Summary: Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.

Top Publications

  1. Poole R, Hatch L, Cleeter M, Gibson F, Cox G, Wu G. Cytochrome bd biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: the sequences of the cydC and cydD genes suggest that they encode the components of an ABC membrane transporter. Mol Microbiol. 1993;10:421-30 pubmed
    ..The CydDC system appears to be the first prokaryotic example of a heterodimeric ABC transport system in which each polypeptide contains both hydrophobic and ATP-binding domains...
  2. Matuskova Z, Siller M, Tunkova A, Anzenbacherova E, Zachařová A, Tlaskalova Hogenova H, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus casei on the expression and the activity of cytochromes P450 and on the CYP mRNA level in the intestine and the liver of male rats. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011;32 Suppl 1:8-14 pubmed
    ..aim of the study was to find whether probiotic Lactobacillus casei influences the expression or the activity of cytochromes P450 (CYP) and whether it has an influence on the level of CYP mRNA in male rats...
  3. Bekker M, de Vries S, Ter Beek A, Hellingwerf K, de Mattos M. Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:5510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A full understanding and control of this distribution open new avenues for optimization of biotechnological processes. ..
  4. Galle A, Florez Sarasa I, Thameur A, De Paepe R, Flexas J, Ribas Carbo M. Effects of drought stress and subsequent rewatering on photosynthetic and respiratory pathways in Nicotiana sylvestris wild type and the mitochondrial complex I-deficient CMSII mutant. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:765-75 pubmed publisher
  5. Reardon C, Dohnalkova A, Nachimuthu P, Kennedy D, Saffarini D, Arey B, et al. Role of outer-membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the biomineralization of ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Geobiology. 2010;8:56-68 pubmed publisher the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer-membrane cytochromes (OMCs), MtrC and OmcA, were characterized for the ability to reduce ferrihydrite (FH) using a suite of ..
  6. Bücking C, Popp F, Kerzenmacher S, Gescher J. Involvement and specificity of Shewanella oneidensis outer membrane cytochromes in the reduction of soluble and solid-phase terminal electron acceptors. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;306:144-51 pubmed publisher
    The formation of outer membrane (OM) cytochromes seems to be a key step in the evolution of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria...
  7. Lieutaud A, van Lis R, Duval S, Capowiez L, Muller D, Lebrun R, et al. Arsenite oxidase from Ralstonia sp. 22: characterization of the enzyme and its interaction with soluble cytochromes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20433-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The biochemical study of the enzyme demonstrates that it can accommodate in vitro various cytochromes, two of which, c(552) and c(554,) are from the parent species...
  8. Muturi C, Ouma J, Malele I, Ngure R, Rutto J, Mithöfer K, et al. Tracking the feeding patterns of tsetse flies (Glossina genus) by analysis of bloodmeals using mitochondrial cytochromes genes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17284 pubmed publisher
  9. Kotrbova V, Mrazova B, Moserova M, Martinek V, Hodek P, Hudecek J, et al. Cytochrome b(5) shifts oxidation of the anticancer drug ellipticine by cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 from its detoxication to activation, thereby modulating its pharmacological efficacy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:669-80 pubmed publisher
    Ellipticine is a pro-drug, whose activation is dependent on its oxidation by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases...

More Information


  1. Mason M, Shepherd M, Nicholls P, Dobbin P, Dodsworth K, Poole R, et al. Cytochrome bd confers nitric oxide resistance to Escherichia coli. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:94-6 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cells from NO-induced growth inhibition by virtue of its fast NO dissociation rate. ..
  2. Bücking C, Piepenbrock A, Kappler A, Gescher J. Outer-membrane cytochrome-independent reduction of extracellular electron acceptors in Shewanella oneidensis. Microbiology. 2012;158:2144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The final reduction is catalysed by outer-membrane cytochromes that transfer respiratory electrons either directly to mineral surfaces and metal ions bound in larger organic ..
  3. Richardson D, Butt J, Fredrickson J, Zachara J, Shi L, Edwards M, et al. The 'porin-cytochrome' model for microbe-to-mineral electron transfer. Mol Microbiol. 2012;85:201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..It is debated how, once outside the cells, electrons are transferred from outer-membrane cytochromes to insoluble electron sinks...
  4. Floreani M, Gabbia D, Barbierato M, De Martin S, Palatini P. Differential inducing effect of benzo[a]pyrene on gene expression and enzyme activity of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2012;27:640-52 pubmed
    ..was to compare RT-PCR, Western blot and determination of enzyme activity in the assessment of the induction of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A1 and 1A2 by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats...
  5. Brazhe N, Treiman M, Brazhe A, Find N, Maksimov G, Sosnovtseva O. Mapping of redox state of mitochondrial cytochromes in live cardiomyocytes using Raman microspectroscopy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41990 pubmed publisher
    This paper presents a nonivasive approach to study redox state of reduced cytochromes c, c1 and b of complexes II and III in mitochondria of live cardiomyocytes by means of Raman microspectroscopy...
  6. Bundgaard C, Badolo L, Redrobe J. RO4938581, a GABAA?5 modulator, displays strong CYP1A2 autoinduction properties in rats. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that RO4938581 possesses potent CYP1A2 autoinductive properties in rats and may serve as a tool for mechanistic metabolism or drug-drug interaction studies encircling this enzyme in rats...
  7. White G, Shi Z, Shi L, Wang Z, Dohnalkova A, Marshall M, et al. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6346-51 pubmed publisher
    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer ..
  8. Jesse H, Nye T, McLean S, Green J, Mann B, Poole R. Cytochrome bd-I in Escherichia coli is less sensitive than cytochromes bd-II or bo'' to inhibition by the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule, CORM-3: N-acetylcysteine reduces CO-RM uptake and inhibition of respiration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1693-703 pubmed publisher
  9. Clarke T, Holley T, Hartshorne R, Fredrickson J, Zachara J, Shi L, et al. The role of multihaem cytochromes in the respiration of nitrite in Escherichia coli and Fe(III) in Shewanella oneidensis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:1005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and the extracellular Fe(III) reductase system from Shewanella oneidensis contain multihaem c-type cytochromes as electron carriers and terminal reductases...
  10. Wang Z, Liu C, Wang X, Marshall M, Zachara J, Rosso K, et al. Kinetics of reduction of Fe(III) complexes by outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6746-55 pubmed publisher
    Because of their cell surface locations, the outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 have been suggested to be the terminal reductases for a range of redox-reactive metals that form poorly soluble ..
  11. Shi L, Deng S, Marshall M, Wang Z, Kennedy D, Dohnalkova A, et al. Direct involvement of type II secretion system in extracellular translocation of Shewanella oneidensis outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5512-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Lovley D. Extracellular electron transfer: wires, capacitors, iron lungs, and more. Geobiology. 2008;6:225-31 pubmed publisher
  13. Borisov V. Interaction of bd-type quinol oxidase from Escherichia coli and carbon monoxide: heme d binds CO with high affinity. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:14-22 pubmed
    ..The apparent dissociation constant values for the heme d-CO complex of the membrane-bound and detergent-solubilized forms of the fully reduced enzyme are about 70 and 80 nM, respectively. ..
  14. Ishii Y, Iwanaga M, Nishimura Y, Takeda S, Ikushiro S, Nagata K, et al. Protein-protein interactions between rat hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): evidence for the functionally active UGT in P450-UGT complex. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2007;22:367-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, CYP2C11/13 could associate with UGTs, but the affinity is assumed to be weaker than that of CYP2B/3As. These results suggest that there is isoform specificity in the interaction between P450s and UGTs. ..
  15. Elmore B, Bergmann D, Klotz M, Hooper A. Cytochromes P460 and c'-beta; a new family of high-spin cytochromes c. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:911-6 pubmed
    b>Cytochromes-P460 of Nitrosomonas europaea and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), and the cytochrome c' of M...
  16. Borisov V, Forte E, Sarti P, Brunori M, Konstantinov A, Giuffrè A. Redox control of fast ligand dissociation from Escherichia coli cytochrome bd. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:97-102 pubmed
    ..As NO, an inhibitor of respiratory oxidases, is involved in the immune response against microbial infection, the rapid dissociation of NO from cytochrome bd may have important bearings on the patho-physiology of enterobacteria. ..
  17. Jackson R, Elvers K, Lee L, Gidley M, Wainwright L, Lightfoot J, et al. Oxygen reactivity of both respiratory oxidases in Campylobacter jejuni: the cydAB genes encode a cyanide-resistant, low-affinity oxidase that is not of the cytochrome bd type. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1604-15 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with cytochrome oxidation during photolysis at low temperatures. ..
  18. Acker T, Fandrey J, Acker H. The good, the bad and the ugly in oxygen-sensing: ROS, cytochromes and prolyl-hydroxylases. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:195-207 pubmed
    ..Herein, we propose an integrated model for these various oxygen-sensing mechanisms that very efficiently regulate HIF-alpha activity and plasma membrane potassium-channel (PMPC) conductivity. ..
  19. Zoppellaro G, Teschner T, Harbitz E, Schünemann V, Karlsen S, Arciero D, et al. Low-temperature EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy of two cytochromes with His-Met axial coordination exhibiting HALS signals. Chemphyschem. 2006;7:1258-67 pubmed
    C-type cytochromes with histidine-methionine (His-Met) iron coordination play important roles in electron-transfer reactions and in enzymes...
  20. Núñez C, Esteve Nuñez A, Giometti C, Tollaksen S, Khare T, Lin W, et al. DNA microarray and proteomic analyses of the RpoS regulon in Geobacter sulfurreducens. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2792-800 pubmed
    ..sulfurreducens growth using oxygen as an electron acceptor, and expression of at least 13 c-type cytochromes, including one previously shown to participate in Fe(III) reduction (MacA), were RpoS dependent...
  21. Tamegai H, Kawano H, Ishii A, Chikuma S, Nakasone K, Kato C. Pressure-regulated biosynthesis of cytochrome bd in piezo- and psychrophilic deep-sea bacterium Shewanella violacea DSS12. Extremophiles. 2005;9:247-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that the significant amount of d-type cytochrome expression is specific event under the growth condition of high pressure. ..
  22. Myers C, Myers J. The outer membrane cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are lipoproteins. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39:466-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine if the outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA and OmcB of the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are lipoproteins, and to assess cell surface exposure of the cytochromes by radioiodination. ..
  23. Kummer W, Yamamoto Y. Cellular distribution of oxygen sensor candidates-oxidases, cytochromes, K+-channels--in the carotid body. Microsc Res Tech. 2002;59:234-42 pubmed
    ..The cellular identification of the cell type initiating the chemoreceptor reflex, however, has to await the molecular identification of the particular oxygen sensor molecule that initiates increased carotid sinus nerve activity. ..