peptide elongation factor 1


Summary: Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.

Top Publications

  1. Shen X, Banga S, Liu Y, Xu L, Gao P, Shamovsky I, et al. Targeting eEF1A by a Legionella pneumophila effector leads to inhibition of protein synthesis and induction of host stress response. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:911-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, similar response occurred in cells transiently transfected to express SidI. Thus, inhibition of host protein synthesis by specific effectors contributes to the induction of stress response in L. pneumophila-infected cells. ..
  2. Cao H, Zhu Q, Huang J, Li B, Zhang S, Yao W, et al. Regulation and functional role of eEF1A2 in pancreatic carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:11-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus suggest that eEF1A2 might play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly by acting as a tumour oncogene. ..
  3. Pittman Y, Kandl K, Lewis M, Valente L, Kinzy T. Coordination of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) function in actin organization and translation elongation by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eEF1Balpha. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The consequences of the overlapping functions in this eEF1A domain and its unique differences from the bacterial homologs provide a novel function for eEF1Balpha to balance the dual roles in actin bundling and protein synthesis. ..
  4. Li Z, Qi C, Shin D, Zingone A, Newbery H, Kovalchuk A, et al. Eef1a2 promotes cell growth, inhibits apoptosis and activates JAK/STAT and AKT signaling in mouse plasmacytomas. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10755 pubmed publisher
    ..EEF1A2 may play contribute to the induction or progression of some PCT and a small percentage of MM. Eef1a2 could also prove to be a useful new marker for a subset of MM and, ultimately, a possible target for therapy. ..
  5. Hornáková D, Matousková P, Kindl J, Valterova I, Pichova I. Selection of reference genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in tissues from Bombus terrestris and Bombus lucorum of different ages. Anal Biochem. 2010;397:118-20 pubmed publisher
    ..terrestris. The most stable genes for the labial gland and fat body of B. lucorum were found to be elongation factor 1alpha (EEF1A) and PLA2. ..
  6. Belyi Y, Stahl M, Sovkova I, Kaden P, Luy B, Aktories K. Region of elongation factor 1A1 involved in substrate recognition by Legionella pneumophila glucosyltransferase Lgt1: identification of Lgt1 as a retaining glucosyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..NMR studies with the gluco syl a ted eEF1A-derived decapeptide identified an alpha-anomeric structure of the glucose-serine 53 bond and characterize Lgt1 as a retaining glucosyltransferase. ..
  7. Signorell A, Jelk J, Rauch M, Bütikofer P. Phosphatidylethanolamine is the precursor of the ethanolamine phosphoglycerol moiety bound to eukaryotic elongation factor 1A. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20320-9 pubmed publisher
    ..brucei procyclic forms and, concomitantly, in a block in glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment to procyclins and ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol modification of eukaryotic elongation factor 1A...
  8. Sikora D, Greco Stewart V, Miron P, Pelchat M. The hepatitis delta virus RNA genome interacts with eEF1A1, p54(nrb), hnRNP-L, GAPDH and ASF/SF2. Virology. 2009;390:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery that HDV RNA associates with RNA-processing pathways and translation machinery during its replication provides new insights into HDV biology and its pathogenicity...
  9. Morita K, Bunai F, Numata O. Roles of three domains of Tetrahymena eEF1A in bundling F-actin. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:22-9 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Liu J, Jones K, Sumer H, Verma P. Stable transgene expression in human embryonic stem cells after simple chemical transfection. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Following injection into immunodeficient mice, the transfected cell lines showed robust formation of teratomas with cell types representative of the three germ layers. ..
  2. Alméciga Díaz C, Rueda Paramo M, Espejo A, Echeverri O, Montaño A, Tomatsu S, et al. Effect of elongation factor 1alpha promoter and SUMF1 over in vitro expression of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the advantage of the SUMF1 coexpression on GALNS activity and indicate a considerable effect on the expression stability using EF1alpha promoter compared to CMV. ..
  3. Sun Y, Wong N, Guan Y, Salamanca C, Cheng J, Lee J, et al. The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A2 induces neoplastic properties and mediates tumorigenic effects of ZNF217 in precursor cells of human ovarian carcinomas. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define neoplastic properties that are caused by eEF1A2 in nontumorigenic ovarian cancer precursor cells, and suggest that eEF1A2 plays a role in mediating ZNF217-induced neoplastic progression. ..
  4. Dub A, Bisaillon M, Perreault J. Identification of proteins from prunus persica that interact with peach latent mosaic viroid. J Virol. 2009;83:12057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed...
  5. Jeganathan S, Morrow A, Amiri A, Lee J. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 cooperates with phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III beta to stimulate production of filopodia through increased phosphatidylinositol-4,5 bisphosphate generation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4549-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests an important role for both eEF1A2 and PI4KIIIbeta in the control of PI(4,5)P(2) signaling and actin remodeling. ..
  6. Belyi Y, Tabakova I, Stahl M, Aktories K. Lgt: a family of cytotoxic glucosyltransferases produced by Legionella pneumophila. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3026-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the data indicate that members of the L. pneumophila glucosyltransferase family are differentially regulated, affect protein synthesis of host cells, and represent potential virulence factors of Legionella...
  7. Yamaji Y, Sakurai K, Hamada K, Komatsu K, Ozeki J, Yoshida A, et al. Significance of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A in tobacco mosaic virus infection. Arch Virol. 2010;155:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The translation activity of the eEF1A-silenced Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was not severely affected. Collectively, these results suggest an essential role of eEF1A in TMV infection. ..
  8. Greganova E, Heller M, B tikofer P. A structural domain mediates attachment of ethanolamine phosphoglycerol to eukaryotic elongation factor 1A in Trypanosoma brucei. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9486 pubmed publisher
    ..Using T. brucei as a model organism, we show that amino acid substitutions around the modification site are not critical for EPG attachment and that a truncated version of domain III of eEF1A is sufficient to mediate EPG addition...
  9. Lee M, Surh Y. eEF1A2 as a putative oncogene. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This abnormal expression correlates with a poor prognosis. Since this discovery, there have been several reports suggesting eEF1A2 as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. This review highlights the oncogenic potential of eEF1A2. ..
  10. Wang R, Liang J, Jiang H, Qin L, Yang H. Promoter-dependent EGFP expression during embryonic stem cell propagation and differentiation. Stem Cells Dev. 2008;17:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results extend previous observations for the activities of these promoters in mES cells and provide new information for choosing appropriate promoters to facilitate genetic modification of mES cells. ..
  11. Visweswaraiah J, Lageix S, Castilho B, Izotova L, Kinzy T, Hinnebusch A, et al. Evidence that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) binds the Gcn2 protein C terminus and inhibits Gcn2 activity. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate eEF1A in the intricate regulation of Gcn2 and amino acid homeostasis. ..
  12. Kobayashi K, Kikuno I, Kuroha K, Saito K, Ito K, Ishitani R, et al. Structural basis for mRNA surveillance by archaeal Pelota and GTP-bound EF1? complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17575-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the molecular mimicry of tRNA in the distorted "A/T state" conformation by Pelota enables the complex to efficiently detect and enter the empty A site of the stalled ribosome. ..
  13. Aurelle D, Ledoux J, Rocher C, Borsa P, Chenuil A, Féral J. Phylogeography of the red coral (Corallium rubrum): inferences on the evolutionary history of a temperate gorgonian. Genetica. 2011;139:855-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that recent Quaternary environmental fluctuations had a limited impact on the genetic structure of C. rubrum. ..
  14. Luo H, Chen S, Wan H, Chen F, Gu C, Liu Z. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily. Anal Biochem. 2010;404:100-2 pubmed publisher
    ..ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11...
  15. Marshall W, Celio G, McLaughlin D, Berbee M. Multiple isolations of a culturable, motile Ichthyosporean (Mesomycetozoa, Opisthokonta), Creolimax fragrantissima n. gen., n. sp., from marine invertebrate digestive tracts. Protist. 2008;159:415-33 pubmed publisher
    ..fragrantissima" can be isolated regularly and repeatedly from nature and then grown easily through cycles of asexual reproduction, it has the potential to serve as a model organism for further research into marine ichthyosporeans. ..
  16. Soares D, Barlow P, Newbery H, Porteous D, Abbott C. Structural models of human eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 reveal two distinct surface clusters of sequence variation and potential differences in phosphorylation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6315 pubmed publisher
    ..The predicted variant-specific phosphorylation sites also provide a basis for experimental verification by mutagenesis. The models provide a structural framework for interpretation of the resulting functional analysis. ..
  17. O Donnell K, Sutton D, Rinaldi M, Sarver B, Balajee S, Schroers H, et al. Internet-accessible DNA sequence database for identifying fusaria from human and animal infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3708-18 pubmed publisher
  18. Jiang H, Schiffer E, Song Z, Wang J, Zurbig P, Thedieck K, et al. Proteins induced by telomere dysfunction and DNA damage represent biomarkers of human aging and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the concept that telomere dysfunction and DNA damage are interconnected pathways that are activated during human aging and disease. ..
  19. Kobayashi Y, Yonehara S. Novel cell death by downregulation of eEF1A1 expression in tetraploids. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the novel cell death machinery should help to eliminate abnormal tetraploid cells and inhibit tumorigenesis. ..
  20. Li Z, Pogany J, Panavas T, Xu K, Esposito A, Kinzy T, et al. Translation elongation factor 1A is a component of the tombusvirus replicase complex and affects the stability of the p33 replication co-factor. Virology. 2009;385:245-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate binding of eEF1A to the p33 replication protein and a known cis-acting element at the 3' end of TBSV RNA. Using a functional mutant of eEF1A, we provide evidence on the involvement of eEF1A in TBSV replication...
  21. Zhou S, Mody D, DeRavin S, Hauer J, Lu T, Ma Z, et al. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy that does not activate LMO2 expression in human T cells. Blood. 2010;116:900-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the CL20i4-EF1alpha-hgamma(c)OPT vector may be suitable for testing in a clinical trial based on these preclinical demonstrations of efficacy and safety. ..
  22. Saito K, Kobayashi K, Wada M, Kikuno I, Takusagawa A, Mochizuki M, et al. Omnipotent role of archaeal elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1? in translational elongation and termination, and quality control of protein synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19242-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Løvdal T, Lillo C. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in tomato subjected to nitrogen, cold, and light stress. Anal Biochem. 2009;387:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the results highlight the need for normalizing gene expression in tomato using the geometric average of multiple carefully selected reference genes. ..
  24. Marko P, Hoffman J, Emme S, McGovern T, Keever C, Cox L. The 'Expansion-Contraction' model of Pleistocene biogeography: rocky shores suffer a sea change?. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:146-69 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the LGM did not extirpate the majority of species in the northeastern Pacific; instead, regional persistence during the LGM appears a common biogeographic history for rocky-shore organisms in this region...
  25. O Donnell K, Gueidan C, Sink S, Johnston P, Crous P, Glenn A, et al. A two-locus DNA sequence database for typing plant and human pathogens within the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. Fungal Genet Biol. 2009;46:936-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We also evaluated enniatin, fumonisin and moniliformin mycotoxin production in vitro within a phylogenetic framework. ..
  26. Fan Y, Schlierf M, Gaspar A, Dreux C, Kpebe A, Chaney L, et al. Drosophila translational elongation factor-1gamma is modified in response to DOA kinase activity and is essential for cellular viability. Genetics. 2010;184:141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that EF1gamma functions in vital cellular processes in addition to translational elongation and is a LAMMER kinase substrate in vivo. ..
  27. Kido T, Lau Y. The human Y-encoded testis-specific protein interacts functionally with eukaryotic translation elongation factor eEF1A, a putative oncoprotein. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1573-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that TSPY could exert its oncogenic function(s) by interacting with eEF1As and stimulating gene expression via its enhancements in protein synthesis and gene transcription. ..
  28. Thivierge K, Cotton S, Dufresne P, Mathieu I, Beauchemin C, Ide C, et al. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A interacts with Turnip mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and VPg-Pro in virus-induced vesicles. Virology. 2008;377:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TuMV-induced membrane vesicles host at least three plant translation factors in addition to the viral replication proteins...
  29. Majerowicz D, Alves Bezerra M, Logullo R, Fonseca de Souza A, Meyer Fernandes J, Braz G, et al. Looking for reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR experiments in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, validation of candidate genes to be taken as references is important when new experimental conditions are tested to avoid incorrect data interpretation. ..
  30. Kim J, Namkung W, Yoon J, Jo M, Lee S, Kim K, et al. The role of translation elongation factor eEF1A in intracellular alkalinization-induced tumor cell growth. Lab Invest. 2009;89:867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The above findings suggest that an increase in free-form eEF1A under alkaline conditions plays a critical role in alkalinization-induced cell growth. ..
  31. Greganova E, Altmann M, Bütikofer P. Unique modifications of translation elongation factors. FEBS J. 2011;278:2613-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the biosynthesis, attachment and physiological roles of these unique protein modifications and discuss common and separate features of the target proteins, which represent essential proteins in all organisms. ..
  32. Zhu G, Yan W, He H, Bi X, Han Z, Dai Q, et al. Inhibition of proliferation, invasion, and migration of prostate cancer cells by downregulating elongation factor-1alpha expression. Mol Med. 2009;15:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that EF-1alpha affects multiple processes involved in tumor progression, and identify EF-1alpha as a potential therapeutic target. ..
  33. Pecorari L, Marin O, Silvestri C, Candini O, Rossi E, Guerzoni C, et al. Elongation Factor 1 alpha interacts with phospho-Akt in breast cancer cells and regulates their proliferation, survival and motility. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:58 pubmed publisher
    ..Since EF1alpha is often overexpressed in breast cancer, the consequences of EF1alpha increased levels for proliferation, survival and invasion will likely depend on the relative concentration of Akt1 and Akt2. ..
  34. Fernandez P, Di Rienzo J, Moschen S, Dosio G, Aguirrezábal L, Hopp H, et al. Comparison of predictive methods and biological validation for qPCR reference genes in sunflower leaf senescence transcript analysis. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:63-74 pubmed publisher
  35. Khacho M, Mekhail K, Pilon Larose K, Pause A, Cote J, Lee S. eEF1A is a novel component of the mammalian nuclear protein export machinery. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5296-308 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also provide a link between the translational apparatus and subcellular trafficking machinery demonstrating that these two central pathways in basic metabolism can act cooperatively. ..
  36. Yan G, You B, Chen S, Liao J, Sun J. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha downregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA stability via translation elongation factor 1-alpha 1. Circ Res. 2008;103:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that eEF1A1 is a novel eNOS 3'-UTR binding protein that plays a critical role in mediating TNF-alpha-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA stability. ..
  37. Pinke D, Lee J. The lipid kinase PI4KIII? and the eEF1A2 oncogene co-operate to disrupt three-dimensional in vitro acinar morphogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work shows that PI4KIII?, eEF1A2 and PI(4)P likely play an important role in mammary neoplasia and acinar development. ..
  38. Sivan G, Aviner R, Elroy Stein O. Mitotic modulation of translation elongation factor 1 leads to hindered tRNA delivery to ribosomes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27927-35 pubmed publisher
  39. Kamikawa R, Inagaki Y, Sako Y. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6965-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1alpha...
  40. Lee M, Choi B, Kundu J, Shin Y, Na H, Surh Y. Resveratrol suppresses growth of human ovarian cancer cells in culture and in a murine xenograft model: eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 as a potential target. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7449-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, eEF1A2 may be considered as a potential molecular target for the antiproliferative effects of resveratrol in PA-1 ovarian cancer cells. ..
  41. Matejusova I, McKay P, Bland F, Snow M. Application of a sensitive, specific and controlled real-time PCR assay to surveillance indicates a low prevalence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild herring, Clupea harengus L., in Scottish waters. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:841-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of migratory species such as herring as a reservoir species for VHSV, with the potential to translocate virus genotypes between geographical areas, is discussed...
  42. O Donnell K, Sutton D, Fothergill A, McCarthy D, Rinaldi M, Brandt M, et al. Molecular phylogenetic diversity, multilocus haplotype nomenclature, and in vitro antifungal resistance within the Fusarium solani species complex. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2477-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro activities of 10 antifungals tested against 19 isolates representing 18 species that span the breadth of the FSSC phylogeny show that members of this complex are broadly resistant to these drugs. ..
  43. Kurtzman C, Robnett C, Basehoar Powers E. Phylogenetic relationships among species of Pichia, Issatchenkia and Williopsis determined from multigene sequence analysis, and the proposal of Barnettozyma gen. nov., Lindnera gen. nov. and Wickerhamomyces gen. nov. FEMS Yeast Res. 2008;8:939-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Lineages previously classified as varieties of Pichia kluyveri, 'Issatchenkia'scutulata, Starmera amethionina and 'Williopsis'saturnus are elevated to species rank based on sequence comparisons...
  44. Gile G, Faktorová D, Castlejohn C, Burger G, Lang B, Farmer M, et al. Distribution and phylogeny of EFL and EF-1alpha in Euglenozoa suggest ancestral co-occurrence followed by differential loss. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5162 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents the strongest phylogenetic evidence to date that differential loss has contributed to the complex distribution of EFL and EF-1alpha. ..
  45. Maroufi A, Van Bockstaele E, De Loose M. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in chicory (Cichorium intybus) using quantitative real-time PCR. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:15 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the most stable reference genes such as ACT and EF allows accurate normalisation of gene expression in chicory leaf and root tissues. ..
  46. Esposito A, Kinzy T. The eukaryotic translation elongation Factor 1Bgamma has a non-guanine nucleotide exchange factor role in protein metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37995-8004 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, eEF1B? co-immunoprecipitates with an essential component of ER-Golgi transport vesicles. Taken together, these results support a broader protein metabolism role for eEF1B?. ..
  47. Koiwai K, Maezawa S, Hayano T, Iitsuka M, Koiwai O. BPOZ-2 directly binds to eEF1A1 to promote eEF1A1 ubiquitylation and degradation and prevent translation. Genes Cells. 2008;13:593-607 pubmed publisher
    ..BPOZ-2 promoted eEF1A1 ubiquitylation and degradation, suggesting that eEF1A1 is a substrate of BPOZ-2. BPOZ-2 inhibited GTP binding to eEF1A1 and prevented translation in in vitro translation assay using rabbit reticulocytes. ..
  48. Hurtado Guerrero R, Zusman T, Pathak S, Ibrahim A, Shepherd S, Prescott A, et al. Molecular mechanism of elongation factor 1A inhibition by a Legionella pneumophila glycosyltransferase. Biochem J. 2010;426:281-92 pubmed publisher
  49. Lipson R, Webb K, Clarke S. Two novel methyltransferases acting upon eukaryotic elongation factor 1A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;500:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that YHL039W (now designated EFM1 for elongation factor methyltransferase 1) and YIL064W/SEE1 encode distinct eEF1A methyltransferases that respectively monomethylate and dimethylate this protein at lysine residues. ..
  50. Kristensen R, Torp M, Kosiak B, Holst Jensen A. Phylogeny and toxigenic potential is correlated in Fusarium species as revealed by partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences. Mycol Res. 2005;109:173-86 pubmed
    ..Implications for a better classification of Fusarium are discussed and highlighted. ..
  51. Pinke D, Kalloger S, Francetic T, Huntsman D, Lee J. The prognostic significance of elongation factor eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108:561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..eEF1A2 is highly expressed in ovarian carcinomas. Its expression enhances cell growth in vitro, and eEF1A2 expression is likely to be a useful ovarian cancer prognostic factor in ovarian cancer patients with serous tumours. ..
  52. Gile G, Patron N, Keeling P. EFL GTPase in cryptomonads and the distribution of EFL and EF-1alpha in chromalveolates. Protist. 2006;157:435-44 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates EFL likely arose early within each subgroup where it is found, but suggests it may have originated multiple times within chromalveolates as a whole. ..
  53. Kim S, Kellner J, Lee C, Coulombe P. Interaction between the keratin cytoskeleton and eEF1Bgamma affects protein synthesis in epithelial cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:982-3 pubmed
    ..These findings extend the emerging relationship between keratin proteins and the translational machinery. ..