epidemiological monitoring


Summary: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.

Top Publications

  1. Kapoor P, Hayes Y, Jarrell L, Bellinger D, Thomas R, Lawson G, et al. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Resistance and Exhaust Air Dust PCR as a Diagnostic Tool in Mice Enzootically Infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2017;56:273-289 pubmed
    ..tetraptera infection, in conjunction with fecal PCR and FCF. ..
  2. Braga J, Bressan C, Dalvi A, Calvet G, Daumas R, Rodrigues N, et al. Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179725 pubmed publisher
    ..In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition. ..
  3. Hernandez Garduno E. Comment on "Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance". Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:327068 pubmed publisher
  4. Desvars A, Furberg M, Hjertqvist M, Vidman L, Sjostedt A, Ryden P, et al. Epidemiology and ecology of tularemia in Sweden, 1984-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These results provide a comprehensive epidemiologic description of tularemia in Sweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. ..
  5. Bansal S, Chowell G, Simonsen L, Vespignani A, Viboud C. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling. J Infect Dis. 2016;214:S375-S379 pubmed publisher
  6. Gladstone B, Cona A, Shamsrizi P, Vilken T, Kern W, Malek N, et al. Antimicrobial resistance rates in gram-positive bacteria do not drive glycopeptides use. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181358 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistance rate of MRSA, MRCoNS, and VRE BSIs does not impact DID of glycopeptides in European hospitals. This finding is key to redefining the role and structure of antimicrobial surveillance and stewardship programmes. ..
  7. Den Boer J, Euser S, Brandsema P, Reijnen L, Bruin J. Results from the National Legionella Outbreak Detection Program, the Netherlands, 2002-2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..in clinical samples with a high background of microbial flora (such as soil). ..
  8. Tohme R, Francois J, Cavallaro K, Paluku G, Yalcouyé I, Jackson E, et al. Expansion of Vaccination Services and Strengthening Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Surveillance in Haiti, 2010-2016. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Political commitment and favorable economic and legal environments are needed to maintain these gains...
  9. Sarker R, Giasuddin M, Chowdhury E, Islam M. Serological and virological surveillance of avian influenza virus in domestic ducks of the north-east region of Bangladesh. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:180 pubmed publisher
    ..The H7 virus had cleavage site motif of low pathogenic virus. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were detected from apparently healthy domestic ducks. A small proportion of domestic ducks were found seropositive to H5 AI virus. ..

More Information


  1. Vigilato M, Cosivi O, Knobl T, Clavijo A, Silva H. Rabies update for Latin America and the Caribbean. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:678-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Saha S, El Arifeen S, Schrag S. Aetiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia (ANISA): An Initiative to Identify Appropriate Program Priorities to Save Newborns. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016;35:S6-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Brutus L, Santalla J, Schneider D, Avila J, Deloron P. Plasmodium vivax malaria during pregnancy, Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) and delivered babies of reduced birthweight. P. vivax infections during pregnancy are clearly associated with serious adverse outcomes and should be considered in prevention strategies of pregnancy-associated malaria. ..
  4. Wesolowski A, Buckee C, Engø Monsen K, Metcalf C. Connecting Mobility to Infectious Diseases: The Promise and Limits of Mobile Phone Data. J Infect Dis. 2016;214:S414-S420 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the opportunities and challenges of these novel data streams, illustrating our examples with analyses of 2 different pathogens in Kenya, and conclude by outlining core directions for future research. ..
  5. Leung P, Harrison R. Evaluation of personal exposure to monoaromatic hydrocarbons. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55:249-57 pubmed
    ..Microenvironment sampling combined with activity diary information can provide satisfactory estimates of personal exposure to these compounds. ..
  6. Lover A, Harvard K, Lindawson A, Smith Gueye C, Shretta R, Gosling R, et al. Regional initiatives for malaria elimination: Building and maintaining partnerships. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002401 pubmed publisher
    ..Andrew Lover and colleagues discuss regional malaria initiatives, the strengths and challenges...
  7. Ope M, Ochieng S, Tabu C, Marano N. Rotavirus enteritis in Dadaab refugee camps: implications for immunization programs in Kenya and Resettlement Countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:v-vi pubmed publisher
  8. Archer B, Chiu C, Jayasinghe S, Richmond P, McVernon J, Lahra M, et al. Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal B disease in Australia, 1999-2015: priority populations for vaccination. Med J Aust. 2017;207:382-387 pubmed
    ..Given marked variation in meningococcal disease trends over time, close scrutiny of current epidemiologic data is essential. ..
  9. Silhol R, Gregson S, Nyamukapa C, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, Gonese E, et al. Empirical validation of the UNAIDS Spectrum model for subnational HIV estimates: case-study of children and adults in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. AIDS. 2017;31 Suppl 1:S41-S50 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents may need to be captured in the model if applied to subnational epidemics. ..
  10. Wilson K, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, Eaton J, Hallett T, Mugurungi O, et al. Does nonlocal women's attendance at antenatal clinics distort HIV prevalence surveillance estimates in pregnant women in Zimbabwe?. AIDS. 2017;31 Suppl 1:S95-S102 pubmed publisher
    ..In Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence among ANC attendees provides reliable estimates of HIV prevalence in pregnant women in the local area. ..
  11. McKenna M. Antibiotic resistance: the last resort. Nature. 2013;499:394-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Arruda A, Vilalta C, Perez A, Morrison R. Land altitude, slope, and coverage as risk factors for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) outbreaks in the United States. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0172638 pubmed publisher
    ..Influence of terrain characteristics on spread of airborne diseases, such as PRRS, may help to predicting disease risk, and effective planning of measures intended to mitigate and prevent risk of infection. ..
  13. Kaburi B, Kubio C, Kenu E, Nyarko K, Mahama J, Sackey S, et al. Evaluation of the enhanced meningitis surveillance system, Yendi municipality, northern Ghana, 2010-2015. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:306 pubmed publisher
    ..The enhanced meningitis surveillance system in Yendi Municipality is achieving most of its objectives. However, financial constraints and poor personnel motivation pose threats to the sustainability of the system. ..
  14. Bijkerk P, Monnier A, Fanoy E, Kardamanidis K, Friesema I, Knol M. ECDC Round Table Report and ProMed-mail most useful international information sources for the Netherlands Early Warning Committee. Euro Surveill. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that using only the ECDC RT Report and ProMed-mail to identify threats from abroad maintains a sensitive Early Warning System. ..
  15. Gouliouris T, Peacock S. The rise and fall of mandatory surveillance for glycopeptide-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia in England. J Infect. 2014;68:401-3 pubmed publisher
  16. Kuo S, Huang W, Wang H, Shiau Y, Cheng M, Lauderdale T. Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Escherichia coli isolates from humans and retail meats, Taiwan. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71:2327-9 pubmed publisher
  17. Osadebe L, Hughes C, Shongo Lushima R, Kabamba J, Nguete B, Malekani J, et al. Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005857 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of a more specific case definition, continued emphasis on confirmatory laboratory-based diagnostics is warranted. ..
  18. Mastin A, van den Bosch F, Gottwald T, Alonso Chávez V, Parnell S. A method of determining where to target surveillance efforts in heterogeneous epidemiological systems. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005712 pubmed publisher
    ..Under the assumption of a linear cost function, we find that sampling costs are generally minimised when either hosts or vectors, but not both, are sampled. ..
  19. Peters A, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Stölzel M, Pitz M, Wölke G, et al. The influence of improved air quality on mortality risks in Erfurt, Germany. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2009;:5-77; discussion 79-90 pubmed
  20. Butler D. When Google got flu wrong. Nature. 2013;494:155-6 pubmed publisher
  21. Beltrán Aguilar E, Eke P, Thornton Evans G, Petersen P. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2012;60:40-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we review current case-definitions proposed for surveillance of periodontal disease severity. ..
  22. Upreti S, Lindsey N, Bohara R, Choudhary G, Shakya S, Gautam M, et al. Updated estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005866 pubmed publisher
  23. Musso D, Nilles E, Cao Lormeau V. Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:O595-6 pubmed publisher
  24. Gwira Baumblatt J, Wiedeman C, Dunn J, Schaffner W, Paulozzi L, Jones T. High-risk use by patients prescribed opioids for pain and its role in overdose deaths. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:796-801 pubmed
    ..Use of prescription drug–monitoring program data to direct risk-reduction measures to the types of patients overrepresented among overdose deaths might reduce mortality associated with opioid abuse. ..
  25. Juin S, Schaad N, Lafontant D, Joseph G, Barzilay E, BONCY J, et al. Strengthening National Disease Surveillance and Response-Haiti, 2010-2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Sustainability remains the greatest challenge since most of the funding for surveillance come from external sources...
  26. Kawai T, Yasugi T, Mizunuma K, Horiguchi S, Hirase Y, Uchida Y, et al. Methanol in urine as a biological indicator of occupational exposure to methanol vapor. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1991;63:311-8 pubmed
    ..Dimmed vision and nasal irritation were among the most frequent symptoms complained during work. Three cases showing clinical signs of borderline significance were identified. ..
  27. Winstone A, Stellitano L, Verity C. Niemann-Pick type C as a cause of progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017;59:965-972 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the cases of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease in a United Kingdom epidemiological study of progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration in childhood...
  28. Freire M, Villela Soares Oshiro I, Bonazzi P, Pierrotti L, de Oliveira L, Machado A, et al. Surveillance culture for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: Performance in liver transplant recipients. Am J Infect Control. 2017;45:e40-e44 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of SC for CRKP was 92.5%. The performance of SC was poorest for CRAB (sensitivity, 80.6%). Our data indicate that SC is a sensitive tool to identify LT recipients colonized by MDR-GNB. ..
  29. Ndowa F, Ison C, Cole M, Lusti Narasimhan M. Gonococcal antimicrobial resistance: challenges for public health control. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89 Suppl 4:iv3-4 pubmed publisher
  30. Silverstein B, Stetson D, Keyserling W, Fine L. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: comparison of data sources for surveillance. Am J Ind Med. 1997;31:600-8 pubmed
  31. Rising A, Cederlund E, Palmberg C, Uhlhorn H, Gaunitz S, Nordling K, et al. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Protein Sci. 2017;26:2312-2318 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model...
  32. Butler D. How to beat the next Ebola. Nature. 2015;524:22-5 pubmed publisher
  33. Lemoine J, BONCY J, Filler S, Kachur S, Fitter D, Chang M. Haiti's Commitment to Malaria Elimination: Progress in the Face of Challenges, 2010-2016. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:43-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The reinforcement of evidence-based approaches coupled with strong collaboration among the Ministry of Health and partners has demonstrated that malaria elimination by 2020 is a realistic prospect...
  34. Musa B, Adamu A, Galadanci N, Zubayr B, Odoh C, Aliyu M. Trends in prevalence of multi drug resistant tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185105 pubmed publisher
    ..12% per year. We found a low prevalence estimate of MDR-TB, and a slight temporal decline over the study period. There is a need for continuous MDR-TB surveillance among patients with TB. ..
  35. Brun Buisson C. Minimizing antibiotic exposure in the ICU: in search of the optimal strategy. Crit Care. 2014;18:613 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine screening cultures may allow better targeting and reduce unnecessary exposure to antibiotics. ..
  36. Wiersinga W, Birnie E, Weehuizen T, Alabi A, Huson M, Huis in t Veld R, et al. Clinical, environmental, and serologic surveillance studies of melioidosis in Gabon, 2012-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudomallei and B. thailandensis in the environment. Our data suggest that melioidosis is emerging in Central Africa but is unrecognized because of the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities. ..
  37. Potera C. From devastation comes hope. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:a334 pubmed publisher
  38. Gossner C. New version of the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) launched. Euro Surveill. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
  39. Kennedy J, Michailidou D. Civil war, contested sovereignty and the limits of global health partnerships: A case study of the Syrian polio outbreak in 2013. Health Policy Plan. 2017;32:690-698 pubmed publisher
    ..Global health partnerships would be more effective in conflict-affected areas if they put in place proactive and institutionalized plans to implement their programmes in regions outside government control. ..
  40. Tulloch J, McGinley L, Sanchez Vizcaino F, Medlock J, Radford A. The passive surveillance of ticks using companion animal electronic health records. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2020-2029 pubmed publisher
    ..These results and methodology could help inform veterinary and public health messages as well as increase awareness of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the general population. ..
  41. Cao Lormeau V, Roche C, Teissier A, Robin E, Berry A, Mallet H, et al. Zika virus, French polynesia, South pacific, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1085-6 pubmed publisher
  42. Kavanagh K, Saman D, Yu Y. A perspective on how the United States fell behind Northern Europe in the battle against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:5789-91 pubmed publisher
  43. Boock A, Awah P, Mou F, Nichter M. Yaws resurgence in Bankim, Cameroon: The relative effectiveness of different means of detection in rural communities. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005557 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass outreach programs functioned as magnets for both diseases as well as other kinds of chronic wounds that future outreach programs need to address. ..
  44. Fonteneau L, Le Meur N, Cohen Akenine A, Pessel C, Brouard C, Delon F, et al. [The use of administrative health databases in infectious disease epidemiology and public health]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2017;65 Suppl 4:S174-S182 pubmed publisher
    ..However, incoming users need to be assisted. Thus, the workgroup will contribute to a reasonable use of AHD and support future developments. ..
  45. Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Peters A. Health effects of particulate air pollution: A review of epidemiological evidence. Inhal Toxicol. 2011;23:555-92 pubmed publisher
  46. Rivière J, Le Strat Y, Hendrikx P, Dufour B. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in wildlife in France (Sylvatub system) using scenario trees. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183126 pubmed publisher
  47. Wise E, Marston D, Banyard A, Goharriz H, Selden D, Maclaren N, et al. Passive surveillance of United Kingdom bats for lyssaviruses (2005-2015). Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2445-2457 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the risk to public health from EBLV-2 is low, consequences of infection are severe and effective communication on the need for prompt post-exposure prophylaxis for anyone that has been bitten by a bat is essential...
  48. Koukouikila Koussounda F, Jeyaraj S, Nguetse C, Nkonganyi C, Kokou K, Etoka Beka M, et al. Molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in the Republic of Congo: four and nine years after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Malar J. 2017;16:155 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study could serve as the basis for epidemiological studies monitoring the distribution of molecular markers of artemisinin resistance in the Republic of Congo. ..
  49. Stover J, Brown T, Puckett R, Peerapatanapokin W. Updates to the Spectrum/Estimations and Projections Package model for estimating trends and current values for key HIV indicators. AIDS. 2017;31 Suppl 1:S5-S11 pubmed publisher
    ..The new methods and data implemented in the 2016 version of Spectrum allow national programs more flexibility in describing their programs and improve the estimates of key indicators and their uncertainty. ..
  50. Lamba K, Nelson J, Kimura A, Poe A, Collins J, Kao A, et al. Shiga Toxin 1-Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014-2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued surveillance of Stx1-producing S. sonnei in California is necessary to characterize its features and plan for reduction of its spread in the United States. ..
  51. Calzolari M, Chiapponi C, Bonilauri P, Lelli D, Baioni L, Barbieri I, et al. Co-circulation of two Usutu virus strains in Northern Italy between 2009 and 2014. Infect Genet Evol. 2017;51:255-262 pubmed publisher
    ..These factors and the endemization of the Usutu virus in a large area of Europe, sustained by the obtained data, strongly support the need to adequately survey Usutu virus in areas in which its circulation is detected. ..
  52. Dall Era M, Cisternas M, SNIPES K, Herrinton L, Gordon C, Helmick C. The Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in San Francisco County, California: The California Lupus Surveillance Project. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:1996-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease burden of SLE is highest in black women, followed by Hispanic women, Asian women, and white women. ..
  53. Cohen P. Hazards of hindsight--monitoring the safety of nutritional supplements. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1277-80 pubmed publisher
  54. Niu X, Zhang A, Brown T, Puckett R, Mahy M, Bao L. Incorporation of hierarchical structure into estimation and projection package fitting with examples of estimating subnational HIV/AIDS dynamics. AIDS. 2017;31 Suppl 1:S51-S59 pubmed publisher
    ..The article also provides recommended default settings for this new model...
  55. Trotignon G, Jones E, Engels T, Schmidt E, McFarland D, Macleod C, et al. The cost of mapping trachoma: Data from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0006023 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the analysis was to estimate the unit cost and to identify the key cost drivers of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted as part of GTMP...
  56. Ekesbo I, Oltenacu P, Vilson B, Nilsson J. A disease monitoring system for dairy herds. Vet Rec. 1994;134:270-3 pubmed
    ..The history of the system, the herd reporting form and various analyses and reports generated with the system are presented. ..
  57. Breiman R, Cosmas L, Njenga M, Williamson J, Mott J, Katz M, et al. Severe acute respiratory infection in children in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya, 2007-2011. BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:95 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed data from population-based infectious disease surveillance for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) among children <5 years of age in Kibera, a densely populated urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya...
  58. Letourneau E, Krewski D, Choi N, Goddard M, McGregor R, Zielinski J, et al. Case-control study of residential radon and lung cancer in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140:310-22 pubmed
    ..After adjusting for cigarette smoking and education, no increase in the relative risk for any of the histologic types of lung cancer observed among the cases was detected in relation to cumulative exposure to radon. ..
  59. Bonwitt J, Kandeh M, Dawson M, Ansumana R, Sahr F, Kelly A, et al. Participation of women and children in hunting activities in Sierra Leone and implications for control of zoonotic infections. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005699 pubmed publisher
    ..The breadth of the "at risk" population forces reconsideration of how we conceptualize, trace and monitor pathogen exposure. ..
  60. Peroni D, Boner A, Vallone G, Antolini I, Warner J. Effective allergen avoidance at high altitude reduces allergen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149:1442-6 pubmed
    ..01). Our data demonstrate that allergen avoidance in asthmatic children not only decreases nonspecific BHR but also decreases allergen sensitivity, late allergen-induced bronchial reactions, and enhancement of BHR by allergen challenge. ..
  61. Cumming G, Khatami A, McMullan B, Musto J, Leung K, Nguyen O, et al. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..An alert distributed to clinicians reduced unnecessary hospitalization for patients with suspected sepsis. ..
  62. Woeltje K. Moving into the future: electronic surveillance for healthcare-associated infections. J Hosp Infect. 2013;84:103-5 pubmed publisher
  63. Hall J, Dusek R, Spackman E. Rapidly Expanding Range of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:1251-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions. ..
  64. Hill N, Hussein I, Davis K, Ma E, Spivey T, Ramey A, et al. Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade Outbreaks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:654-657 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks. ..
  65. Richardson D, Volkow N, KWAN M, Kaplan R, Goodchild M, Croyle R. Medicine. Spatial turn in health research. Science. 2013;339:1390-2 pubmed publisher
  66. Baker J, Rojas Valverde D, Gutiérrez R, Winkler M, Fuhrimann S, Eskenazi B, et al. Portable Functional Neuroimaging as an Environmental Epidemiology Tool: A How-To Guide for the Use of fNIRS in Field Studies. Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125:094502 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this guide is intended to be generalizable to all research scenarios and projects in which fNIRS may be used to collect functional brain imaging data in epidemiological field surveys. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2049...
  67. Haynes R. Particulate soup: identifying the most toxic constituents of PM(2.5). Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:A 130 pubmed publisher
  68. Wernli D, Jørgensen P, Harbarth S, Carroll S, Laxminarayan R, Levrat N, et al. Antimicrobial resistance: The complex challenge of measurement to inform policy and the public. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002378 pubmed publisher
    ..Didier Wernli and colleagues discuss the role of monitoring in countering antimicrobial resistance. ..
  69. Trotter C, Lingani C, Fernandez K, Cooper L, Bita A, Tevi Benissan C, et al. Impact of MenAfriVac in nine countries of the African meningitis belt, 2010-15: an analysis of surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:867-872 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to continue strengthening surveillance to monitor vaccine performance and remain vigilant against threats from other meningococcal serogroups and other pathogens. World Health Organization. ..
  70. Wi T, Lahra M, Ndowa F, Bala M, Dillon J, Ramon Pardo P, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002344 pubmed publisher
    ..In a Policy Forum, Teodora Wi and colleagues discuss the challenges of antimicrobial resistance in gonococci. ..
  71. Chaintoutis S, Chaskopoulou A, Chassalevris T, Koehler P, Papanastassopoulou M, Dovas C. West Nile virus lineage 2 strain in Greece, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:827-9 pubmed publisher
  72. Harris J, Wiegand R. Detecting infection hotspots: Modeling the surveillance challenge for elimination of lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005610 pubmed publisher
    ..Current approaches towards surveillance, including TAS, may not detect small, low-intensity LF microfoci that could remain after cessation of MDA. The model provides many surveillance protocols that can be selected for optimal outcomes. ..
  73. Campbell H, Saliba V, Borrow R, Ramsay M, Ladhani S. Targeted vaccination of teenagers following continued rapid endemic expansion of a single meningococcal group W clone (sequence type 11 clonal complex), United Kingdom 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20: pubmed
    ..Consequently, an adolescent MenACWY conjugate vaccination programme for 13-18 year-olds will be introduced in August 2015, with priority given to 17-18 year-olds (school leavers). ..
  74. Negri E, Metruccio F, Guercio V, Tosti L, Benfenati E, Bonzi R, et al. Exposure to PFOA and PFOS and fetal growth: a critical merging of toxicological and epidemiological data. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2017;47:482-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is no quantitative toxicological evidence to support the epidemiological association, thus reducing the biological plausibility of a causal relationship. ..
  75. Trewin B, Darbro J, Jansen C, Schellhorn N, Zalucki M, Hurst T, et al. The elimination of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, from Brisbane, Australia: The role of surveillance, larval habitat removal and policy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005848 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti from Brisbane, will inform assessments of the risks posed by recent human responses to climate change and the reintroduction of 300,000 rainwater tanks into the State over the past decade. ..
  76. Lai J, Cook H, Yip T, Berthelsen J, Gourley S, Krause V, et al. Surveillance of pneumococcal serotype 1 carriage during an outbreak of serotype 1 invasive pneumococcal disease in central Australia 2010-2012. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:409 pubmed publisher
    ..During an outbreak of serotype 1 ST306 IPD, carriage of the outbreak strain was detected in 3% NPS collected. All carriers were healthy children 5 to 8 years of age. ..
  77. Einarsen S, Raknes B. Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence Vict. 1997;12:247-63 pubmed
    ..Strong correlations were found between exposure to harassment and dissatisfaction with co-worker interaction. ..
  78. Ferguson N, Cucunubá Z, Dorigatti I, Nedjati Gilani G, Donnelly C, Basanez M, et al. EPIDEMIOLOGY. Countering the Zika epidemic in Latin America. Science. 2016;353:353-4 pubmed publisher
  79. Kauppinen T. Exposure assessment--a challenge for occupational epidemiology. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996;22:401-3 pubmed
  80. Valenzuela M, Moreno G, Vaquero A, Seoane M, Hormázabal J, Bertoglia M, et al. [Emergence of W135 meningococcal serogroup in Chile during 2012]. Rev Med Chil. 2013;141:959-67 pubmed publisher
    ..With this information, the Chilean Ministry of Health decreed a sanitary alert and implemented an integrated approach to control and prevent W-135 IDM, denominated "W-135 Action Plan". ..
  81. Miller M. Integrating behavioral surveillance into emerging infectious disease prevention. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015;109:673-5 pubmed publisher
  82. Poznyak V, Fleischmann A, Rekve D, Rylett M, Rehm J, Gmel G. The world health organization's global monitoring system on alcohol and health. Alcohol Res. 2013;35:244-9 pubmed
  83. Chaine M, Gubbels S, Voldstedlund M, Kristensen B, Nielsen J, Andersen L, et al. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2594-2602 pubmed publisher
    ..This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications...
  84. Tenzin -, Ward M. Review of rabies epidemiology and control in South, South East and East Asia: past, present and prospects for elimination. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59:451-67 pubmed
    ..We conclude that defining the cost of rabies to society and communicating this to decisionmakers might be the key to achieving such an advance. ..
  85. Di Pasquale A, McCann R, Maire N. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183661 pubmed publisher
  86. Kim H, Kim W, Klein T, Chong S, Nunn P, Kim J, et al. Hantavirus surveillance and genetic diversity targeting small mammals at Camp Humphreys, a US military installation and new expansion site, Republic of Korea. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176514 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study provides significant insights for raising HFRS threat awareness, analysis, and risk reduction strategies in southern Gyeonggi province. ..
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