trypsinogen

Summary

Summary: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Sommerburg O, Lindner M, Muckenthaler M, Kohlmueller D, Leible S, Feneberg R, et al. Initial evaluation of a biochemical cystic fibrosis newborn screening by sequential analysis of immunoreactive trypsinogen and pancreatitis-associated protein (IRT/PAP) as a strategy that does not involve DNA testing in a Northern European population. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33:S263-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Nemoda Z, Sahin Toth M. Chymotrypsin C (caldecrin) stimulates autoactivation of human cationic trypsinogen. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11879-86 pubmed
    Trypsin-mediated trypsinogen activation (autoactivation) facilitates digestive zymogen activation in the duodenum but may precipitate pancreatitis if it occurs prematurely in the pancreas...
  3. Ronai Z, Witt H, Rickards O, Destro Bisol G, Bradbury A, Sahin Toth M. A common African polymorphism abolishes tyrosine sulfation of human anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Biochem J. 2009;418:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..457G>C) in the PRSS2 (serine protease 2, human anionic trypsinogen) gene, which changed Asp(153) to a histidine residue (p.D153H). The p...
  4. Futatsugi A, Nakamura T, Yamada M, Ebisui E, Nakamura K, Uchida K, et al. IP3 receptor types 2 and 3 mediate exocrine secretion underlying energy metabolism. Science. 2005;309:2232-4 pubmed
    ..Despite a normal caloric intake, the double mutants were hypoglycemic and lean. These results reveal IP3R2 and IP3R3 as key molecules in exocrine physiology underlying energy metabolism and animal growth...
  5. Paju A, Vartiainen J, Haglund C, Itkonen O, von Boguslawski K, Leminen A, et al. Expression of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, and tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor in ovarian cancer: prognostic study on tissue and serum. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:4761-8 pubmed
    The purpose is to study the prognostic significance of tissue expression of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, and tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) and serum concentration of trypsinogen-2, trypsin-2-API (complex of trypsin-2 with ..
  6. Kume K, Masamune A, Takagi Y, Kikuta K, Watanabe T, Satoh K, et al. A loss-of-function p.G191R variant in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene in Japanese patients with pancreatic disorders. Gut. 2009;58:820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been recently shown that a loss-of-function variant, c.571G>A (p.G191R), in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene protects against chronic pancreatitis in European populations...
  7. Shi M, Huang F, Chen Y, Meng X, Chen X. Characterization of midgut trypsinogen-like cDNA and enzymatic activity in Plutella xylostella parasitized by Cotesia vestalis or Diadegma semiclausum. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2009;70:3-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ORF) encoding 273 amino acid residues including 23 residues of a signal peptide, and the predicted mature trypsinogen-like enzyme had a molecular mass of 26.5 kDa...
  8. Stenman M, Paju A, Hanemaaijer R, Tervahartiala T, Leminen A, Stenman U, et al. Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13) and trypsinogen-2 in fluid from benign and malignant ovarian cysts. Tumour Biol. 2003;24:9-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have studied the levels of MMP-1, -8 and -13 in relation to the level of trypsinogen-2 in fluid from benign and malignant ovarian cysts...
  9. Sahin Toth M. The pathobiochemistry of hereditary pancreatitis: studies on recombinant human cationic trypsinogen. Pancreatology. 2001;1:461-5 pubmed
    This study attempts to identify the biochemical alterations in human cationic trypsinogen and trypsin caused by the hereditary pancreatitis-associated mutations Arg117-->His and Asn21-->Ile.
  10. Bhatia E, Choudhuri G, Sikora S, Landt O, Kage A, Becker M, et al. Tropical calcific pancreatitis: strong association with SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor mutations. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1020-5 pubmed
    ..Samples were analyzed for SPINK1 variants (-53C>T, L14P, N34S, P55S, and 272T>C) and cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) variants (A16V, K23R, N29I, and R122H) by melting curve analysis...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Sommerburg O, Lindner M, Muckenthaler M, Kohlmueller D, Leible S, Feneberg R, et al. Initial evaluation of a biochemical cystic fibrosis newborn screening by sequential analysis of immunoreactive trypsinogen and pancreatitis-associated protein (IRT/PAP) as a strategy that does not involve DNA testing in a Northern European population. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2010;33:S263-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Nemoda Z, Sahin Toth M. Chymotrypsin C (caldecrin) stimulates autoactivation of human cationic trypsinogen. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11879-86 pubmed
    Trypsin-mediated trypsinogen activation (autoactivation) facilitates digestive zymogen activation in the duodenum but may precipitate pancreatitis if it occurs prematurely in the pancreas...
  3. Ronai Z, Witt H, Rickards O, Destro Bisol G, Bradbury A, Sahin Toth M. A common African polymorphism abolishes tyrosine sulfation of human anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Biochem J. 2009;418:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..457G>C) in the PRSS2 (serine protease 2, human anionic trypsinogen) gene, which changed Asp(153) to a histidine residue (p.D153H). The p...
  4. Futatsugi A, Nakamura T, Yamada M, Ebisui E, Nakamura K, Uchida K, et al. IP3 receptor types 2 and 3 mediate exocrine secretion underlying energy metabolism. Science. 2005;309:2232-4 pubmed
    ..Despite a normal caloric intake, the double mutants were hypoglycemic and lean. These results reveal IP3R2 and IP3R3 as key molecules in exocrine physiology underlying energy metabolism and animal growth...
  5. Paju A, Vartiainen J, Haglund C, Itkonen O, von Boguslawski K, Leminen A, et al. Expression of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, and tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor in ovarian cancer: prognostic study on tissue and serum. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:4761-8 pubmed
    The purpose is to study the prognostic significance of tissue expression of trypsinogen-1, trypsinogen-2, and tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) and serum concentration of trypsinogen-2, trypsin-2-API (complex of trypsin-2 with ..
  6. Kume K, Masamune A, Takagi Y, Kikuta K, Watanabe T, Satoh K, et al. A loss-of-function p.G191R variant in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene in Japanese patients with pancreatic disorders. Gut. 2009;58:820-4 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been recently shown that a loss-of-function variant, c.571G>A (p.G191R), in the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) gene protects against chronic pancreatitis in European populations...
  7. Shi M, Huang F, Chen Y, Meng X, Chen X. Characterization of midgut trypsinogen-like cDNA and enzymatic activity in Plutella xylostella parasitized by Cotesia vestalis or Diadegma semiclausum. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2009;70:3-17 pubmed publisher
    ..ORF) encoding 273 amino acid residues including 23 residues of a signal peptide, and the predicted mature trypsinogen-like enzyme had a molecular mass of 26.5 kDa...
  8. Stenman M, Paju A, Hanemaaijer R, Tervahartiala T, Leminen A, Stenman U, et al. Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13) and trypsinogen-2 in fluid from benign and malignant ovarian cysts. Tumour Biol. 2003;24:9-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have studied the levels of MMP-1, -8 and -13 in relation to the level of trypsinogen-2 in fluid from benign and malignant ovarian cysts...
  9. Sahin Toth M. The pathobiochemistry of hereditary pancreatitis: studies on recombinant human cationic trypsinogen. Pancreatology. 2001;1:461-5 pubmed
    This study attempts to identify the biochemical alterations in human cationic trypsinogen and trypsin caused by the hereditary pancreatitis-associated mutations Arg117-->His and Asn21-->Ile.
  10. Bhatia E, Choudhuri G, Sikora S, Landt O, Kage A, Becker M, et al. Tropical calcific pancreatitis: strong association with SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor mutations. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1020-5 pubmed
    ..Samples were analyzed for SPINK1 variants (-53C>T, L14P, N34S, P55S, and 272T>C) and cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) variants (A16V, K23R, N29I, and R122H) by melting curve analysis...
  11. Ohmuraya M, Yamamura K. Autophagy and acute pancreatitis: a novel autophagy theory for trypsinogen activation. Autophagy. 2008;4:1060-2 pubmed
    ..Although lysosomal hydrolases, such as cathepsin B, play a key role in intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation, it remains unclear where and how trypsinogen meets these lysosomal enzymes...
  12. Teich N, Le Maréchal C, Kukor Z, Caca K, Witzigmann H, Chen J, et al. Interaction between trypsinogen isoforms in genetically determined pancreatitis: mutation E79K in cationic trypsin (PRSS1) causes increased transactivation of anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2). Hum Mutat. 2004;23:22-31 pubmed
    The human pancreas secretes two major trypsinogen isoforms, cationic and anionic trypsinogen...
  13. Nicodemus Johnson J, Silic S, Ghigliotti L, Pisano E, Cheng C. Assembly of the antifreeze glycoprotein/trypsinogen-like protease genomic locus in the Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni (Norman). Genomics. 2011;98:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..6 kbp and 467.4 kbp) containing tandem AFGP, two TLP (trypsinogen-like protease), and surprisingly three chimeric AFGP/TLP, one of which was previously hypothesized to be a TLP-..
  14. Tzetis M, Kaliakatsos M, Fotoulaki M, Papatheodorou A, Doudounakis S, Tsezou A, et al. Contribution of the CFTR gene, the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor gene (SPINK1) and the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) to the etiology of recurrent pancreatitis. Clin Genet. 2007;71:451-7 pubmed
  15. Hotakainen K, Bjartell A, Sankila A, Jarvinen R, Paju A, Rintala E, et al. Differential expression of trypsinogen and tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) in bladder cancer. Int J Oncol. 2006;28:95-101 pubmed
    ..TATI mRNA has been shown to be overexpressed in bladder cancer. We therefore studied whether trypsinogen expression also can be detected in bladder cancer and how this and TATI expression are associated with the ..
  16. Hashimoto D, Ohmuraya M, Hirota M, Yamamoto A, Suyama K, Ida S, et al. Involvement of autophagy in trypsinogen activation within the pancreatic acinar cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, trypsinogen activation was greatly reduced in the absence of autophagy...
  17. Szabo A, Sahin Toth M. Determinants of chymotrypsin C cleavage specificity in the calcium-binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen. FEBS J. 2012;279:4283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..chymotrypsin C (CTRC) cleaves the Leu81-Glu82 peptide bond in the calcium-binding loop of human cationic trypsinogen and thereby promotes its degradation...
  18. Chen J, Kukor Z, Le Maréchal C, Toth M, Tsakiris L, Raguenes O, et al. Evolution of trypsinogen activation peptides. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1767-77 pubmed
    ..Here, we examined the evolution and function of trypsinogen activation peptides through integrating functional characterization of disease-associated mutations with ..
  19. Gaiser S, Ahler A, Gundling F, Kruse M, Savkovic V, Selig L, et al. Expression of mutated cationic trypsinogen reduces cellular viability in AR4-2J cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:721-8 pubmed
    Mutations in the human cationic trypsinogen are associated with hereditary pancreatitis. The cDNA coding for human cationic trypsinogen was subcloned into the expression vector pcDNA3...
  20. Teich N, Nemoda Z, Kohler H, Heinritz W, Mossner J, Keim V, et al. Gene conversion between functional trypsinogen genes PRSS1 and PRSS2 associated with chronic pancreatitis in a six-year-old girl. Hum Mutat. 2005;25:343-7 pubmed
    ..Chronic pancreatitis in childhood is frequently associated with mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene (serine protease 1; PRSS1)...
  21. Gaiser S, Daniluk J, Liu Y, Tsou L, Chu J, Lee W, et al. Intracellular activation of trypsinogen in transgenic mice induces acute but not chronic pancreatitis. Gut. 2011;60:1379-88 pubmed publisher
    Premature intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen is widely considered key for both the initiation of acute pancreatitis and the development of chronic pancreatitis...
  22. Németh A, Medveczky P, Toth J, Siklódi E, Schlett K, Patthy A, et al. Unconventional translation initiation of human trypsinogen 4 at a CUG codon with an N-terminal leucine. A possible means to regulate gene expression. FEBS J. 2007;274:1610-20 pubmed
    ..This gene encodes, as the result of alternative splicing, both mesotrypsinogen and trypsinogen 4...
  23. Sahin Toth M, Kukor Z, Nemoda Z. Human cationic trypsinogen is sulfated on Tyr154. FEBS J. 2006;273:5044-50 pubmed
    ..human cationic and anionic trypsinogens contained tyrosine sulfate, but no tyrosine phosphate, whereas bovine trypsinogen contained neither...
  24. Kukor Z, Toth M, Sahin Toth M. Human anionic trypsinogen: properties of autocatalytic activation and degradation and implications in pancreatic diseases. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2047-58 pubmed
    Human pancreatic secretions contain two major trypsinogen isoforms, cationic and anionic trypsinogen, normally at a ratio of 2 : 1...
  25. Diederichs S, Bulk E, Steffen B, Ji P, Tickenbrock L, Lang K, et al. S100 family members and trypsinogens are predictors of distant metastasis and survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5564-9 pubmed
    ..g., matrix metalloproteinases). In addition, we found S100P, S100A2, trypsinogen C (TRY6), and trypsinogen IVb (PRSS3) to be overexpressed in tumors that metastasized during the course of the ..
  26. Paulová L, Hyka P, Branská B, Melzoch K, Kovar K. Use of a mixture of glucose and methanol as substrates for the production of recombinant trypsinogen in continuous cultures with Pichia pastoris Mut+. J Biotechnol. 2012;157:180-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects on methanol metabolism, extracellular formation of porcine trypsinogen, biomass growth and cell viability were analyzed...
  27. Selig L, Sack U, Gaiser S, Kloppel G, Savkovic V, Mossner J, et al. Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen. BMC Gastroenterol. 2006;6:30 pubmed
    The R122H mutation of the cationic trypsinogen was found in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. A transgenic animal carrying this mutation could be useful as a genetic model system of pancreatitis...
  28. Stenman M, Ainola M, Valmu L, Bjartell A, Ma G, Stenman U, et al. Trypsin-2 degrades human type II collagen and is expressed and activated in mesenchymally transformed rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:1119-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, trypsin-2 and its regulators should be further studied for use as markers of prognosis and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  29. Li W, Nakagawa T, Koyama N, Wang X, Jin J, Mizuno Horikawa Y, et al. Down-regulation of trypsinogen expression is associated with growth retardation in alpha1,6-fucosyltransferase-deficient mice: attenuation of proteinase-activated receptor 2 activity. Glycobiology. 2006;16:1007-19 pubmed
    ..Consistently, the expression of trypsinogen proteins was found to be lower in Fut8-/- mice in the duodenum, small intestine, and pancreas...
  30. Gerasimenko J, Lur G, Ferdek P, Sherwood M, Ebisui E, Tepikin A, et al. Calmodulin protects against alcohol-induced pancreatic trypsinogen activation elicited via Ca2+ release through IP3 receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5873-8 pubmed publisher
    ..alcohol influences calcium homeostasis and thereby understand how alcohol can trigger premature intracellular trypsinogen activation, which is the initiating step for alcohol-induced pancreatitis...
  31. Awla D, Abdulla A, Syk I, Jeppsson B, Regner S, Thorlacius H. Neutrophil-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a potent activator of trypsinogen in acinar cells in acute pancreatitis. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to define the role of MMPs in regulating activation of trypsinogen and tissue damage in AP, which was induced by infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct in mice...
  32. Awla D, Zetterqvist A, Abdulla A, Camello C, Berglund L, Spégel P, et al. NFATc3 regulates trypsinogen activation, neutrophil recruitment, and tissue damage in acute pancreatitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:1352-1360.e7 pubmed publisher
    The signaling mechanisms that regulate trypsinogen activation and inflammation in acute pancreatitis (AP) are unclear...
  33. Archer H, Jura N, Keller J, Jacobson M, Bar Sagi D. A mouse model of hereditary pancreatitis generated by transgenic expression of R122H trypsinogen. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:1844-55 pubmed
    Missense mutations in human cationic trypsinogen PRSS1 are frequently detected in patients with hereditary pancreatitis, a rare genetic disease of the pancreas characterized by autodigestive necrosis, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis...
  34. Sherwood M, Prior I, Voronina S, Barrow S, Woodsmith J, Gerasimenko O, et al. Activation of trypsinogen in large endocytic vacuoles of pancreatic acinar cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5674-9 pubmed
    The intracellular activation of trypsinogen, which is both pH- and calcium-dependent, is an important early step in the development of acute pancreatitis...
  35. Masson E, Le Maréchal C, Chandak G, Lamoril J, Bezieau S, Mahurkar S, et al. Trypsinogen copy number mutations in patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:82-8 pubmed
    ..reported that the triplication of a approximately 605 kilobase segment containing the PRSS1 (encoding cationic trypsinogen) and PRSS2 (encoding anionic trypsinogen) genes causes hereditary pancreatitis...
  36. Nikolakopoulou A, Dutta R, Chen Z, Miller R, Trapp B. Activated microglia enhance neurogenesis via trypsinogen secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8714-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our data provide evidence that activated microglia increase neurogenesis through secretion of PRSS2. ..
  37. Mareninova O, Hermann K, French S, O Konski M, Pandol S, Webster P, et al. Impaired autophagic flux mediates acinar cell vacuole formation and trypsinogen activation in rodent models of acute pancreatitis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:3340-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Two key pathologic acinar cell responses of this disease are vacuole accumulation and trypsinogen activation...
  38. Piekkala M, Hagstrom J, Tanskanen M, Rintala R, Haglund C, Kolho K. Low trypsinogen-1 expression in pediatric ulcerative colitis patients who undergo surgery. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:3272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..endoscopy before the onset of therapy were stained using immunohistochemistry to study the expression of MMP-9, trypsinogen-1 (Tryp-1), Tryp-2, and a trypsin inhibitor (TATI)...
  39. Witt H, Sahin Toth M, Landt O, Chen J, Kahne T, Drenth J, et al. A degradation-sensitive anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2) variant protects against chronic pancreatitis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:668-73 pubmed
    Chronic pancreatitis is a common inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Mutations in the genes encoding cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) and the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (SPINK1) are associated with chronic pancreatitis...
  40. Szenthe B, Frost C, Szilagyi L, Patthy A, Naudé R, Gráf L. Cloning and expression of ostrich trypsinogen: an avian trypsin with a highly sensitive autolysis site. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1748:35-42 pubmed
    One of ostrich (Struthio camelus) trypsinogen genes was cloned from pancreatic cDNA...
  41. Keim V, Witt H, Bauer N, Bodeker H, Rosendahl J, Teich N, et al. The course of genetically determined chronic pancreatitis. JOP. 2003;4:146-54 pubmed
    The clinical course of chronic pancreatitis in patients with mutations of cationic trypsinogen and the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1 has not yet been characterized...
  42. Andersen A, Novovic S, Ersbøll A, Jorgensen L, Hansen M. Urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick in acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2010;39:26-30 pubmed publisher
    In acute pancreatitis (AP), rapid diagnosis and early treatment are of importance for clinical outcome. Urinary trypsinogen-2 has been suggested as a promising diagnostic marker; however, studies using the urinary trypsinogen-2 dipstick ..
  43. Wartmann T, Mayerle J, Kahne T, Sahin Toth M, Ruthenbürger M, Matthias R, et al. Cathepsin L inactivates human trypsinogen, whereas cathepsin L-deletion reduces the severity of pancreatitis in mice. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:726-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The first of these, trypsinogen, can be converted to active trypsin by the peptidase cathepsin B (CTSB)...
  44. Johansen D, Manjer J, Regner S, Lindkvist B. Pre-diagnostic levels of anionic trypsinogen, cationic trypsinogen, and pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in relation to pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreatology. 2010;10:229-37 pubmed publisher
    Experimental studies have suggested that trypsinogen may enhance tumor progression and that the ratio between anionic trypsinogen and cationic trypsinogen (HAT/HCT) and between the sum of trypsinogens and pancreatic secretory trypsin ..
  45. Meister T, Niehues R, Hahn D, Domschke W, Sendler M, Lerch M, et al. Missorting of cathepsin B into the secretory compartment of CI-MPR/IGFII-deficient mice does not induce spontaneous trypsinogen activation but leads to enhanced trypsin activity during experimental pancreatitis--without affecting disease severity. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:565-75 pubmed
    ..enriched subcellular fraction and to a substantial formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles that contained both, trypsinogen and cathepsin B...
  46. Sarles J, Berthezene P, Le Louarn C, Somma C, Perini J, Catheline M, et al. Combining immunoreactive trypsinogen and pancreatitis-associated protein assays, a method of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis that avoids DNA analysis. J Pediatr. 2005;147:302-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the performance of a strategy in which, after immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) determination, genetic analysis is replaced by a biological test, the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (..
  47. Moilanen M, Sorsa T, Stenman M, Nyberg P, Lindy O, Vesterinen J, et al. Tumor-associated trypsinogen-2 (trypsinogen-2) activates procollagenases (MMP-1, -8, -13) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and degrades type I collagen. Biochemistry. 2003;42:5414-20 pubmed
  48. Towatari T, Ide M, Ohba K, Chiba Y, Murakami M, Shiota M, et al. Identification of ectopic anionic trypsin I in rat lungs potentiating pneumotropic virus infectivity and increased enzyme level after virus infection. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:2613-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ectopic anionic trypsin I in rat lungs induced by virus infection may trigger virus spread in rat lungs. ..
  49. Chandak G, Idris M, Reddy D, Bhaskar S, Sriram P, Singh L. Mutations in the pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor gene (PSTI/SPINK1) rather than the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) are significantly associated with tropical calcific pancreatitis. J Med Genet. 2002;39:347-51 pubmed
  50. Saez J, Martinez J, Trigo C, Sanchez Paya J, Grino P, Company L, et al. A comparative study of the activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B and trypsinogen as early predictors of the severity of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2004;29:e9-14 pubmed
    Serum and urine concentrations of the activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B (CAPAP) and urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP) as prognostic markers in acute pancreatitis were compared...
  51. Howes N, Lerch M, Greenhalf W, Stocken D, Ellis I, Simon P, et al. Clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary pancreatitis in Europe. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:252-61 pubmed
    Hereditary pancreatitis is an autosomal dominant disease that is mostly caused by cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene mutations. The aim was to determine phenotype-genotype correlations of families in Europe...
  52. Teich N, Ockenga J, Hoffmeister A, Manns M, MOssner J, Keim V. Chronic pancreatitis associated with an activation peptide mutation that facilitates trypsin activation. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:461-5 pubmed
    Mutations of the cationic trypsinogen have been described in hereditary pancreatitis. We report a new trypsinogen mutation in the activation peptide of the proenzyme in a family with chronic pancreatitis...
  53. Gorry M, Gabbaizedeh D, Furey W, Gates L, Preston R, Aston C, et al. Mutations in the cationic trypsinogen gene are associated with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1997;113:1063-8 pubmed
    We recently identified a single R117H mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene in several kindreds with an inherited form of acute and chronic pancreatitis (HP1), providing strong evidence that trypsin plays a central role in premature ..