gtp binding proteins


Summary: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.

Top Publications

  1. Palomino Morales R, Oliver J, Gomez Garcia M, Lopez Nevot M, Rodrigo L, Nieto A, et al. Association of ATG16L1 and IRGM genes polymorphisms with inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis approach. Genes Immun. 2009;10:356-64 pubmed publisher
    ..014, pooled OR=1.13). In conclusion, our results confirm the ATG16L1 rs2241880 and IRGM rs13361189 and rs4958847 polymorphisms as important markers for CD susceptibility and indicate that these variants are also associated with UC. ..
  2. Kowluru A. Small G proteins in islet beta-cell function. Endocr Rev. 2010;31:52-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential significance of these experimental observations from multiple laboratories and possible avenues for future research in this area of islet research are highlighted. ..
  3. Intemann C, Thye T, Niemann S, Browne E, Amanua Chinbuah M, Enimil A, et al. Autophagy gene variant IRGM -261T contributes to protection from tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not by M. africanum strains. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000577 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, they raise the possibility that the increased frequency of the IRGM -261TT genotype may have contributed to the establishment of M. africanum as a pathogen in the West African population. ..
  4. Zick M, Duvezin Caubet S, Schäfer A, Vogel F, Neupert W, Reichert A. Distinct roles of the two isoforms of the dynamin-like GTPase Mgm1 in mitochondrial fusion. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A functional GTPase domain is required only in s-Mgm1 but not in l-Mgm1. We propose that l-Mgm1 acts primarily as an anchor in the inner membrane that in concert with the GTPase activity of s-Mgm1 mediates the fusion of inner membranes. ..
  5. Henry S, Traver M, Daniell X, Indaram M, Oliver T, Taylor G. Regulation of macrophage motility by Irgm1. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Irgm1 likely controls macrophage motility by regulating the positioning of specific GKS IRG proteins to the plasma membrane, which in turn, modulate cytoskeletal remodeling and membrane dynamics. ..
  6. Al Zeer M, Al Younes H, Braun P, Zerrahn J, Meyer T. IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4588 pubmed publisher
  7. Mohl D, Huddleston M, Collingwood T, Annan R, Deshaies R. Dbf2-Mob1 drives relocalization of protein phosphatase Cdc14 to the cytoplasm during exit from mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:527-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define a mechanism by which the MEN promotes exit from mitosis. ..
  8. Zhao Y, Ferguson D, Wilson D, Howard J, Sibley L, Yap G. Virulent Toxoplasma gondii evade immunity-related GTPase-mediated parasite vacuole disruption within primed macrophages. J Immunol. 2009;182:3775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results pinpoint evasion of vacuolar disruption by IRG proteins as a new determinant of pathogen virulence. ..
  9. Ito H, Atsuzawa K, Morishita R, Usuda N, Sudo K, Iwamoto I, et al. Sept8 controls the binding of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 to synaptophysin. J Neurochem. 2009;108:867-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Sept8 may participate in the process of the SNARE complex formation and subsequent neurotransmitter release. ..

More Information


  1. Intemann C, Thye T, Sievertsen J, Owusu Dabo E, Horstmann R, Meyer C. Genotyping of IRGM tetranucleotide promoter oligorepeats by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Biotechniques. 2009;46:58-60 pubmed
    ..The protocol was evaluated and applied to the typing of a tetranucleotide promoter repeat of the human gene encoding the immunity-related GTPase family, M (IRGM) molecule in >2000 individuals from Ghana, West Africa. ..
  2. Weersma R, Stokkers P, Cleynen I, Wolfkamp S, Henckaerts L, Schreiber S, et al. Confirmation of multiple Crohn's disease susceptibility loci in a large Dutch-Belgian cohort. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:630-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a genetic risk profile can be constructed that is clinically useful and that can aid in making treatment decisions. ..
  3. Yao X, Vélez Ruiz G, Whorton M, Rasmussen S, DeVree B, Deupi X, et al. The effect of ligand efficacy on the formation and stability of a GPCR-G protein complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insights into G protein-induced conformational changes in the beta(2)AR and the structural basis for ligand efficacy. ..
  4. Henry S, Daniell X, Burroughs A, Indaram M, Howell D, Coers J, et al. Balance of Irgm protein activities determines IFN-gamma-induced host defense. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:877-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Vöpel T, Kunzelmann S, Herrmann C. Nucleotide dependent cysteine reactivity of hGBP1 uncovers a domain movement during GTP hydrolysis. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1923-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that nucleotide hydrolysis induces a domain movement in hGBP1, which we suggest enables further assembly of the protein. ..
  6. Mushinski J, Nguyen P, Stevens L, Khanna C, Lee S, Chung E, et al. Inhibition of tumor cell motility by the interferon-inducible GTPase MxA. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that MxA inhibits tumor cell motility and invasion, and that MxA expression can be induced by small molecules, potentially offering a new approach to the prevention and treatment of metastasis. ..
  7. Bekpen C, Marques Bonet T, Alkan C, Antonacci F, Leogrande M, Ventura M, et al. Death and resurrection of the human IRGM gene. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000403 pubmed publisher
    ..Such dynamism in structure and evolution may be critical for a gene family locked in an arms race with an ever-changing repertoire of intracellular parasites...
  8. Persano L, Moserle L, Esposito G, Bronte V, Barbieri V, Iafrate M, et al. Interferon-alpha counteracts the angiogenic switch and reduces tumor cell proliferation in a spontaneous model of prostatic cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the angiogenic switch also marks progression of human prostatic cancer, these results highlight the potential of angiogenesis inhibitors for the development of chemoprevention strategies in high-risk individuals. ..
  9. Gasper R, Meyer S, Gotthardt K, Sirajuddin M, Wittinghofer A. It takes two to tango: regulation of G proteins by dimerization. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009;10:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the juxtaposition of the G domains of two monomers across the GTP-binding sites activates the biological function of these proteins and the GTPase reaction...
  10. Kiely P, Baillie G, Barrett R, Buckley D, Adams D, Houslay M, et al. Phosphorylation of RACK1 on tyrosine 52 by c-Abl is required for insulin-like growth factor I-mediated regulation of focal adhesion kinase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20263-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that FAK association with RACK1 is regulated by phosphorylation of Tyr-52. Our data reveal a novel mechanism whereby IGF-I and c-Abl control RACK1 association with FAK to facilitate adhesion signaling. ..
  11. Li Y, Lee P, Kellner E, Paulus M, Switanek J, Xu Y, et al. Monocyte surface expression of Fcgamma receptor RI (CD64), a biomarker reflecting type-I interferon levels in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R90 pubmed publisher
    ..Flow-cytometry analysis of CD64 expression on circulating monocytes is a convenient and rapid approach for estimating IFN-I levels in SLE patients. ..
  12. Shi Y, Wang L, Huang J, Gou B, Zhang T, Wang K. Lanthanum suppresses osteoblastic differentiation via pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein signaling in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:1184-91 pubmed publisher
  13. Thitithanyanont A, Engering A, Uiprasertkul M, Ekchariyawat P, Wiboon ut S, Kraivong R, et al. Antiviral immune responses in H5N1-infected human lung tissue and possible mechanisms underlying the hyperproduction of interferon-inducible protein IP-10. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings strongly suggest that both the H5N1 virus and the locally produced antiviral cytokines; IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha may have an important role in inducing IP-10 hyperresponse, leading to inflammatory damage in infected lung. ..
  14. Tatsukawa H, Kojima S. Recent advances in understanding the roles of transglutaminase 2 in alcoholic steatohepatitis. Cell Biol Int. 2010;34:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..has reported that down-regulation of c-Met is associated with liver fibrosis. In the present review article, we introduce these recent advances in knowledge with regard to the the roles of TG2 in alcoholic steatohepatitis. ..
  15. Garcia Fernandez M, Kissel H, Brown S, Gorenc T, Schile A, Rafii S, et al. Sept4/ARTS is required for stem cell apoptosis and tumor suppression. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes are partially suppressed by inactivation of XIAP. Our results suggest that apoptosis plays an important role as a frontline defense against cancer by restricting the number of normal stem cells. ..
  16. Tóth B, Sarang Z, Vereb G, Zhang A, Tanaka S, Melino G, et al. Over-expression of integrin beta3 can partially overcome the defect of integrin beta3 signaling in transglutaminase 2 null macrophages. Immunol Lett. 2009;126:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a proof for the concept that the function of TG2 is to stabilize accumulated integrin beta(3) concentration in the phagocytic cup...
  17. Bennett K, Romigh T, Eng C. Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by five frequently methylated genes leads to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma pathogenesis. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9301-5 pubmed publisher
  18. Francois A, Obasanjo Blackshire K, Clark J, Boguslavskyi A, Holt M, Parker P, et al. Loss of Protein Kinase Novel 1 (PKN1) is Associated with Mild Systolic and Diastolic Contractile Dysfunction, Increased Phospholamban Thr17 Phosphorylation and Exacerbated Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..PKN1 is a stress-responsive protein kinase acting downstream of small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Rac family. The aim was to determine its role in endogenous cardioprotection...
  19. Koval A, Kopein D, Purvanov V, Katanaev V. Europium-labeled GTP as a general nonradioactive substitute for [(35)S]GTPgammaS in high-throughput G protein studies. Anal Biochem. 2010;397:202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results of our modified Eu-GTP binding assay present Eu-GTP as a general nonradioactive alternative for G protein studies, especially attractive in high-throughput experiments. ..
  20. Motokawa M, Watanabe S, Nakatomi A, Kondoh T, Matsumoto T, Morifuji K, et al. A hot-spot mutation in CDC42 (p.Tyr64Cys) and novel phenotypes in the third patient with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome. J Hum Genet. 2018;63:387-390 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies and the accumulation of patients with CDC42 mutations are needed to clarify the phenotype in patients with TKS and the pathophysiological roles of the CDC42 mutation. ..
  21. Oblinsky D, VanSchouwen B, Gordon H, Rothstein S. Procrustean rotation in concert with principal component analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories: Quantifying global and local differences between conformational samples. J Chem Phys. 2009;131:225102 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrate this approach by analyzing MD trajectories for the wild-type and four selected mutants of the beta1 domain of protein G. ..
  22. Tohda M, Hang P, Kobayashi N, Matsumoto K. Serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) mRNA editing-induced down-regulation of 5-HT2CR function in Xenopus oocytes: the significance of site C editing. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;113:362-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that editing at site C together with sites A and B and/or D markedly reduces 5-HT2CR function by generating isoforms with reduced ability to activate PLC. ..
  23. Li Y, Qiao L, Lin X. Mechanism of low molecular weight GTP binding protein RAC1 in injury of neural function of rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016;9:474-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The inhibition of RAC1 activity can reduce the oxidative stress, reduce the neurologic impairment because of cerebral ischemia reperfusion and thus protect the neural function. ..
  24. Vo M, Ko M, Lee U, Yoon E, Lee B, Cho W, et al. Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 depletion leads to mitochondrial dysfunction through downregulation of dynamin-related protein 1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:1014-1020 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that DRG2 acts as a regulator of mitochondrial fission by controlling the expression of Drp1. ..
  25. Rosby R, Cui Z, Rogers E, deLivron M, Robinson V, DiMario P. Knockdown of the Drosophila GTPase nucleostemin 1 impairs large ribosomal subunit biogenesis, cell growth, and midgut precursor cell maintenance. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4424-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We interpret the appearance of these structures as indicators of cell stress response. ..
  26. Lipnik K, Naschberger E, Gonin Laurent N, Kodajova P, Petznek H, Rungaldier S, et al. Interferon gamma-induced human guanylate binding protein 1 inhibits mammary tumor growth in mice. Mol Med. 2010;16:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, owing to these activities GBPs might be considered as potent members in an innate, IFN-gamma-induced antitumoral defense system. ..
  27. Maruko A, Ohtake Y, Katoh S, Ohkubo Y. Transglutaminase down-regulates the dimerization of epidermal growth factor receptor in rat perivenous and periportal hepatocytes. Cell Prolif. 2009;42:647-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that zonal difference in cell growth between PPH and PVH may be caused by down-regulation of EGFR dimerization and subsequent autophosphorylation through TG2-mediated cross-linking of EGFR. ..
  28. Celebioglu H, Olesen S, Prehn K, Lahtinen S, Brix S, Abou Hachem M, et al. Mucin- and carbohydrate-stimulated adhesion and subproteome changes of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. J Proteomics. 2017;163:102-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM with different carbohydrates revealed potential bacterial determinants of synbiotic interactions, including stimulation of adhesion. ..
  29. Chiba Y, Tanabe M, Sakai H, Kimura S, Misawa M. A functional interaction between CPI-17 and RACK1 proteins in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:487-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RACK1 may play a role in PKC/CPI-17 signaling pathway. ..
  30. Dzhambazov B, Lindh I, Engström Å, Holmdahl R. Tissue transglutaminase enhances collagen type II-induced arthritis and modifies the immunodominant T-cell epitope CII260-270. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we conclude that both processes, deamidation and cross-linking, are involved in the tTG-catalyzed reactions, and in vivo administration of tTG enhances arthritis severity and joint destruction in mice. ..
  31. Shamseldin H, Masuho I, Alenizi A, Alyamani S, Patil D, Ibrahim N, et al. GNB5 mutation causes a novel neuropsychiatric disorder featuring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, severely impaired language development and normal cognition. Genome Biol. 2016;17:195 pubmed
  32. Lin D, Jiang Q, Ma X, Zheng K, Gong X, Teng S, et al. Rice TSV3 Encoding Obg-Like GTPase Protein Is Essential for Chloroplast Development During the Early Leaf Stage Under Cold Stress. G3 (Bethesda). 2018;8:253-263 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the rice nuclear-encoded TSV3 plays important roles in chloroplast development at the early leaf stage under cold stress. ..
  33. Schnell D, Seifert R. Modulation of histamine H(3) receptor function by monovalent ions. Neurosci Lett. 2010;472:114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..50) is a key residue for hH(3)R/Galpha(i3)-protein activation. The latter result suggests that hH(3)R/G protein-coupling interfaces may differ even between closely related subunits. ..
  34. Bennett K, Lee W, Lamarre E, Zhang X, Seth R, Scharpf J, et al. HPV status-independent association of alcohol and tobacco exposure or prior radiation therapy with promoter methylation of FUSSEL18, EBF3, IRX1, and SEPT9, but not SLC5A8, in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49:319-26 pubmed publisher
  35. Renz C, Oeljeklaus S, Grinhagens S, Warscheid B, Johnsson N, Gronemeyer T. Identification of Cell Cycle Dependent Interaction Partners of the Septins by Quantitative Mass Spectrometry. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148340 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementary methods like SPLIFF and immunoprecipitation allowed us to more exactly define the spatial and temporal characteristics of selected hits of the AP-MS screen. ..
  36. Wong F, Stanley E. Rab3a interacting molecule (RIM) and the tethering of pre-synaptic transmitter release site-associated CaV2.2 calcium channels. J Neurochem. 2010;112:463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The differing results might be reconciled, however, in a model where a RIM family member contributes to a protein bridge that anchors the pre-fusion secretory vesicle to the calcium channel protein complex. ..
  37. Tsukamoto H, Farrens D, Koyanagi M, Terakita A. The magnitude of the light-induced conformational change in different rhodopsins correlates with their ability to activate G proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20676-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The different amplitude of the helix movement may also be responsible for functional diversity of G protein-coupled receptors. ..
  38. Nakano Y, Forsprecher J, Kaartinen M. Regulation of ATPase activity of transglutaminase 2 by MT1-MMP: implications for mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we propose that MT1-MMP modulates the extracellular function TG2 as part of a regulatory mechanism activates the pro-mineralization function of TG2. ..
  39. Miller A, Zhang J. Altered endothelin-1 signaling in production of thromboxane A2 in kupffer cells from bile duct ligated rats. Cell Mol Immunol. 2009;6:441-52 pubmed publisher
  40. Bennett K, Langmead C, Wise A, Milligan G. Growth hormone secretagogues and growth hormone releasing peptides act as orthosteric super-agonists but not allosteric regulators for activation of the G protein Galpha(o1) by the Ghrelin receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:802-11 pubmed publisher
  41. Shkalim V, Baris H, Gal G, Gleiss R, Calderon S, Wessels M, et al. Autosomal dominant syndrome of mental retardation, hypotelorism, and cleft palate resembling Schilbach-Rott syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:2700-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The syndrome is reminiscent of the infrequently recognized autosomal dominant Schilbach-Rott syndrome...
  42. Jung H, Kim H, Lee S, Kim R, Kopachik W, Han J, et al. Negative feedback regulation of Wnt signaling by Gbetagamma-mediated reduction of Dishevelled. Exp Mol Med. 2009;41:695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the evidence suggests a novel negative feedback mechanism in which Gbeta2gamma2 inhibits Wnt signaling by degradation of Dishevelled. ..
  43. Yu Z, Zeng Z, Huang Z, Lian J, Yang J, Deng Q, et al. Increased mRNA expression of interferon-induced Mx1 and immunomodulation following oral administration of IFN-alpha2b-transformed B. longum to mice. Arch Microbiol. 2010;192:633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..longum expressing IFN-alpha2b might play its roles in the immunomodulation of the mice, and the potential clinical value of this bacterium in the treatment of viral infections needs to be further studied. ..
  44. Cadwell K, Stappenbeck T, Virgin H. Role of autophagy and autophagy genes in inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;335:141-67 pubmed publisher
  45. Oien D, Ortiz A, Rittel A, Dobrowsky R, Johnson M, Levant B, et al. Dopamine D(2) receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse. J Neurochem. 2010;114:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ablation of methionine sulfoxide reductase can affect dopamine signaling through altering dopamine D(2)-receptor physiology and may be related to symptoms associated with neurological disorders and diseases. ..
  46. Matic I, Sacchi A, Rinaldi A, Melino G, Khosla C, Falasca L, et al. Characterization of transglutaminase type II role in dendritic cell differentiation and function. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that TG2 plays an important role in regulating the response of DCs to LPS and could be a candidate target for treating endotoxin-induced sepsis. ..
  47. Kaeser P, Deng L, Chavez A, Liu X, Castillo P, Sudhof T. ELKS2alpha/CAST deletion selectively increases neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses. Neuron. 2009;64:227-39 pubmed publisher
  48. Malorni W, Farrace M, Matarrese P, Tinari A, Ciarlo L, Mousavi Shafaei P, et al. The adenine nucleotide translocator 1 acts as a type 2 transglutaminase substrate: implications for mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1480-92 pubmed publisher
  49. Fernandes M, Reddy M, Croteau N, Walz C, Weisbach H, Podar K, et al. Novel oncogenic mutations of CBL in human acute myeloid leukemia that activate growth and survival pathways depend on increased metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32596-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathways that are activated by CBL gain-of-function mutations can be efficiently targeted by small molecule drugs. ..
  50. Huang X, Senatore A, Dawson T, Quan Q, Spafford J. G-proteins modulate invertebrate synaptic calcium channel (LCav2) differently from the classical voltage-dependent regulation of mammalian Cav2.1 and Cav2.2 channels. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2094-103 pubmed publisher
  51. Nagai Y, Nishimura A, Tago K, Mizuno N, Itoh H. Ric-8B stabilizes the alpha subunit of stimulatory G protein by inhibiting its ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Ric-8B plays a critical and specific role in the control of G alpha(s) protein levels by modulating G alpha(s) ubiquitination and positively regulates G(s) signaling. ..
  52. Brower C, Varshavsky A. Ablation of arginylation in the mouse N-end rule pathway: loss of fat, higher metabolic rate, damaged spermatogenesis, and neurological perturbations. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7757 pubmed publisher
  53. Koenen A, Babendreyer A, Schumacher J, Pasqualon T, Schwarz N, Seifert A, et al. The DRF motif of CXCR6 as chemokine receptor adaptation to adhesion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173486 pubmed publisher
    ..This adaptation may avoid permanent or uncontrolled recruitment of inflammatory cells as well as cancer metastasis. ..