sanitary engineering


Summary: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.

Top Publications

  1. Carvalho P, Marques R. The influence of the operational environment on the efficiency of water utilities. J Environ Manage. 2011;92:2698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of ownership is inconclusive and the variables residential customers, water source, peak factor, and density of customers have a mixed influence on performance which varies according to their scores. ..
  2. Freni G, Mannina G, Viviani G. Assessment of data and parameter uncertainties in integrated water-quality model. Water Sci Technol. 2011;63:1913-21 pubmed
    ..The results show that uncertainty contribution due to the model structure is higher with respect to the other sources of uncertainty. ..
  3. Vinneras B, Jonsson H. The performance and potential of faecal separation and urine diversion to recycle plant nutrients in household wastewater. Bioresour Technol. 2002;84:275-82 pubmed
  4. Renner R. Reaction to the solution: lead exposure following partial service line replacement. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:A202-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Lai Y, Kao C, Surampalli R, Lin C, Wu C. Developing nonpoint-source suspended solids control strategies using multimedia watershed management modeling. Water Environ Res. 2010;82:2205-18 pubmed
    ..Modeling results show that forestation and land-use management are feasible best management practices for NPS suspended solids reduction. ..
  6. Dietzmann E. How homeowners' associations can successfully manage advanced onsite systems. J Environ Health. 2006;69:30-1 pubmed
  7. An P. Constructing and dismantling frameworks of disease etiology: the rise and fall of sewer gas in America, 1870-1910. Yale J Biol Med. 2004;77:75-100 pubmed
    ..The germ theory framework, by 1910, proved more suitable than the sewer gas framework in explaining disease causation; it is this suitability that often shapes the relationship between science and society. ..
  8. Qin H, Su Q, Khu S. Assessment of environmental improvement measures using a novel integrated model: a case study of the Shenzhen River catchment, China. J Environ Manage. 2013;114:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that SyDWEM has the capacity to evaluate the effects of both socio-economic and engineering measures; it also provides a tool for integrated decision making by socio-economic and water infrastructure planners. ..
  9. McLean J, Lombardo M, Badger J, Edlund A, Novotny M, Yee Greenbaum J, et al. Candidate phylum TM6 genome recovered from a hospital sink biofilm provides genomic insights into this uncultivated phylum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E2390-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenomic analysis of conserved single-copy genes confirms that TM6SC1 is a deeply branching phylum. ..

More Information


  1. Jung S, Doh Y, Bizuneh D, Beyene H, Seong J, Kwon H, et al. The effects of improved sanitation on diarrheal prevalence, incidence, and duration in children under five in the SNNPR State, Ethiopia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2016;17:204 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the second study to assess the effects of improved latrines on child diarrheal reduction through the application of Community-Led Total Sanitation. Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN82492848. ..
  2. Nienhuis J, de Haan C, Langeveld J, Klootwijk M, Clemens F. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections. Water Sci Technol. 2013;67:2712-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the results, a new monitoring set-up for (partially) filled sewer conduits has been proposed. ..
  3. Khan A, Narulkar S. Comparative lysimeters studies for landfill leachate characterization and settlement variation in partly sorted municipal solid waste and fully sorted organic wastes. J Environ Sci Eng. 2010;52:107-12 pubmed
    ..The results indicate the faster decay of pollutants in bioreactor in comparison to open dumps. The trend indicating the decay of pollutants elements in the produced leachate is encouraging. ..
  4. Cheng W, Hsu S, Chou M. Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: legal regulations and costs of control. J Environ Manage. 2008;88:1485-94 pubmed
    ..The additional capital and operating costs required to treat the VOC emissions of 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from primary treatment facilities are less than USD 0.1 for per m(3) wastewater treatment capacity. ..
  5. Majorin F, Torondel B, Routray P, Rout M, Clasen T. Identifying Potential Sources of Exposure Along the Child Feces Management Pathway: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Urban Slums in Odisha, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:861-869 pubmed publisher
  6. Walker N. Copper toxicosis in an Australian child. Eur J Med Res. 1999;4:249-51 pubmed
    ..The rarity of ICT in Australia, despite a significant population at risk, and the implications of these cases are discussed. ..
  7. van de Poel I. The bugs eat the waste: what else is there to know? Changing professional hegemony in the design of sewage treatment plants. Soc Stud Sci. 2008;38:605-34 pubmed
    ..Two routes for professional competition that are typical for engineering, but that are not yet distinguished by Abbott, are identified and analysed: the development of new design parameters and the development of new design approaches. ..
  8. Blenkharn J. Standards of clinical waste management in UK hospitals. J Hosp Infect. 2006;62:300-3 pubmed
  9. Torvinen E, Suomalainen S, Lehtola M, Miettinen I, Zacheus O, Paulin L, et al. Mycobacteria in water and loose deposits of drinking water distribution systems in Finland. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:1973-81 pubmed
    ..tusciae, M. gordonae, and a previously unclassified group of mycobacteria. Our results indicate that drinking water systems may be a source for recently discovered new mycobacterial species. ..
  10. Hayes C. Tempering your emergency shower water ... because nobody likes a cold shower!. Occup Health Saf. 2003;72:46-9, 107 pubmed
  11. Warris A, Gaustad P, Meis J, Voss A, Verweij P, Abrahamsen T. Recovery of filamentous fungi from water in a paediatric bone marrow transplantation unit. J Hosp Infect. 2001;47:143-8 pubmed
    ..The recovery of filamentous fungi in water samples taken at the intake reservoir suggests that the source of contamination is located outside the hospital. ..
  12. Fontanazza C, Freni G, La Loggia G, Notaro V. Uncertainty evaluation of design rainfall for urban flood risk analysis. Water Sci Technol. 2011;63:2641-50 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that statistical correlations amongst rainfall frequency, duration, volume and peak intensity can partially explain the weak reliability of flood-frequency analyses based on synthetic rainfall events. ..
  13. Mouri G, Oki T. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions. Water Sci Technol. 2010;62:2346-56 pubmed publisher
  14. Graczyk T, Kacprzak M, Neczaj E, Tamang L, Graczyk H, Lucy F, et al. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage sludge and solid waste landfill leachate and quantitative comparative analysis of sanitization treatments on pathogen inactivation. Environ Res. 2008;106:27-33 pubmed
  15. Malta Vacas J, Viegas S, Sabino R, Viegas C. Fungal and microbial volatile organic compounds exposure assessment in a waste sorting plant. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75:1410-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, with this knowledge, strategies may be developed for effective protection of the workers. ..
  16. Haller L, Hutton G, Bartram J. Estimating the costs and health benefits of water and sanitation improvements at global level. J Water Health. 2007;5:467-80 pubmed
    ..A policy shift to include better household water quality management to complement the continuing expansion of coverage and upgrading of services would appear to be a cost-effective health intervention in many developing countries. ..
  17. Marchesi I, Bargellini A, Cencetti S, Concetti S, Marchegiano P, Cauteruccio L, et al. [Active clinical surveillance for detection of Legionnaires' disease: implications for health care structures]. Ann Ig. 2007;19:295-302 pubmed
  18. van Saene H, Van Putte J, van Saene J, Van de Gronde T, Van Warmerdam E. Sink flora in a long-stay hospital is determined by the patients' oral and rectal flora. Epidemiol Infect. 1989;102:231-8 pubmed
    ..This report shows that the major route of environmental contamination is from patient carriers to sinks, and not the reverse way. ..
  19. Yang Y, Toor G, Wilson P, Williams C. Micropollutants in groundwater from septic systems: Transformations, transport mechanisms, and human health risk assessment. Water Res. 2017;123:258-267 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of ecotoxicological effects of micropollutant mixtures from septic systems to ecosystem and human health is warranted for the long-term sustainability of septic systems. ..
  20. Zhang S, Sun H. [Research progress on seaweed bed ecosystem and its engineering]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2007;18:1647-53 pubmed
    ..More basic research in seaweed bed ecosystems in China was urgent to be conducted to promote the marine economy and the development of relevant sciences and technologies. ..
  21. Herricks E, Suen J. Integrative analysis of water quality and physical habitat in the ecological design of water resources projects. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2006;41:1303-14 pubmed
    ..The paper will also explore ecological engineering and associated ecohydrology and ecohydraulics in the development of modern watershed management. ..
  22. Willison H, Boyer T. Secondary effects of anion exchange on chloride, sulfate, and lead release: systems approach to corrosion control. Water Res. 2012;46:2385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM. ..
  23. Checkley W, Gilman R, Black R, Epstein L, Cabrera L, Sterling C, et al. Effect of water and sanitation on childhood health in a poor Peruvian peri-urban community. Lancet. 2004;363:112-8 pubmed
    ..Improved and more reliable water sources should discourage water storage at risk of becoming contaminated, decrease diarrhoeal incidence, and improve linear growth in children. ..
  24. Rosner D. "Spanish flu, or whatever it is...": The paradox of public health in a time of crisis. Public Health Rep. 2010;125 Suppl 3:38-47 pubmed
    ..Much of public health was rooted in the experiences and practices developed over the previous century in responding to often dramatic outbreaks of cholera, yellow fever, typhoid, and a host of other infectious diseases. ..
  25. Lecointe D, Fagundez E, Pierron P, Musset J, Brissé P, Vollereau D, et al. [Management of the Legionella-link risk in a multicentre area's hospital: lessons learned of a six-year experience]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Multidisciplinary mobilization in management of Legionella-linked risk contributed to these results. ..
  26. Kassab G, Halalsheh M, Klapwijk A, Fayyad M, van Lier J. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment for domestic wastewater - a review. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:3299-310 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims on putting the effectiveness of sequential systems for treatment of domestic wastewater on view, through displaying results presented in literature on the performance of these systems. ..
  27. van Netten C, Pereira R, Brands R. Drinking water supply and management practices in British Columbia, 1997-98. Can J Public Health. 2002;93:14-8 pubmed
    ..At the time of the survey in British Columbia, a number of communities were vulnerable to preventable drinking water contamination. ..
  28. Aral M, Guan J, Maslia M, Sautner J, Gillig R, Reyes J, et al. Optimal reconstruction of historical water supply to a distribution system: B. Applications. J Water Health. 2004;2:137-56 pubmed
  29. Somlyódy L, Patziger M. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe. Water Sci Technol. 2012;66:1081-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. ..
  30. Mintz E, Tauxe R. Cholera in Africa: a closer look and a time for action. J Infect Dis. 2013;208 Suppl 1:S4-7 pubmed publisher
  31. Bathke J, de Cunico P, Maziero E, Cauduro F, Sarquis L, de Cruz E. [Infrastructure and adherence to hand hygiene: challenges to patient safety]. Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2013;34:78-85 pubmed
    ..The results indicate risk to patient safety, and thus, the planning of corrective actions to promote hand washing is relevant. ..
  32. Wendo C. Uganda, World Bank, and DFID launch sanitation campaign. Sanitation project will seek to change hygiene behaviour among people in Uganda. Lancet. 2003;362:716 pubmed
  33. von Seidlein L, Jiddawi M, Grais R, Luquero F, Lucas M, Deen J. The value of and challenges for cholera vaccines in Africa. J Infect Dis. 2013;208 Suppl 1:S8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The evaluation and use of OCVs as a tool for cholera control will require a new, more compassionate, less risk-averse generation of decision makers. ..
  34. Zhang Y, Griffin A, Rahman M, Camper A, Baribeau H, Edwards M. Lead contamination of potable water due to nitrification. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1890-5 pubmed
    ..While nitrification also produces nitrite and nitrate and reduces inorganic carbon and dissolved oxygen, these factors did not significantly impact lead leaching in this work. ..
  35. Soares L, Griesinger M, Dachs J, Bittner M, Tavares S. Inequities in access to and use of drinking water services in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2002;11:386-96 pubmed
    ..It is recommended that countries improve their portion of the surveys that deals with water and sanitation in order to facilitate national health assessments and the establishment of more equitable subsidy programs. ..
  36. Velmurugan B, Arathy E, Hemalatha R, Philip J, Alwar Ramanujam R. Anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes and primary sewage sludge. J Environ Sci Eng. 2010;52:19-22 pubmed
    ..0 g VS/ l.d and with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days. The reactor with 75% FVW and 25% sewage sludge (in terms of VS) showed better performance in terms of VS reduction and biogas yield when compared to other two proportions. ..
  37. Martin C. Saturation point. Minn Med. 2005;88:36-7, 53 pubmed
  38. Nguyen C, Elfland C, Edwards M. Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth. Water Res. 2012;46:611-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. ..
  39. Davis J, White G, Damodaron S, Thorsten R. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development. Water Sci Technol. 2008;58:887-91 pubmed publisher
  40. Heaney C, Wing S, Wilson S, Campbell R, Caldwell D, Hopkins B, et al. Public infrastructure disparities and the microbiological and chemical safety of drinking and surface water supplies in a community bordering a landfill. J Environ Health. 2013;75:24-36 pubmed
    ..Pervasive private household water and sewer infrastructure failures and poor water quality were identified in this community bordering a regional landfill, providing evidence of a need for improved water and sanitation services. ..
  41. Mietzner S, Schwille R, Farley A, Wald E, Ge J, States S, et al. Efficacy of thermal treatment and copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in high-volume hot water plumbing systems in hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 1997;25:452-7 pubmed
    ..Copper-silver ionization effectively controls L. pneumophila in high-volume plumbing systems and is superior to thermal treatment; however, high concentrations of copper and silver can accumulate at the bottom of hot water tanks. ..
  42. Deshommes E, Prevost M. Pb particles from tap water: bioaccessibility and contribution to child exposure. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:6269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..5-7 for the distribution system studied was the most significant when considering a fraction of the exposure from large buildings. ..
  43. Katz B, Griffin D, McMahon P, Harden H, Wade E, Hicks R, et al. Fate of effluent-borne contaminants beneath septic tank drainfields overlying a Karst aquifer. J Environ Qual. 2010;39:1181-95 pubmed
    ..Contaminant movement to groundwater beneath each septic tank system also was related to water use and differences in lithology at each site. ..
  44. Mermel L, Josephson S, Dempsey J, Parenteau S, Perry C, Magill N. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:3163-5 pubmed
    ..Covering faucet handles with paper towels during hand washing in the laboratory was protective. No further cases occurred after the laboratory was cleaned with a phenolic agent and a handle-free faucet was installed...
  45. Montangero A, Belevi H. Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: a promising method in the context of developing countries. Water Res. 2007;41:1052-64 pubmed
    ..These latrines thus contribute to reducing the nutrient load in the environment and lowering consumption of energy and non-renewable resources for fertiliser production. ..
  46. Marcynuk P, Flint J, Sargeant J, Jones Bitton A, Brito A, Luna C, et al. Comparison of the burden of diarrhoeal illness among individuals with and without household cisterns in northeast Brazil. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research accounting for additional risk factors and preventative factors should be conducted. ..
  47. Chen X, Zheng P, Cai J, Qaisar M. Bed expansion behavior and sensitivity analysis for super-high-rate anaerobic bioreactor. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2010;11:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..For E and V(pmax), the sensitivities of u(g) and u(l) were close to each other, while for tau(max), the sensitivity of u(l) was greater than that of u(g). The prediction from these models was a close match to the experimental data. ..
  48. Ali M, Horoshenkov K, Tait S. Rapid detection of sewer defects and blockages using acoustic-based instrumentation. Water Sci Technol. 2011;64:1700-7 pubmed
    ..The measurement is very rapid and objective and so inspections can be carried out at much faster rates than using existing CCTV technologies. ..
  49. Cartellieri A, Thiesen P, Niemeyer B. Development of a basic procedure to design sorption processes. Waste Manag. 2005;25:985-93 pubmed
    ..Of the four desorption methods examined, microwave desorption and ultrasonic-water desorption demonstrated the best results. ..
  50. Ivashchenko I. [The Medical Service of the Siberian Military District in World War II]. Voen Med Zh. 2002;323:96-9 pubmed
  51. Jabeen S, Mahmood Q, Tariq S, Nawab B, Elahi N. Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2011;23:47-50 pubmed
    ..coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella and Clostridium. This observation was correlated with prevalence of many water born diseases especially in rural communities of Abbottabad. ..
  52. Lamichhane K. On-site sanitation: a viable alternative to modern wastewater treatment plants. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:433-40 pubmed
    ..Bagmati Area Sewerage Project in Kathmandu is taken as an example of modern WWTP and ecosan being practiced in a village in Nepal is taken as an example of ecotoilet for the comparison. ..
  53. Bird S, Exum L, Alberty S. Generating high quality impervious cover data. Qual Assur. 2000;8:91-103 pubmed
    ..Ground features were identified and categorized by human analysts with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software and a prototype "cover tool" extension. ..