plasminogen

Summary

Summary: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.

Top Publications

  1. Mays C, Ryou C. Plasminogen: A cellular protein cofactor for PrPSc propagation. Prion. 2011;5:22-7 pubmed
    ..We and others previously discovered that plasminogen interacts with PrP, while its functional role for PrPSc propagation remained undetermined...
  2. Vieira M, Vasconcellos S, Gonçales A, de Morais Z, Nascimento A. Plasminogen acquisition and activation at the surface of leptospira species lead to fibronectin degradation. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4092-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that Leptospira species are capable of binding plasminogen (PLG) in vitro...
  3. Agarwal V, Hammerschmidt S, Malm S, Bergmann S, Riesbeck K, Blom A. Enolase of Streptococcus pneumoniae binds human complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein and contributes to complement evasion. J Immunol. 2012;189:3575-84 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the pneumococcal glycolytic enzyme enolase, a nonclassical cell surface and plasminogen-binding protein, as an additional pneumococcal C4BP-binding protein...
  4. Law R, Caradoc Davies T, Cowieson N, Horvath A, Quek A, Encarnacao J, et al. The X-ray crystal structure of full-length human plasminogen. Cell Rep. 2012;1:185-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen is the proenzyme precursor of the primary fibrinolytic protease plasmin...
  5. Frøssing S, Rønø B, Hald A, Rømer J, Lund L. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family...
  6. Eren E, Murphy M, Goguen J, van den Berg B. An active site water network in the plasminogen activator pla from Yersinia pestis. Structure. 2010;18:809-18 pubmed publisher
    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1...
  7. Lu Q, Lu H, Qi J, Lu G, Gao G. An octamer of enolase from Streptococcus suis. Protein Cell. 2012;3:769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme can also locate on the cell surface and bind to plasminogen, via which contributing to the mucosal surface localization of the bacterial pathogens and assisting the ..
  8. Shen Y, Guo Y, Mikus P, Sulniute R, Wilczynska M, Ny T, et al. Plasminogen is a key proinflammatory regulator that accelerates the healing of acute and diabetic wounds. Blood. 2012;119:5879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that the inert plasma protein plasminogen (plg) acts as a key regulatory molecule that potentiates wound healing in mice...
  9. Kornblatt M, Kornblatt J, Hancock M. The interaction of canine plasminogen with Streptococcus pyogenes enolase: they bind to one another but what is the nature of the structures involved?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28481 pubmed publisher
    For years it has been clear that plasminogen from different sources and enolase from different sources interact strongly. What is less clear is the nature of the structures required for them to interact...
  10. Bauman K, Wettlaufer S, Okunishi K, Vannella K, Stoolman J, Huang S, et al. The antifibrotic effects of plasminogen activation occur via prostaglandin E2 synthesis in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1950-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen activation to plasmin protects from lung fibrosis, but the mechanism underlying this antifibrotic effect remains unclear...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Mays C, Ryou C. Plasminogen: A cellular protein cofactor for PrPSc propagation. Prion. 2011;5:22-7 pubmed
    ..We and others previously discovered that plasminogen interacts with PrP, while its functional role for PrPSc propagation remained undetermined...
  2. Vieira M, Vasconcellos S, Gonçales A, de Morais Z, Nascimento A. Plasminogen acquisition and activation at the surface of leptospira species lead to fibronectin degradation. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4092-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that Leptospira species are capable of binding plasminogen (PLG) in vitro...
  3. Agarwal V, Hammerschmidt S, Malm S, Bergmann S, Riesbeck K, Blom A. Enolase of Streptococcus pneumoniae binds human complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein and contributes to complement evasion. J Immunol. 2012;189:3575-84 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the pneumococcal glycolytic enzyme enolase, a nonclassical cell surface and plasminogen-binding protein, as an additional pneumococcal C4BP-binding protein...
  4. Law R, Caradoc Davies T, Cowieson N, Horvath A, Quek A, Encarnacao J, et al. The X-ray crystal structure of full-length human plasminogen. Cell Rep. 2012;1:185-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen is the proenzyme precursor of the primary fibrinolytic protease plasmin...
  5. Frøssing S, Rønø B, Hald A, Rømer J, Lund L. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..process depends on the concomitant activity of several extracellular proteases, including members of the plasminogen activation (PA) system and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family...
  6. Eren E, Murphy M, Goguen J, van den Berg B. An active site water network in the plasminogen activator pla from Yersinia pestis. Structure. 2010;18:809-18 pubmed publisher
    The plasminogen activator Pla from Yersinia pestis is an outer membrane protease (omptin) that is important for the virulence of plague. Here, we present the high-resolution crystal structure of wild-type, enzymatically active Pla at 1...
  7. Lu Q, Lu H, Qi J, Lu G, Gao G. An octamer of enolase from Streptococcus suis. Protein Cell. 2012;3:769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme can also locate on the cell surface and bind to plasminogen, via which contributing to the mucosal surface localization of the bacterial pathogens and assisting the ..
  8. Shen Y, Guo Y, Mikus P, Sulniute R, Wilczynska M, Ny T, et al. Plasminogen is a key proinflammatory regulator that accelerates the healing of acute and diabetic wounds. Blood. 2012;119:5879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that the inert plasma protein plasminogen (plg) acts as a key regulatory molecule that potentiates wound healing in mice...
  9. Kornblatt M, Kornblatt J, Hancock M. The interaction of canine plasminogen with Streptococcus pyogenes enolase: they bind to one another but what is the nature of the structures involved?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28481 pubmed publisher
    For years it has been clear that plasminogen from different sources and enolase from different sources interact strongly. What is less clear is the nature of the structures required for them to interact...
  10. Bauman K, Wettlaufer S, Okunishi K, Vannella K, Stoolman J, Huang S, et al. The antifibrotic effects of plasminogen activation occur via prostaglandin E2 synthesis in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1950-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen activation to plasmin protects from lung fibrosis, but the mechanism underlying this antifibrotic effect remains unclear...
  11. Kawao N, Tamura Y, Okumoto K, Yano M, Okada K, Matsuo O, et al. Plasminogen plays a crucial role in bone repair. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1561-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen is a critical factor of the tissue fibrinolytic system, which mediates tissue repair in the skin and liver...
  12. Juncker Jensen A, Lund L. Phenotypic overlap between MMP-13 and the plasminogen activation system during wound healing in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16954 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, healing of skin wounds is delayed by either plasminogen-deficiency or by treatment with the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MP) inhibitor Galardin alone, while the ..
  13. Han J, Baik N, Kim K, Yang J, Han G, Gong Y, et al. Monoclonal antibodies detect receptor-induced binding sites in Glu-plasminogen. Blood. 2011;118:1653-62 pubmed publisher
    When Glu-plasminogen binds to cells, its activation to plasmin is markedly enhanced compared with the reaction in solution, suggesting that Glu-plasminogen on cell surfaces adopts a conformation distinct from that in solution...
  14. Lighvani S, Baik N, Diggs J, Khaldoyanidi S, Parmer R, Miles L. Regulation of macrophage migration by a novel plasminogen receptor Plg-R KT. Blood. 2011;118:5622-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These functions are promoted by plasminogen receptors exposing C-terminal basic residues on the macrophage surface...
  15. Varjú I, Sótonyi P, Machovich R, Szabó L, Tenekedjiev K, Silva M, et al. Hindered dissolution of fibrin formed under mechanical stress. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9:979-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to the surface of model clots, which contained plasminogen, resulted in plasmin generation ..
  16. Gong Y, Fan Y, Hoover Plow J. Plasminogen regulates stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4-mediated hematopoietic stem cell mobilization by activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen (Plg) has been shown to be critical for HPSC mobilization...
  17. Yamagishi K, Aleksic N, Hannan P, Folsom A. Coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, and XII, plasminogen, and alpha-2 antiplasmin and risk of coronary heart disease. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:402-9 pubmed
    To examine whether plasma levels of coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, and XII, plasminogen, and alpha-2 antiplasmin are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a prospective case-cohort study...
  18. Kim P, Tieu L, Stafford A, Fredenburgh J, Weitz J. A high affinity interaction of plasminogen with fibrin is not essential for efficient activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4652-61 pubmed publisher
    Fibrin (Fn) enhances plasminogen (Pg) activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) by serving as a template onto which Pg and tPA assemble...
  19. Khoufache K, Berri F, Nacken W, Vogel A, Delenne M, Camerer E, et al. PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model...
  20. Nogueira S, Smith A, Qin J, Pal U. A surface enolase participates in Borrelia burgdorferi-plasminogen interaction and contributes to pathogen survival within feeding ticks. Infect Immun. 2012;80:82-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the protein also interacts with host plasminogen, potentially leading to its activation and resulting in B. burgdorferi-induced fibrinolysis...
  21. Chuang Y, Lei H, Lin Y, Liu H, Wu H, Yeh T. Dengue virus-induced autoantibodies bind to plasminogen and enhance its activation. J Immunol. 2011;187:6483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms that cause pathology in DHF/DSS patients are still unclear. Because conversion of plasminogen (Plg) to plasmin (Plm) is the first step in the activation of fibrinolysis, Abs against Plg found in DHF/DSS ..
  22. Berri F, Rimmelzwaan G, Hanss M, Albina E, Foucault Grunenwald M, Lê V, et al. Plasminogen controls inflammation and pathogenesis of influenza virus infections via fibrinolysis. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003229 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using combined pharmacological and gene-deletion approaches, we show that plasminogen controls lung inflammation and pathogenesis of infections with influenza A/PR/8/34, highly pathogenic H5N1 and ..
  23. Diaz Ramos A, Roig Borrellas A, García Melero A, Lopez Alemany R. ?-Enolase, a multifunctional protein: its role on pathophysiological situations. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:156795 pubmed publisher
    ..enolase is expressed on the surface of several cell types, where it acts as a plasminogen receptor, concentrating proteolytic plasmin activity on the cell surface...
  24. Segarra C, Bougard D, Moudjou M, Laude H, Beringue V, Coste J. Plasminogen-based capture combined with amplification technology for the detection of PrP(TSE) in the pre-clinical phase of infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69632 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a three-step assay that firstly captures PrP(TSE) from infected blood using a plasminogen-coated magnetic-nanobead method prior to its serial amplification via protein misfolding cyclic amplification (..
  25. Nogueira S, Fonseca F, Rodrigues M, Mundodi V, Abi Chacra E, Winters M, et al. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis enolase is a surface protein that binds plasminogen and mediates interaction of yeast forms with host cells. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4040-50 pubmed publisher
    ..brasiliensis. Interaction of surface-bound enolase with plasminogen has been incriminated in tissue invasion for pathogenesis in several pathogens...
  26. Suri M, Yamagishi K, Aleksic N, Hannan P, Folsom A. Novel hemostatic factor levels and risk of ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;29:497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemostatic factors II, V, IX, X, XI, XII, plasminogen and alpha(2)-antiplasmin were measured on frozen citrate plasma samples from 1990 to 1992...
  27. Hauk P, Barbosa A, Ho P, Farah C. Calcium binding to leptospira outer membrane antigen LipL32 is not necessary for its interaction with plasma fibronectin, collagen type IV, and plasminogen. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Q67A, and S247A) and evaluated their ability to interact with Ca(2+) and with ECM glycoproteins and human plasminogen. The D163-168A mutant modifies aspartate residues involved in Ca(2+) binding, whereas the other two modify ..
  28. Schuliga M, Harris T, Stewart A. Plasminogen activation by airway smooth muscle is regulated by type I collagen. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;44:831-9 pubmed publisher
    Plasmin, the activated protease product of plasminogen, is involved in collagen remodeling, and is strongly implicated in asthma pathophysiology by recent genome-wide association studies...
  29. Boone T, Tyrrell G. Identification of the actin and plasminogen binding regions of group B streptococcal phosphoglycerate kinase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29035-44 pubmed publisher
    ..surface of group B streptococcus (GBS), has previously been demonstrated to bind the host proteins actin and plasminogen. The actin and plasminogen binding sites of GBS-PGK were identified using truncated GBS-PGK molecules, followed ..
  30. Gutierrez Fernandez A, Gingles N, Bai H, Castellino F, Parmer R, Miles L. Plasminogen enhances neuritogenesis on laminin-1. J Neurosci. 2009;29:12393-400 pubmed publisher
    Proteins of the plasminogen activation system are broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, and key roles for these proteins in neuronal function have been demonstrated...
  31. Magalhães V, Andrade E, Alves J, Ribeiro A, Kim K, Lima M, et al. Group B Streptococcus hijacks the host plasminogen system to promote brain endothelial cell invasion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63244 pubmed publisher
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of meningitis in neonates. We have previously shown that plasminogen, once recruited to the GBS cell surface and converted into plasmin by host-derived activators, leads to an enhancement ..
  32. Chen H, Yu S, Shen X, Chen D, Qiu X, Song C, et al. The Mycoplasma gallisepticum ?-enolase is cell surface-exposed and mediates adherence by binding to chicken plasminogen. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..gallisepticum cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay characterized rMGEno as a chicken plasminogen binding protein...
  33. Imamura Y, Morita S, Nakatani Y, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen are critical for osmotic homeostasis by regulating vasopressin secretion. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we demonstrated that the immunoreactivity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was observed specifically at neurosecretory granules of AVP-positive magnocellular terminals ..
  34. Toledo A, Coleman J, Kuhlow C, Crowley J, Benach J. The enolase of Borrelia burgdorferi is a plasminogen receptor released in outer membrane vesicles. Infect Immun. 2012;80:359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In borreliae, as well as in other bacteria, a number of membrane proteins have been implicated in binding plasminogen. The activation and transformation of plasminogen into its proteolytically active form, plasmin, enhances the ..
  35. Papasergi S, Garibaldi M, Tuscano G, Signorino G, Ricci S, Peppoloni S, et al. Plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein B is involved in the adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to human epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This locus encodes for an approximately 120-kDa protein, herein referred to as plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein B (PfbB), which displays an LPXTG cell wall anchoring motif and six repetitive ..
  36. Ghosh A, Jacobs Lorena M. Surface-expressed enolases of Plasmodium and other pathogens. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106 Suppl 1:85-90 pubmed
    ..In these organisms, surface enolase assists in the invasion of their host cells by binding plasminogen, an abundant plasma protease precursor...
  37. Stie J, Bruni G, Fox D. Surface-associated plasminogen binding of Cryptococcus neoformans promotes extracellular matrix invasion. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5780 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Plasminogen is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of ..
  38. Lama A, Kucknoor A, Mundodi V, Alderete J. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a surface-associated, fibronectin-binding protein of Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Natural GAPDH and rGAPDH bound to immobilized FN and to plasminogen and collagen but not to laminin. MAb ws1 inhibited binding to FN...
  39. Seling A, Siegel C, Fingerle V, Jutras B, Brissette C, Skerka C, et al. Functional characterization of Borrelia spielmanii outer surface proteins that interact with distinct members of the human factor H protein family and with plasminogen. Infect Immun. 2010;78:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation of His-79 to Arg did not inhibit binding of plasminogen, another known ligand of this group of borrelial outer-surface proteins.
  40. Figuera L, Acosta H, Gómez Arreaza A, Dávila Vera D, Balza Quintero A, Quiñones W, et al. Plasminogen binding proteins in secreted membrane vesicles of Leishmania mexicana. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;187:14-20 pubmed publisher
    Membrane vesicles secreted by Leishmania mexicana were collected and analyzed. These vesicles can bind plasminogen and were shown to contain enolase, previously identified as a plasminogen-binding protein...
  41. Kwaan H, McMahon B. The role of plasminogen-plasmin system in cancer. Cancer Treat Res. 2009;148:43-66 pubmed publisher
    Components of the plasminogen-plasmin system participate in a wide variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, including tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, through their effect on angiogenesis and cell migration...
  42. Floden A, Watt J, Brissette C. Borrelia burgdorferi enolase is a surface-exposed plasminogen binding protein. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27502 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to aid in its dissemination, B. burgdorferi binds plasminogen, a component of the hosts' fibrinolytic system. Plasminogen bound to the surface of B...
  43. Ghosh A, Coppens I, Gardsvoll H, Ploug M, Jacobs Lorena M. Plasmodium ookinetes coopt mammalian plasminogen to invade the mosquito midgut. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we demonstrate that surface enolase captures plasminogen from the mammalian blood meal via its lysine motif (DKSLVK) and that this interaction is essential for midgut ..
  44. Vieira M, Atzingen M, Oliveira T, Oliveira R, Andrade D, Vasconcellos S, et al. In vitro identification of novel plasminogen-binding receptors of the pathogen Leptospira interrogans. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11259 pubmed publisher
    ..We have reported that Leptospira are able to bind plasminogen (PLG), to generate active plasmin in the presence of activator, and to degrade purified extracellular matrix ..
  45. Souza N, Vieira M, Alves I, de Morais Z, Vasconcellos S, Nascimento A. Lsa30, a novel adhesin of Leptospira interrogans binds human plasminogen and the complement regulator C4bp. Microb Pathog. 2012;53:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the Lsa30 is a plasminogen (PLG) receptor, capable of generating plasmin, in the presence of activator...
  46. Phipps K, Surette A, O Connell P, Waisman D. Plasminogen receptor S100A10 is essential for the migration of tumor-promoting macrophages into tumor sites. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6676-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we offer genetic evidence that plasminogen receptor S100A10 is essential for recruitment of macrophages to the tumor site...
  47. Suomalainen M, Lobo L, Brandenburg K, Lindner B, Virkola R, Knirel Y, et al. Temperature-induced changes in the lipopolysaccharide of Yersinia pestis affect plasminogen activation by the pla surface protease. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2644-52 pubmed publisher
    The Pla surface protease of Yersinia pestis activates human plasminogen and is a central virulence factor in bubonic and pneumonic plague...
  48. Chung M, Tonry J, Narayanan A, Manes N, Mackie R, Gutting B, et al. Bacillus anthracis interacts with plasmin(ogen) to evade C3b-dependent innate immunity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18119 pubmed publisher
    ..anthracis spores, and found that plasminogen (PLG) is a major surface-bound protein...
  49. Diaz Ramos A, Roig Borrellas A, García Melero A, Llorens A, Lopez Alemany R. Requirement of plasminogen binding to its cell-surface receptor ?-enolase for efficient regeneration of normal and dystrophic skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50477 pubmed publisher
    ..enolase has been described as plasminogen receptor in several cell types, where it acts concentrating plasmin proteolytic activity on the cell surface...
  50. Verma A, Brissette C, Bowman A, Shah S, Zipfel P, Stevenson B. Leptospiral endostatin-like protein A is a bacterial cell surface receptor for human plasminogen. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies from our laboratories and another have demonstrated that L. interrogans can acquire host plasminogen on its surface...
  51. Ohki M, Ohki Y, Ishihara M, Nishida C, Tashiro Y, Akiyama H, et al. Tissue type plasminogen activator regulates myeloid-cell dependent neoangiogenesis during tissue regeneration. Blood. 2010;115:4302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) can dissolve blood clots and can ameliorate the clinical outcome in ischemic diseases...
  52. Bai H, Baik N, Kiosses W, Krajewski S, Miles L, Parmer R. The novel plasminogen receptor, plasminogen receptor(KT) (Plg-R(KT)), regulates catecholamine release. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33125-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of Plg-R(KT), a novel plasminogen receptor, and its role in catecholaminergic cell plasminogen activation and regulation of catecholamine release...
  53. Gu X, Yao Y, Cheng R, Zhang Y, Dai Z, Wan G, et al. Plasminogen K5 activates mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in endothelial cells by regulating Bak and Bcl-x(L) subcellular distribution. Apoptosis. 2011;16:846-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen Kringle 5(K5) is a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, which displays potent anti-angiogenic activities...
  54. Fulde M, Rohde M, Hitzmann A, Preissner K, Nitsche Schmitz D, Nerlich A, et al. SCM, a novel M-like protein from Streptococcus canis, binds (mini)-plasminogen with high affinity and facilitates bacterial transmigration. Biochem J. 2011;434:523-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper we report the binding of human plasminogen to S. canis and the recruitment of proteolytically active plasmin on its surface...
  55. Chen J, Hwang J, Chang L, Wu C, Lin Y. Attributes of antiangiogenic factor plasminogen kringle 5 in glomerulonephritis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:1804-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Plasminogen kringle domain (K) 5 is known to inhibit endothelial cell growth, but limited data are available investigating the relationship between K5 and glomerulonephritis (GN)...
  56. Barthel D, Singh B, Riesbeck K, Zipfel P. Haemophilus influenzae uses the surface protein E to acquire human plasminogen and to evade innate immunity. J Immunol. 2012;188:379-85 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenic microbes acquire the human plasma protein plasminogen to their surface...
  57. Sun H, Xu Y, Sitkiewicz I, Ma Y, Wang X, Yestrepsky B, et al. Inhibitor of streptokinase gene expression improves survival after group A streptococcus infection in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the class of compounds represented by CCG-2979 may be of therapeutic value for the treatment of GAS and potentially other gram-positive infections in humans...