Summary: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.

Top Publications

  1. Álvarez Alfageme F, Lüthi C, Romeis J. Characterization of digestive enzymes of bruchid parasitoids-initial steps for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified legumes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36862 pubmed publisher
    ..The environmental risk assessment of such GM legumes includes the characterization of the targeted enzymes in the beneficial species and the assessment of the in vitro susceptibility to the resistance factor...
  2. Vavrova L, Kodydkova J, Zeman M, Dusejovská M, Macásek J, Stankova B, et al. Altered activities of antioxidant enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome. Obes Facts. 2013;6:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to assess several parameters of the antioxidant status in MetS...
  3. Shibata K, Morita N, Shibata Y, Fukuwatari T. Enzymes that control the conversion of L-tryptophan-nicotinamide and the urinary excretion ratio (N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide)/N(1)-methylnicotinamide in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:2105-11 pubmed
  4. Lin H, Chen W, Ding H. AcalPred: a sequence-based tool for discriminating between acidic and alkaline enzymes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75726 pubmed publisher
    The structure and activity of enzymes are influenced by pH value of their surroundings...
  5. Dölle C, Skoge R, Vanlinden M, Ziegler M. NAD biosynthesis in humans--enzymes, metabolites and therapeutic aspects. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13:2907-17 pubmed
    ..identification, functional and structural characterization as well as regulation of the human NAD biosynthetic enzymes. Exciting therapeutic concepts have emerged, which aim at modulation of NAD availability by interfering with the ..
  6. Rosenthal R, Ebert M, Kiefer P, Peter D, Vorholt J, Erb T. Direct evidence for a covalent ene adduct intermediate in NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:50-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although about 16% of all characterized enzymes use pyridine nucleotides as hydride donors or acceptors during catalysis, a detailed understanding of how the ..
  7. Cornish Bowden A. Understanding allosteric and cooperative interactions in enzymes. FEBS J. 2014;281:621-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This is because they continue to be central for understanding enzyme regulation, and increasingly important in the age of systems biology. ..
  8. Caspi R, Altman T, Billington R, Dreher K, Foerster H, Fulcher C, et al. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of Pathway/Genome Databases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:D459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..org) is a comprehensive and freely accessible database describing metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life...
  9. Escamilla Trevino L, Shen H, Hernandez T, Yin Y, Xu Y, Dixon R. Early lignin pathway enzymes and routes to chlorogenic acid in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Plant Mol Biol. 2014;84:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..compound in switchgrass, and the lignin and CGA biosynthetic pathways potentially share intermediates and enzymes. The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) is responsible for CGA biosynthesis ..

More Information


  1. Stojkovski V, Hadzi Petrushev N, Ilieski V, Sopi R, Gjorgoski I, Mitrov D, et al. Age and heat exposure-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat's liver and brain mitochondria: role of alpha-tocopherol. Physiol Res. 2013;62:503-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that mitochondria in aged rats are more vulnerable and less able to prevent oxidative changes that occur in response to acute heat exposure. ..
  2. Bräsen C, Esser D, Rauch B, Siebers B. Carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea: current insights into unusual enzymes and pathways and their regulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2014;78:89-175 pubmed publisher
    ..These modifications are accompanied by the invention of "new," unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric ..
  3. Lombard V, Golaconda Ramulu H, Drula E, Coutinho P, Henrissat B. The carbohydrate-active enzymes database (CAZy) in 2013. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:D490-5 pubmed publisher
    The Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database (CAZy; http://www.cazy...
  4. Blomberg R, Kries H, Pinkas D, Mittl P, Grutter M, Privett H, et al. Precision is essential for efficient catalysis in an evolved Kemp eliminase. Nature. 2013;503:418-21 pubmed publisher
    Linus Pauling established the conceptual framework for understanding and mimicking enzymes more than six decades ago...
  5. Heydel J, Coelho A, Thiebaud N, Legendre A, Le Bon A, Faure P, et al. Odorant-binding proteins and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: implications in olfactory perireceptor events. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2013;296:1333-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The second group of proteins involves xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, which are strongly expressed in the olfactory epithelium and supposed to be involved in odorant transformation, ..
  6. Zhao S, Kumar R, Sakai A, Vetting M, Wood B, Brown S, et al. Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context. Nature. 2013;502:698-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the ..
  7. Gurung N, Ray S, Bose S, Rai V. A broader view: microbial enzymes and their relevance in industries, medicine, and beyond. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:329121 pubmed publisher
    b>Enzymes are the large biomolecules that are required for the numerous chemical interconversions that sustain life. They accelerate all the metabolic processes in the body and carry out a specific task...
  8. Furnham N, Holliday G, de Beer T, Jacobsen J, Pearson W, Thornton J. The Catalytic Site Atlas 2.0: cataloging catalytic sites and residues identified in enzymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:D485-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ontology, which has permitted the transfer of annotations to Mechanism, Annotation and Classification in Enzymes (MACiE) and UniProt Knowledge Base (UniProtKB) resources...
  9. Gao Y, Li B, Cai Y, Feng K, Li Z, Jiang Y. Prediction of active sites of enzymes by maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR) feature selection. Mol Biosyst. 2013;9:61-9 pubmed publisher
    Identification of catalytic residues plays a key role in understanding how enzymes work...
  10. Hammes Schiffer S. Catalytic efficiency of enzymes: a theoretical analysis. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2012-20 pubmed publisher
  11. Viitasalo A, Laaksonen D, Lindi V, Eloranta A, Jääskeläinen J, Tompuri T, et al. Clustering of metabolic risk factors is associated with high-normal levels of liver enzymes among 6- to 8-year-old children: the PANIC study. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2012;10:337-43 pubmed
    ..We also used factor analysis to examine whether high-normal liver enzymes are a feature of metabolic syndrome among children...
  12. Egeblad L, Welin M, Flodin S, Gräslund S, Wang L, Balzarini J, et al. Pan-pathway based interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside and nucleobase analogs with enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37724 pubmed publisher
    ..a nucleoside analog library (NAL) consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs was screened against 23 enzymes of the human nucleotide metabolism using a thermal shift assay...
  13. Yamada T, Waller A, Raes J, Zelezniak A, Perchat N, Perret A, et al. Prediction and identification of sequences coding for orphan enzymes using genomic and metagenomic neighbours. Mol Syst Biol. 2012;8:581 pubmed publisher
    Despite the current wealth of sequencing data, one-third of all biochemically characterized metabolic enzymes lack a corresponding gene or protein sequence, and as such can be considered orphan enzymes...
  14. Zhen Z, Tang L, Long H, Jiang J. Enzymatic immuno-assembly of gold nanoparticles for visualized activity screening of histone-modifying enzymes. Anal Chem. 2012;84:3614-20 pubmed publisher
    Activity screening of histone-modifying enzymes is of paramount importance for epigenetic research as well as clinical diagnostics and therapeutics...
  15. Testa B, Pedretti A, Vistoli G. Reactions and enzymes in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. Drug Discov Today. 2012;17:549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is a need for several drug discovery scientists to better grasp the variety of drug metabolism reactions and enzymes and their consequences.
  16. Pang H, Du L, Pei J, Wei Y, Du Q, Huang R. Sucrose hydrolytic enzymes: old enzymes for new uses as biocatalysts for medical applications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013;13:1234-41 pubmed
    Sucrose hydrolytic enzymes, widely used in a variety of food industries, employ sucrose as a substrate...
  17. Seach N, Wong K, Hammett M, Boyd R, Chidgey A. Purified enzymes improve isolation and characterization of the adult thymic epithelium. J Immunol Methods. 2012;385:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the latest panel of Liberase products that contain a blend of highly purified collagenase and neutral protease enzymes. Liberase enzymes revealed a more rapid, complete dissociation of thymus tissue; minimizing loss of viability and ..
  18. Bornscheuer U, Huisman G, Kazlauskas R, Lutz S, Moore J, Robins K. Engineering the third wave of biocatalysis. Nature. 2012;485:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..of tremendous progress in tailoring biocatalysts by protein engineering and design, and the ability to reorganize enzymes into new biosynthetic pathways...
  19. Gunawardena J. Some lessons about models from Michaelis and Menten. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:517-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Michaelis and Menten's classic 1913 paper on enzyme kinetics is used to draw some lessons about the relationship between mathematical models and biological reality. ..
  20. De Ferrari L, Aitken S, van Hemert J, Goryanin I. EnzML: multi-label prediction of enzyme classes using InterPro signatures. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13:61 pubmed publisher
  21. Kiarie E, Romero L, Nyachoti C. The role of added feed enzymes in promoting gut health in swine and poultry. Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26:71-88 pubmed publisher
    The value of added feed enzymes (FE) in promoting growth and efficiency of nutrient utilisation is well recognised in single-stomached animal production...
  22. Begg E, Helsby N, Jensen B. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: the prodrug hypothesis. Pharmacogenomics. 2012;13:83-9 pubmed publisher
    The hope of individualized drug therapy has been bolstered by the knowledge that drug-metabolizing enzymes can be affected by genetic polymorphisms...
  23. Hernandez K, Fernandez Lafuente R. Control of protein immobilization: coupling immobilization and site-directed mutagenesis to improve biocatalyst or biosensor performance. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2011;48:107-22 pubmed publisher
    ..reports showing that the use of site-directed mutagenesis to improve enzyme properties directly, but also how enzymes are immobilized on a support, can be a powerful tool to improve the properties of immobilized biomolecules for ..
  24. Caspi R, Altman T, Dreher K, Fulcher C, Subhraveti P, Keseler I, et al. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:D742-53 pubmed publisher
    ..org/) provides a comprehensive and freely accessible resource for metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life...
  25. Iobbi Nivol C, Leimkuhler S. Molybdenum enzymes, their maturation and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:1086-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Moco is the essential component of a group of redox enzymes, which are diverse in terms of their phylogenetic distribution and their architectures, both at the overall level ..
  26. Gumulya Y, Sanchis J, Reetz M. Many pathways in laboratory evolution can lead to improved enzymes: how to escape from local minima. Chembiochem. 2012;13:1060-6 pubmed publisher
    Directed evolution is a method to tune the properties of enzymes for use in organic chemistry and biotechnology, to study enzyme mechanisms, and to shed light on darwinian evolution in nature...
  27. Hanreich A, Heyer R, Benndorf D, Rapp E, Pioch M, Reichl U, et al. Metaproteome analysis to determine the metabolically active part of a thermophilic microbial community producing biogas from agricultural biomass. Can J Microbiol. 2012;58:917-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Several housekeeping proteins as well as methanogenesis-related enzymes were identified by a MASCOT search and de novo sequencing, which proved the feasibility of our approach...
  28. Bachman B, Venner E, Lua R, Erdin S, Lichtarge O. ETAscape: analyzing protein networks to predict enzymatic function and substrates in Cytoscape. Bioinformatics. 2012;28:2186-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ETA Network Plugin is available publicly for download at http://mammoth.bcm.tmc.edu/networks/. ..
  29. Holliday G, Andreini C, Fischer J, Rahman S, Almonacid D, Williams S, et al. MACiE: exploring the diversity of biochemical reactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:D783-9 pubmed publisher
    MACiE (which stands for Mechanism, Annotation and Classification in Enzymes) is a database of enzyme reaction mechanisms, and can be accessed from http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/databases/MACiE/...
  30. Ray A, Saykhedkar S, Ayoubi Canaan P, Hartson S, Prade R, Mort A. Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces a diverse array of extracellular enzymes when grown on sorghum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;93:2075-89 pubmed publisher
    ..fluid using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry identified 57, 116, and 102 degradative enzymes targeting cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, proteins, and lipids on days 1, 7, and 14, respectively...
  31. Nosrati G, Houk K. SABER: a computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions. Protein Sci. 2012;21:697-706 pubmed publisher
    ..As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS)...
  32. Wei H, Wang E. Nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics (nanozymes): next-generation artificial enzymes. Chem Soc Rev. 2013;42:6060-93 pubmed publisher
    Over the past few decades, researchers have established artificial enzymes as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to natural enzymes in a wide range of applications...
  33. Zhao M, Qu H. High similarity of phylogenetic profiles of rate-limiting enzymes with inhibitory relation in Human, Mouse, Rat, budding Yeast and E. coli. BMC Genomics. 2011;12 Suppl 3:S10 pubmed publisher
    ..To survey the conservative regulatory properties of rate-limiting enzymes (RLEs) in metabolic inhibitory network across different species, we define the enzyme inhibiting pair as: where ..
  34. Adamczyk Sowa M, Sowa P, Pierzchala K, Polaniak R, Labuz Roszak B. Antioxidative enzymes activity and malondialdehyde concentration during mitoxantrone therapy in multiple sclerosis patients. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;63:683-90 pubmed
    ..These findings open up new opportunities for a better understanding of underlying physiopathological events in MS and provide a new insight into MX's mechanisms of action, especially its potent side effects...
  35. Alcántara R, Axelsen K, Morgat A, Belda E, Coudert E, Bridge A, et al. Rhea--a manually curated resource of biochemical reactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:D754-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This cross-referencing facilitates the mapping and reconciliation of common reactions and compounds between distinct resources, which is a common first step in the reconstruction of genome scale metabolic networks and models. ..
  36. Alipour E, Marko J. Self-organization of domain structures by DNA-loop-extruding enzymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:11202-12 pubmed publisher
    The long chromosomal DNAs of cells are organized into loop domains much larger in size than individual DNA-binding enzymes, presenting the question of how formation of such structures is controlled...
  37. Schiavon M, Moro I, Pilon Smits E, Matozzo V, Malagoli M, Dalla Vecchia F. Accumulation of selenium in Ulva sp. and effects on morphology, ultrastructure and antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;122-123:222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..and, as a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD, and catalase, CAT) and the amount of antioxidant metabolites (phenols, flavonoids and ..
  38. Huisman G, Collier S. On the development of new biocatalytic processes for practical pharmaceutical synthesis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013;17:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Biocatalysts recently discovered, and in some cases rediscovered, for the interesting chemistry they enable are likely to further substantiate the expansion of the biocatalysis field. ..
  39. Carbonell P, Lecointre G, Faulon J. Origins of specificity and promiscuity in metabolic networks. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43994-4004 pubmed publisher
    How enzymes have evolved to their present form is linked to the question of how pathways emerged and evolved into extant metabolic networks...
  40. Chandra Rai A, Singh M, Shah K. Effect of water withdrawal on formation of free radical, proline accumulation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in ZAT12-transformed transgenic tomato plants. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;61:108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their excessive production alters the activities of enzymes involved in their removal...
  41. Hilvert D. Design of protein catalysts. Annu Rev Biochem. 2013;82:447-70 pubmed publisher
    Diverse engineering strategies have been developed to create enzymes with novel catalytic activities. Among these, computational approaches hold particular promise...
  42. Gatti Lafranconi P, Hollfelder F. Flexibility and reactivity in promiscuous enzymes. Chembiochem. 2013;14:285-92 pubmed publisher
    Best of both worlds: The interplay of active site reactivity and the dynamic character of proteins allows enzymes to be promiscuous and--sometimes--remarkably efficient at the same time...
  43. Rothery R, Stein B, Solomonson M, Kirk M, Weiner J. Pyranopterin conformation defines the function of molybdenum and tungsten enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14773-8 pubmed publisher
    ..analyzed the conformations of 319 pyranopterins in 102 protein structures of mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten enzymes. These span a continuum between geometries anticipated for quinonoid dihydro, tetrahydro, and dihydro oxidation ..
  44. Brown S, Babbitt P. Inference of functional properties from large-scale analysis of enzyme superfamilies. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35-42 pubmed publisher
  45. Teppa E, Wilkins A, Nielsen M, Buslje C. Disentangling evolutionary signals: conservation, specificity determining positions and coevolution. Implication for catalytic residue prediction. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13:235 pubmed publisher
  46. Xiong Y, Guan K. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:155-64 pubmed publisher
    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates...
  47. Wang W, Yuan T, Wang K, Cui B, Dai Y. Combination of biological pretreatment with liquid hot water pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus tomentosa. Bioresour Technol. 2012;107:282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..25-fold) of glucose yield was obtained by the combination of Trametes ochracea C6888 with LHW. The combination pretreatment performed well at accelerating the enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar wood. ..
  48. Van Dyk J, Pletschke B. A review of lignocellulose bioconversion using enzymatic hydrolysis and synergistic cooperation between enzymes--factors affecting enzymes, conversion and synergy. Biotechnol Adv. 2012;30:1458-80 pubmed publisher
    Lignocellulose is a complex substrate which requires a variety of enzymes, acting in synergy, for its complete hydrolysis...
  49. Nam H, Lewis N, Lerman J, Lee D, Chang R, Kim D, et al. Network context and selection in the evolution to enzyme specificity. Science. 2012;337:1101-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Enzymes are thought to have evolved highly specific catalytic activities from promiscuous ancestral proteins...
  50. Kim H, Mittenthal J, Caetano Anolles G. Widespread recruitment of ancient domain structures in modern enzymes during metabolic evolution. J Integr Bioinform. 2013;10:214 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied this algorithm to the analysis of 1,163 enzymes with structural assignments...
  51. Kries H, Blomberg R, Hilvert D. De novo enzymes by computational design. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013;17:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the activities of de novo enzymes are typically low, they can be significantly increased by directed evolution...
  52. Zhou K, Zou R, Stephanopoulos G, Too H. Enhancing solubility of deoxyxylulose phosphate pathway enzymes for microbial isoprenoid production. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:148 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well known that some over-expressed heterologous recombinant enzymes are insoluble with little or no enzymatic activity...
  53. Chakraborty S. A quantitative measure of electrostatic perturbation in holo and apo enzymes induced by structural changes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59352 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational methods that seek to gain insights into the electrostatic changes in enzymes require expertise to setup and computing prowess...
  54. Yin Y, Mao X, Yang J, Chen X, Mao F, Xu Y. dbCAN: a web resource for automated carbohydrate-active enzyme annotation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:W445-51 pubmed publisher
    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are very important to the biotech industry, particularly the emerging biofuel industry because CAZymes are responsible for the synthesis, degradation and modification of all the carbohydrates on ..
  55. Granchi C, Minutolo F. Anticancer agents that counteract tumor glycolysis. ChemMedChem. 2012;7:1318-50 pubmed publisher
    ..There is growing evidence to support many glycolytic enzymes and transporters as suitable candidate targets for cancer therapy...
  56. Chu X, Cai X, Cui D, Tang C, Ghosal A, Chan G, et al. In vitro assessment of drug-drug interaction potential of boceprevir associated with drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 3 protease was evaluated in vitro against a panel of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters...
  57. Huang Y, Hu C, Lin N, Hsu Y. Unusual roles of host metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant virus replication. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:676-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have revealed that positive-sense RNA [(+)RNA] viruses may adapt regular metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins of host plants by exploiting unusual functions to accommodate their need for ..
  58. Schomburg I, Chang A, Placzek S, Söhngen C, Rother M, Lang M, et al. BRENDA in 2013: integrated reactions, kinetic data, enzyme function data, improved disease classification: new options and contents in BRENDA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:D764-72 pubmed publisher
    The BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase) enzyme portal (http://www.brenda-enzymes.org) is the main information system of functional biochemical and molecular enzyme data and provides access to seven interconnected databases...
  59. Nakamura M, Hachiya T, Saito Y, Sato K, Sakakibara Y. An efficient algorithm for de novo predictions of biochemical pathways between chemical compounds. BMC Bioinformatics. 2012;13 Suppl 17:S8 pubmed publisher
    ..For the reconstruction of a known biochemical pathway, our method is over 40 times as fast as the existing method. Our method enables fast and accurate de novo pathway predictions and novel pathway detection. ..
  60. Herschlag D, Natarajan A. Fundamental challenges in mechanistic enzymology: progress toward understanding the rate enhancements of enzymes. Biochemistry. 2013;52:2050-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Enzymes are remarkable catalysts that lie at the heart of biology, accelerating chemical reactions to an astounding extent with extraordinary specificity...
  61. Basketter D, Berg N, Broekhuizen C, Fieldsend M, Kirkwood S, Kluin C, et al. Enzymes in cleaning products: an overview of toxicological properties and risk assessment/management. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;64:117-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Enzymes used in cleaning products have an excellent safety profile, with little ability to cause adverse responses in humans. For acute toxicity, genotoxicity, sub-acute and repeated dose toxicity, enzymes are unremarkable...
  62. Davids T, Schmidt M, Böttcher D, Bornscheuer U. Strategies for the discovery and engineering of enzymes for biocatalysis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2013;17:215-20 pubmed publisher
    Protein engineering is the most important method to overcome the limitations of natural enzymes as biocatalysts...
  63. Tamura A, Ikeda G, Seo J, Tsuchiya K, Yajima H, Sasaki Y, et al. Molecular logistics using cytocleavable polyrotaxanes for the reactivation of enzymes delivered in living cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2252 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular delivery of enzymes is an essential methodology to extend their therapeutic application...
  64. Altman T, Travers M, Kothari A, Caspi R, Karp P. A systematic comparison of the MetaCyc and KEGG pathway databases. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14:112 pubmed publisher
    ..MetaCyc contains a broader set of database attributes than does KEGG, such as relationships from a compound to enzymes that it regulates, identification of spontaneous reactions, and the expected taxonomic range of metabolic ..
  65. Gupta G. Gingival crevicular fluid as a periodontal diagnostic indicator--I: Host derived enzymes and tissue breakdown products. J Med Life. 2012;5:390-7 pubmed
  66. Fenice M, Barghini P, Selbmann L, Federici F. Combined effects of agitation and aeration on the chitinolytic enzymes production by the Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003. Microb Cell Fact. 2012;11:12 pubmed publisher
    ..It can produce high level of chitinolytic enzymes in a wide range of temperatures (5-30°C)...
  67. Poggi C, Giusti B, Vestri A, Pasquini E, Abbate R, Dani C. Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes in preterm infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25 Suppl 4:131-4 pubmed publisher