Genomes and Genes
Summary: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
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- Milligan J, Aguilera J, Ward J. Variation of single-strand break yield with scavenger concentration for the SV40 minichromosome irradiated in aqueous solution. Radiat Res. 1993;133:158-62 pubmed..At a DNA concentration of 50 micrograms ml-1, G(SSB) for the direct effect in the minichromosome is about 1 x 10(-5) mumol J-1 (2 x 10(-10) SSB Gy-1 Da-1), essentially equal to that for naked DNA. ..
- Lifschytz E, Falk R. Fine structure analysis of a chromosome segment in Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of x-ray-induced lethals. Mutat Res. 1968;6:235-44 pubmed
- Bender M, Preston R, Leonard R, Pyatt B, Gooch P, Shelby M. Chromosomal aberration and sister-chromatid exchange frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a large human population sample. Mutat Res. 1988;204:421-33 pubmed..Such fragments were significantly more frequent in samples from females than those from males, and showed a significant positive regression on age. ..
- Nakano M, Nakashima E, Pawel D, Kodama Y, Awa A. Frequency of reciprocal translocations and dicentrics induced in human blood lymphocytes by X-irradiation as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;64:565-9 pubmed..This was due in part to misclassification of certain dicentrics as reciprocal translocations by the FISH technique. ..
- Jenner T, deLara C, O NEILL P, Stevens D. Induction and rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks in V79-4 mammalian cells following gamma- and alpha-irradiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;64:265-73 pubmed..It is inferred that the difference in repair of the various lesions is a reflection of the differences in the complexity of the clustered damage produced by these radiations. ..
- van Rongen E, Thames H, Travis E. Recovery from radiation damage in mouse lung: interpretation in terms of two rates of repair. Radiat Res. 1993;133:225-33 pubmed..Data obtained from this experiment allowed only one repair rate to be determined, corresponding to a t1/2 of only 0.4 h. This finding confirms the presence of a very fast repair rate in mouse lung. ..
- Baverstock K, Karotki A. Towards a unifying theory of late stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. Mutat Res. 2011;718:1-9 pubmed publisher..This approach unifies at a fundamental level the heritable and late somatic effects of radiation into a single causal framework that has the potential to be extended to the effects of the other environmental agents damaging to health. ..
- Endlich B, Salavati R, Sullivan T, Ling C. Rat embryo cells immortalized with transfected oncogenes are transformed by gamma irradiation. Radiat Res. 1992;132:301-11 pubmed..A detailed analysis of the NIH 3T3 transformants generated from REC:myc:gamma 33 and gamma 41 DNA failed to detect Ha-ras, Ki-ras, raf, neu, trk, abl, fms, or src oncogenes of rat origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
- Brown J, Evans J, Kovacs M. The prediction of human tumor radiosensitivity in situ: an approach using chromosome aberrations detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992;24:279-86 pubmed..Each of these two methods has its advantages, and a careful study of the two should establish which is superior for routine use to determine tumor radiosensitivity in situ. ..
- Hall E. Scientific view of low-level radiation risks. Radiographics. 1991;11:509-18 pubmed..The balance of risk versus benefit in diagnostic radiology is heavily weighted toward benefit, but the risks are there, and constant efforts are needed to reduce radiation doses to the minimum necessary. ..
- Gvozdev V, Gostimsky S, Gerasimova T, Dubrovskaya E, Braslavskaya O. Fine genetic structure of the 2D3-2F5 region of the X-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1975;141:269-75 pubmed..The Pgd locus coding for 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is mapped in the 2D3 (OR 2D4) band. Isolation of 11 lethal or semilethal point mutations with null or reduced 6PGD activity shows that the Pgd locus is a vital one. ..
- Wallner P. A large vision with a small focus: from the organ to the cell. J Am Coll Radiol. 2004;1:719 pubmed
- Tutt A, Yarnold J. Radiobiology of breast cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2006;18:166-78 pubmed..To help clinical oncologists exploit these opportunities in translational research, some aspects of the molecular and cellular basis of radiotherapy are described below in their relation to breast cancer. ..
- Konings A. [Effects of ionising radiation on tissues]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1993;100:266-71 pubmed..Carcinogenesis is the most important late effect of ionizing radiation. For low dose rate radiation cancer risk after 1 mSv is estimated to be about 5 extra death cases per 100.000. ..
- Belli M, Goodhead D, Ianzini F, Simone G, Tabocchini M. Direct comparison of biological effectiveness of protons and alpha-particles of the same LET. II. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus in V79 cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 1992;61:625-9 pubmed..This finding is similar to, although slightly larger than, the factors 1.5-1.8 found for inactivation of the same cells in the same series of experiments. ..
- Goodhead D, Thacker J, Cox R. Weiss Lecture. Effects of radiations of different qualities on cells: molecular mechanisms of damage and repair. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;63:543-56 pubmed..Similarly, studies of radiation-induced leukaemia in the mouse have implicated rearrangement at specific interstitial chromosome sites, which are rich in telomere-like repeat sequences. ..
- McClean S, Hosking L, Hill B. Dominant expression of multiple drug resistance after in vitro X-irradiation exposure in intraspecific Chinese hamster ovary hybrid cells. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85:48-53 pubmed..This work adds weight to our hypothesis that there is a biological basis for the expression of clinical drug resistance in certain patients whose tumors have been previously irradiated. ..
- Kamada N. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome abnormality in early entrants. J Radiat Res. 1991;32 Suppl:275-7 pubmed..Five individuals had more than 1.6 percent stable type aberrations and were estimated to have been exposed to 6-13 rad. The other five individuals and the controls were estimated to be less than two rad. ..
- Hannah Alava A. Cytogenetics of nucleolus-rranspositions in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet. 1971;113:191-203 pubmed
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- Moskalev A, Zainullin V. [The role of reaper-dependent apoptosis in radiation-induced life-span alterations in Drosophila melanogaster]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003;43:242-4 pubmedThis is the result of studying on a problem of radio-induced ageing. From the point of view of radiation genetics it is perspective to investigate influence of low doze irradiation on individuals with the mutant phenotypes that allows to ..
- Santy P, Jennings R. Human reproductive issues in space. Adv Space Res. 1992;12:151-5 pubmed..While there are no current space flight investigations, the animal studies suggest priorities for future research in human reproduction. Such studies will be critical for the successful colonization of the space frontier. ..
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- Travis E, Curtis S, Howard J, Fowler J. Repair but not potentiation observed in mouse lung irradiated with neon ions. Radiat Res. 1987;112:500-7 pubmed..The effectiveness of neon ions appeared to be closer to that of neutrons with a mean energy of 8 meV than those with a mean energy of 2.3 meV. ..
- Friedl A, Beisker W, Hahn K, Eckardt Schupp F, Kellerer A. Application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to determine gamma-ray-induced double-strand breaks in yeast chromosomal molecules. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;63:173-81 pubmed..The two assays gave similar results for the frequency of dsb ((1.07 +/- 0.06) x 10(-9) Gy-1 bp-1 and (0.93 +/- 0.09) x 10(-9) Gy-1 bp-1, respectively). The dsb frequency was found to be linearly dependent on dose. ..
- Brooks A, Griffith W, Johnson N, Finch G, Cuddihy R. The induction of chromosome damage in CHO cells by beryllium and radiation given alone and in combination. Radiat Res. 1989;120:494-507 pubmed..These data suggest that the multiplicative interaction may be limited to cells in the S and G2 stages of the cell cycle. ..
- Sikpi M, Freedman M, Ziobron E, Upholt W, Lurie A. Dependence of the mutation spectrum in a shuttle plasmid replicated in human lymphoblasts on dose of gamma radiation. Int J Radiat Biol. 1991;59:1115-26 pubmed..4%) or those at 1000 cGy (2.0%). This increase in A:T base pair mutations could be a result of reduced repair fidelity when the DNA is extensively damaged by high doses of ionizing radiation. ..
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- Suskov I, Kuz mina N. [Polygenomic realization of mutagenic effects in the body of people exposed to low-dose radiation]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003;43:150-2 pubmed..The above-said is in agreement with the principles of non-threshold mutagenic action of radiation and biological amplifier, and lead to the development of polygenomic dysbalance with pathophysiological consequences. ..
- Russell W. Reminiscences of a mouse specific-locus test addict. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1989;14 Suppl 16:16-22 pubmed..Some ongoing and future contributions of the test to research in molecular genetics are also mentioned. ..
- Schlumberger M, de Vathaire F. [131 iodine: medical use. Carcinogenic and genetic effects]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 1996;57:166-76 pubmed..These data indicate that there is no scientific reason to avoid the use of 131I even in young patients when therapeutic benefits can be obtained. ..
- Bryant P, Riches A, Terry S. Mechanisms of the formation of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. Mutat Res. 2010;701:23-6 pubmed publisher..This mechanism we suggest involves the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase IIalpha and we present evidence from topoisomerase IIalpha expression variant human cell lines and from siRNA treatment of human cells that supports this hypothesis. ..
- Murray D, Prager A, Meyn R, Davison S, Green A. Relationships between DNA damage and the survival of radiosensitive mutant Chinese hamster cell lines exposed to gamma-radiation: Part 2. Effect of cellular redox status. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;63:199-206 pubmed..Furthermore, because the extent of protection of these CHO mutants by thiols and anoxia show no correlation, oxygen depletion cannot be a major component of protection of aerated cells by thiols under these conditions. ..
- Endlich B, Salavati R, Zhang J, Weiss H, Ling C. Molecular analysis of rat embryo cell transformants induced by alpha-particles. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;64:715-26 pubmed
- Pantelias G, Terzoudi G. Functional cell-cycle chromatin conformation changes in the presence of DNA damage result into chromatid breaks: a new insight in the formation of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations based on the direct observation of interphase chromatin. Mutat Res. 2010;701:27-37 pubmed publisher
- Morata G, Lawrence P. Control of compartment development by the engrailed gene in Drosophila. Nature. 1975;255:614-7 pubmed
- Saunders R, Kowalczuk C, Beechey C, Dunford R. Studies of the induction of dominant lethals and translocations in male mice after chronic exposure to microwave radiation. Int J Radiat Biol Relat Stud Phys Chem Med. 1988;53:983-92 pubmed..This conclusion is in agreement with the observations of Berman et al. (1980), who reported a lack of male germ cell mutagenesis after repetitive or chronic exposure of rats to 2.45 GHz. ..
- Bryant P. Use of restriction endonucleases to study relationships between DNA double-strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations and other end-points in mammalian cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 1988;54:869-90 pubmed..It is argued here that the use of treatments which cause a hypertonic shock may influence the frequencies of aberrations induced. ..
- Bennett D, Dunn L, Spiegelman M, Artzt K, Cookingham J, Schermerhorn E. Observations on a set of radiation-induced dominant T-like mutations in the mouse. Genet Res. 1975;26:95-108 pubmed
- Henschler D. [Genetic injuries caused by radiation and other harmful environmental pollutants]. Aktuelle Radiol. 1991;1:116-9 pubmed..The attribution of causes obtained in this way allows for the conclusion: human cancers are mostly due to chemically definable factors, and thus are avoidable. ..
- Smirnova S, Orlova N, Zamulaeva I, Saenko A. [Mutation at the T-cell receptor locus in people a long time after acute and prolonged irradiation]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2002;42:624-7 pubmed..Taking into account fast enough elimination of radiation-induced TCR-mutant cells it is possible to suspect, that the cause of elevated frequency of mutant cells in the part of the persons can be genome instability. ..
- Baur M, Majumder P, Amos C, Feingold J, King T, Morton N, et al. International Genetic Epidemiology Society: commentary on Darkness in El Dorado by Patrick Tierney. Genet Epidemiol. 2001;21:81-104 pubmed..Ethical issues about scientific research in primitive populations deserve serious and wide discussion, but the IGES condemns the gross misrepresentation of the facts and demonization of the principal characters in this book. ..
- Demarini D, Brockman H, de Serres F, Evans H, Stankowski L, Hsie A. Specific-locus mutations induced in eukaryotes (especially mammalian cells) by radiation and chemicals: a perspective. Mutat Res. 1989;220:11-29 pubmed
- Roberts P. Some components of x ray-induced crossing over in females of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1969;63:387-404 pubmed
- Hannah Alava A. Induced crossing-over in the presterile broods of Drosophila melanogaster males. Genetica. 1968;39:94-152 pubmed
- Peters J, Ball S. Biochemical and recessive visible specific locus responses of C3H/HeH to fractionated, acute radiation. Mutat Res. 2003;543:137-43 pubmed..The number of loci scored in the electrophoretic test has been reassessed, and it is now considered that six, not four were scored, and this has implications for the calculation of the doubling dose. ..
- Stein G, Lian J. Regulation of cell cycle and growth control. Bioelectromagnetics. 1992;Suppl 1:247-65 pubmed
- Dahle J, Kaalhus O, Stokke T, Kvam E. Bystander effects may modulate ultraviolet A and B radiation-induced delayed mutagenesis. Radiat Res. 2005;163:289-95 pubmed..In conclusion, the results suggest that a bystander effect is involved in ultraviolet-radiation-induced genomic instability and that it may be mediated in part by gap junctional intercellular communication. ..
- Favor J, Neuhauser Klaus A. Saturation mutagenesis for dominant eye morphological defects in the mouse Mus musculus. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:520-5 pubmed
- Paillole N, Voisin P. Is micronuclei yield variability a problem for overexposure dose assessment to ionizing radiation?. Mutat Res. 1998;413:47-56 pubmed..32 gy. ..
- Kysela B, Arrand J, Michael B. Relative contributions of levels of initial damage and repair of double-strand breaks to the ionizing radiation-sensitive phenotype of the Chinese hamster cell mutant, XR-V15B. Part II. Neutrons. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;64:531-8 pubmed..We propose that neutron-induced dsbs have a higher probability of becoming lethal because they are more likely to be misrepaired during the slow stage of rejoining. ..