binds a membrane. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33937-45 pubmed
    ..electron crystallography to determine the structure in ice of a helical array of the photoreceptor G protein, transducin, bound to the surface of a tubular lipid bilayer...
  15. Merigo F, Benati D, Tizzano M, Osculati F, Sbarbati A. alpha-Gustducin immunoreactivity in the airways. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;319:211-9 pubmed
    ..This work thus demonstrates that solitary alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive cells exist throughout the airways and represent a specialized cell type with morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of chemoreceptor cells. ..
  16. Krispel C, Sokolov M, Chen Y, Song H, Herrmann R, Arshavsky V, et al. Phosducin regulates the expression of transducin betagamma subunits in rod photoreceptors and does not contribute to phototransduction adaptation. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:303-12 pubmed
    For over a decade, phosducin's interaction with the betagamma subunits of the G protein, transducin, has been thought to contribute to light adaptation by dynamically controlling the amount of transducin heterotrimer available for ..
  17. Kennedy B, Alvarez Y, Brockerhoff S, Stearns G, Sapetto Rebow B, Taylor M, et al. Identification of a zebrafish cone photoreceptor-specific promoter and genetic rescue of achromatopsia in the nof mutant. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:522-9 pubmed
    ..Promoter fragments of the zebrafish cone transducin alpha (TalphaC) gene were subcloned upstream of EGFP and microinjected into one- to two-cell-stage embryos...
  18. Brill E, Malanson K, Radu R, Boukharov N, Wang Z, Chung H, et al. A novel form of transducin-dependent retinal degeneration: accelerated retinal degeneration in the absence of rod transducin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:5445-53 pubmed
    ..Pro347Ser, Lys296Glu, and the triple mutant Val20Gly, Pro23His, Pro27Leu (VPP) caused degeneration by persistent transducin-mediated signaling activity...
  19. Herrmann R, Heck M, Henklein P, Kleuss C, Wray V, Hofmann K, et al. Rhodopsin-transducin coupling: role of the Galpha C-terminus in nucleotide exchange catalysis. Vision Res. 2006;46:4582-93 pubmed
    ..light-activated rhodopsin (R*) catalyzes GDP/GTP exchange in the heterotrimeric G protein (Galphabetagamma) transducin. We recently reported that the catalytic interaction involves two sequential steps...
  20. Geiser A, Sievert M, Guo L, Grant J, Krebs M, Fotiadis D, et al. Bacteriorhodopsin chimeras containing the third cytoplasmic loop of bovine rhodopsin activate transducin for GTP/GDP exchange. Protein Sci. 2006;15:1679-90 pubmed
    ..Rh3C (and Rh3G to a lesser extent) was functional in activation of GTPgamma35S/GDP exchange of the transducin alpha subunit (Galphat) at a level 3.5-fold higher than the basal exchange...
  21. Jastrzebska B, Tsybovsky Y, Palczewski K. Complexes between photoactivated rhodopsin and transducin: progress and questions. Biochem J. 2010;428:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Efficient and reproducible formation of physiologically relevant, conformationally homogenous GPCR-G-protein complexes is a prerequisite for structural studies designed to address these possibilities. ..
  22. Ecker J, Dumitrescu O, Wong K, Alam N, Chen S, LeGates T, et al. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion-cell photoreceptors: cellular diversity and role in pattern vision. Neuron. 2010;67:49-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, nonclassical retinal photoreception occurs within diverse cell types and influences circuits and functions encompassing luminance as well as spatial information. ..
  23. Sbarbati A, Merigo F, Benati D, Tizzano M, Bernardi P, Osculati F. Laryngeal chemosensory clusters. Chem Senses. 2004;29:683-92 pubmed
    ..CCs lack pores and their delimitation from the surrounding epithelium is poorly evident. The demonstration of the existence of CCs strengthens the hypothesis of a phylogenetic link between gustatory and solitary chemosensory cells. ..
  24. Ramadoss S, Li J, Ding X, Al Hezaimi K, Wang C. Transducin ?-like protein 1 recruits nuclear factor ?B to the target gene promoter for transcriptional activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:924-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that transducin ?-like protein 1 (TBL1) controls the expression of NF-?B target genes by directly binding with NF-?B and ..
  25. Cheng H, Khanna H, Oh E, Hicks D, Mitton K, Swaroop A. Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor NR2E3 functions as a transcriptional activator in rod photoreceptors. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1563-75 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that NR2E3 is involved in regulating the expression of rod photoreceptor-specific genes and support its proposed role in transcriptional regulatory network(s) during rod differentiation. ..
  26. Mazzoni M, De Giorgio R, Latorre R, Vallorani C, Bosi P, Trevisi P, et al. Expression and regulation of ?-transducin in the pig gastrointestinal tract. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:466-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether fasting and refeeding affect the expression of the taste signalling molecule, ?-transducin (G?tran ), throughout the pig GI tract and the peptide content of G?tran cells...
  27. Kusakabe Y, Kim M, Miura H, Shindo Y, Ninomiya Y, Hino A. Regional expression patterns of T1r family in the mouse tongue. Chem Senses. 2005;30 Suppl 1:i23-4 pubmed
  28. McKenzie O, Ponte I, Mangelsdorf M, Finnis M, Colasante G, Shoubridge C, et al. Aristaless-related homeobox gene, the gene responsible for West syndrome and related disorders, is a Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split dependent transcriptional repressor. Neuroscience. 2007;146:236-47 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that the human ARX protein is a potent transcriptional repressor, which binds to Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE) co-factor proteins and the TLE1 in particular through its octapeptide (Engrailed ..
  29. Daniele L, Lillo C, Lyubarsky A, Nikonov S, Philp N, Mears A, et al. Cone-like morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological features of the photoreceptors of the Nrl knockout mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2156-67 pubmed
    ..Nrl(-/-) photoreceptors express the mouse UV cone pigment, cone transducin, and cone arrestin in amounts expected, given the relative size and density of cones in the two retinas...
  30. Morizumi T, Imai H, Shichida Y. Direct observation of the complex formation of GDP-bound transducin with the rhodopsin intermediate having a visible absorption maximum in rod outer segment membranes. Biochemistry. 2005;44:9936-43 pubmed
    ..that is present in rod photoreceptor cells, inducing a GDP-GTP exchange reaction on the retinal G-protein transducin (Gt) upon light absorption...
  31. Takeda M, Suzuki Y, Obara N, Uchida N, Kawakoshi K. Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells. J Comp Neurol. 2004;479:94-102 pubmed
    ..We conclude that GDNF in the type-II cells may exert trophic actions on type-I, -II, and -III taste bud cells by binding to their GFR alpha 1 receptors. ..
  32. Znoiko S, Rohrer B, Lu K, Lohr H, Crouch R, Ma J. Downregulation of cone-specific gene expression and degeneration of cone photoreceptors in the Rpe65-/- mouse at early ages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:1473-9 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the cone opsin changes, the cone transducin alpha-subunit mRNA decreased at both 4 and 8 weeks of age, whereas again the rod transducin alpha-subunit did ..
  33. Giessl A, Pulvermüller A, Trojan P, Park J, Choe H, Ernst O, et al. Differential expression and interaction with the visual G-protein transducin of centrin isoforms in mammalian photoreceptor cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51472-81 pubmed
    ..Massive translocation of the visual G-protein transducin, Gt, between subcellular compartments contributes to long term adaptation of photoreceptor cells...
  34. Sutherland K, Young R, Cooper N, Horowitz M, Blackshaw L. Phenotypic characterization of taste cells of the mouse small intestine. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G1420-8 pubmed
    ..Intestinal taste modalities may be signaled by these enteroendocrine cells via the release of 5-HT, GLP-1, or coexpressed mediators or by brush cells via a nonnitrergic mediator in distinct regions of the intestine. ..
  35. Chen C. The vertebrate phototransduction cascade: amplification and termination mechanisms. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;154:101-21 pubmed
    ..The application of reverse genetic techniques has strengthened many historic findings and helped to describe this pathway at greater molecular details. However, many important questions remain to be answered. ..
  36. Jastrzebska B, Ringler P, Lodowski D, Moiseenkova Bell V, Golczak M, Müller S, et al. Rhodopsin-transducin heteropentamer: three-dimensional structure and biochemical characterization. J Struct Biol. 2011;176:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho(?) binds the heterotrimeric G protein, transducin (G(t)) inducing GDP to GTP exchange and G(t) dissociation...
  37. Chen C, Woodruff M, Chen F, Shim H, Cilluffo M, Fain G. Replacing the rod with the cone transducin subunit decreases sensitivity and accelerates response decay. J Physiol. 2010;588:3231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..They also indicate more generally that the molecular nature of G-protein alpha may play an important role in the kinetics of G-protein cascades for metabotropic receptors throughout the body. ..
  38. Moran A, Al Rammahi M, Arora D, Batchelor D, Coulter E, Daly K, et al. Expression of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is enhanced by supplementation of the diet of weaning piglets with artificial sweeteners. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:637-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the mechanism(s) involved in sweetener up-regulation of SGLT1 will allow the identification of nutritional targets with implications for the prevention of weaning-related malabsorption. ..
  39. Lobanova E, Herrmann R, Finkelstein S, Reidel B, Skiba N, Deng W, et al. Mechanistic basis for the failure of cone transducin to translocate: why cones are never blinded by light. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6815-24 pubmed publisher
    ..One such mechanism involves massive translocation of signaling proteins, including the G-protein transducin, into and out of the light-sensitive photoreceptor outer segment compartment...
  40. Michaelides M, Aligianis I, Holder G, Simunovic M, Mollon J, Maher E, et al. Cone dystrophy phenotype associated with a frameshift mutation (M280fsX291) in the alpha-subunit of cone specific transducin (GNAT2). Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:1317-20 pubmed
    ..To describe the phenotype of a three generation consanguineous Pakistani family containing six individuals with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy caused by mutation in GNAT2...
  41. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Song H, Tsang S, Chen C, Sokolov M, et al. Transducin translocation in rods is triggered by saturation of the GTPase-activating complex. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1151-60 pubmed
    Light causes massive translocation of G-protein transducin from the light-sensitive outer segment compartment of the rod photoreceptor cell...
  42. Kokrashvili Z, Mosinger B, Margolskee R. Taste signaling elements expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells regulate nutrient-responsive secretion of gut hormones. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:822S-825S pubmed publisher
    ..Modulating hormone secretion from gut "taste cells" may provide novel treatments for obesity, diabetes, and malabsorption syndromes. ..
  43. Stone L, Barrows J, Finger T, Kinnamon S. Expression of T1Rs and gustducin in palatal taste buds of mice. Chem Senses. 2007;32:255-62 pubmed
    ..T1R1-positive palate taste cells coexpress gustducin about half the time, suggesting that other G proteins may contribute to the transduction of umami stimuli in this taste field. ..
  44. Shah A, Ben Shahar Y, Moninger T, Kline J, Welsh M. Motile cilia of human airway epithelia are chemosensory. Science. 2009;325:1131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, like primary cilia, classical motile cilia also contain sensors to detect the external environment. ..
  45. Jastrzebska B, Goc A, Golczak M, Palczewski K. Phospholipids are needed for the proper formation, stability, and function of the photoactivated rhodopsin-transducin complex. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..complexes between the purified prototypical GPCR, rhodopsin (Rho), and the rod cell-specific G protein, transducin (Gt)...
  46. Lobanova E, Finkelstein S, Herrmann R, Chen Y, Kessler C, Michaud N, et al. Transducin gamma-subunit sets expression levels of alpha- and beta-subunits and is crucial for rod viability. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3510-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Transducin is a prototypic heterotrimeric G-protein mediating visual signaling in vertebrate photoreceptor cells...
  47. Chen Y, Moiseyev G, Takahashi Y, Ma J. RPE65 gene delivery restores isomerohydrolase activity and prevents early cone loss in Rpe65-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:1177-84 pubmed
    ..RPE65 gene delivery generates isomerohydrolase activity and restores retinoid profile in Rpe65-/- mice. Regeneration of 11-cis retinal is essential for survival of cone photoreceptors. ..
  48. Kassai H, Aiba A, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Katsuki M, Xiong W, et al. Farnesylation of retinal transducin underlies its translocation during light adaptation. Neuron. 2005;47:529-39 pubmed
    ..The gamma subunit of retinal transducin (Talpha/Tbetagamma) is selectively farnesylated, and the farnesylation is required for light signaling mediated ..
  49. Matsumura S, Eguchi A, Mizushige T, Kitabayashi N, Tsuzuki S, Inoue K, et al. Colocalization of GPR120 with phospholipase-Cbeta2 and alpha-gustducin in the taste bud cells in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that GPR120 is mainly expressed in the type II taste cells and might function as a sensor for dietary fat. ..
  50. Janssen S, Laermans J, Verhulst P, Thijs T, Tack J, Depoortere I. Bitter taste receptors and ?-gustducin regulate the secretion of ghrelin with functional effects on food intake and gastric emptying. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2094-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Bitter taste receptors (T2R) and the gustatory G proteins, ?-gustducin (gust) and ?-transducin, are expressed in the gut and are involved in the chemosensation of nutrients...
  51. Zhang H, Huang W, Zhang H, Zhu X, Craft C, Baehr W, et al. Light-dependent redistribution of visual arrestins and transducin subunits in mice with defective phototransduction. Mol Vis. 2003;9:231-7 pubmed
    ..Upon illumination, rod and cone arrestins (Arr and cArr) translocate from the inner to the outer segments while transducin subunits (Talpha, Tbetagamma) translocate in the opposite direction...
  52. Sbarbati A, Merigo F, Benati D, Tizzano M, Bernardi P, Crescimanno C, et al. Identification and characterization of a specific sensory epithelium in the rat larynx. J Comp Neurol. 2004;475:188-201 pubmed
    ..The immunocytochemical and ultrastructural data suggested that SLSE is a chemoreceptor located in an optimal position for detecting substances entering the larynx from the pharynx or the trachea. ..
  53. Tian M, Wang W, Delimont D, Cheung L, Zallocchi M, Cosgrove D, et al. Photoreceptors in whirler mice show defective transducin translocation and are susceptible to short-term light/dark changes-induced degeneration. Exp Eye Res. 2014;118:145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that, in whirler mouse photoreceptors, the light-activated rod transducin translocation is delayed and its activation threshold is shifted to a higher level...