disease notification


Summary: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Top Publications

  1. Keramarou M, Evans M. Completeness of infectious disease notification in the United Kingdom: A systematic review. J Infect. 2012;64:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Reporting completeness has not improved over the past three decades. It remains sub-optimal even for diseases which are under enhanced surveillance or are of significant public health importance. ..
  2. Haustein T, Hollmeyer H, Hardiman M, Harbarth S, Pittet D. Should this event be notified to the World Health Organization? Reliability of the international health regulations notification assessment process. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The reliability of the assessments could be increased by expanding guidance on the use of the decision instrument and by including more specific criteria for assessing events and clearer definitions of terms. ..
  3. Boulton M, Hadler J, Beck A, Ferland L, Lichtveld M. Assessment of epidemiology capacity in state health departments, 2004-2009. Public Health Rep. 2011;126:84-93 pubmed
    ..The 2009 Epidemiology Capacity Assessment demonstrates the negative impact of this decrease on states' epidemiology capacity. ..
  4. Anker M. Pregnancy and emerging diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:518-9; author reply 519 pubmed
  5. Watkins R, Eagleson S, Veenendaal B, Wright G, Plant A. Applying cusum-based methods for the detection of outbreaks of Ross River virus disease in Western Australia. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2008;8:37 pubmed publisher
  6. Mak D, Watkins R. Improving the accuracy of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal disease notification rates using data linkage. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008;8:118 pubmed publisher
    ..Probabilistic methods were used to link disease notification data received in Western Australia in 2004 with core population health datasets from the established ..
  7. Inés Agudelo C, Sanabria O, Ovalle M. Serogroup Y meningococcal disease, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:990-1 pubmed publisher
  8. Moreira C, Maciel E. Completeness of tuberculosis control program records in the case registry database of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil: analysis of the 2001-2005 period. J Bras Pneumol. 2008;34:225-9 pubmed
    ..That will make it possible to plan activities aimed at the prevention and control of tuberculosis in the state. ..
  9. van Hest N, Story A, Grant A, Antoine D, Crofts J, Watson J. Record-linkage and capture-recapture analysis to estimate the incidence and completeness of reporting of tuberculosis in England 1999-2002. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1606-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Completeness of notification estimated by a log-linear capture-recapture model was highly inconsistent with prior estimates and the validity of this methodology was further examined. ..

More Information


  1. Yohannes K, Roche P, Roberts A, Liu C, Firestone S, Bartlett M, et al. Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2004, annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2006;30:1-79 pubmed
  2. Lazarus R, Klompas M, Campion F, McNabb S, Hou X, Daniel J, et al. Electronic Support for Public Health: validated case finding and reporting for notifiable diseases using electronic medical data. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2009;16:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Source code for this highly interoperable application is freely available under an approved open-source license at http://esphealth.org. ..
  3. Jakab Z. Why a burden of disease study?. Euro Surveill. 2007;12:E1-2 pubmed
  4. Paget J, Marquet R, Meijer A, van der Velden K. Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and course of peak activity (spread) across Europe. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:141 pubmed
  5. Kritzinger F, den Boon S, Verver S, Enarson D, Lombard C, Borgdorff M, et al. No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Tuberculosis transmission remains very high in these two communities and control measures to date have failed. Additional measures to control TB are needed. ..
  6. Owen R, Roche P, Hope K, Yohannes K, Roberts A, Liu C, et al. Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2005: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2007;31:1-70 pubmed
  7. Yoo H, Park O, Park H, Lee E, Jeong E, Lee J, et al. Timeliness of national notifiable diseases surveillance system in Korea: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also demonstrates the utility of the overall assessment of time-lag distributions for disease-specific strategies to improve surveillance. ..
  8. Paranthaman K, Kent L, McCarthy N, Gray S. Invasive meningococcal disease: completeness and timeliness of reporting of confirmed cases in Thames Valley, 2006-2007. Public Health. 2009;123:805-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Timeliness and completeness of reporting of IMD was clearly suboptimal. It is critical to educate clinicians on the need to notify all suspected cases of IMD to public health authorities in a timely manner. ..
  9. Yassin M, Datiko D, Shargie E. Ten-year experiences of the tuberculosis control programme in the southern region of Ethiopia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006;10:1166-71 pubmed
    ..The programme achieved 85% treatment success; however, with the current low case detection rate (45%), the 70% WHO target seems unachievable in the absence of alternative case-finding mechanisms. ..
  10. Lazarus R, Yih K, Platt R. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:235 pubmed
    ..It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required. ..
  11. Heisterkamp S, Dekkers A, Heijne J. Automated detection of infectious disease outbreaks: hierarchical time series models. Stat Med. 2006;25:4179-96 pubmed
    ..This, in our opinion, makes the proposed model a reliable tool for adequate automated detection of infectious disease outbreaks. ..
  12. Rolfhamre P, Jansson A, Arneborn M, Ekdahl K. SmiNet-2: Description of an internet-based surveillance system for communicable diseases in Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:103-7 pubmed
  13. Faensen D, Claus H, Benzler J, Ammon A, Pfoch T, Breuer T, et al. SurvNet@RKI--a multistate electronic reporting system for communicable diseases. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:100-3 pubmed
    ..NET and transport formats in XML. Based on our experiences, we provide recommendations for the design and implementation of national or international electronic surveillance systems. ..
  14. Chakaya J, Uplekar M, Mansoer J, Kutwa A, Karanja G, Ombeka V, et al. Public-private mix for control of tuberculosis and TB-HIV in Nairobi, Kenya: outcomes, opportunities and obstacles. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12:1274-8 pubmed
    ..Private providers can be engaged to provide TB-HIV care conforming to national norms. The challenges include providing diagnostics, CPT and ART and the capacity to train and supervise these providers. ..
  15. . Potential effects of electronic laboratory reporting on improving timeliness of infectious disease notification--Florida, 2002-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:1325-8 pubmed
    ..In Florida, the benefits of ELR for reporting timeliness likely will vary by disease. ..
  16. Parrella A, Dalton C, Pearce R, Litt J, Stocks N. ASPREN surveillance system for influenza-like illness - A comparison with FluTracking and the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:932-6 pubmed
    ..Data captured by the three separate surveillance systems provide complementary information regarding influenza in the Australian population. ..
  17. Standish K, Kuan G, Avilés W, Balmaseda A, Harris E. High dengue case capture rate in four years of a cohort study in Nicaragua compared to national surveillance data. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e633 pubmed publisher
  18. Straetemans M, Altmann D, Eckmanns T, Krause G. Automatic outbreak detection algorithm versus electronic reporting system. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1610-2 pubmed publisher
    ..or norovirus during 2005-2006 in Germany. Local health departments reported local outbreaks with higher sensitivity and positive predictive value than did AODAs. ..
  19. Moore K, Reddy V, Kapell D, Balter S. Impact of electronic laboratory reporting on hepatitis A surveillance in New York City. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2008;14:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Electronic laboratory reporting provides timely disease data to health departments. Increased utilization of ELR can have a remarkable impact on public health surveillance and response. ..
  20. Coleman M, Coleman M, Mabuza A, Kok G, Coetzee M, Durrheim D. Evaluation of an operational malaria outbreak identification and response system in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Malar J. 2008;7:69 pubmed publisher
  21. Krause G, Brodhun B, Altmann D, Claus H, Benzler J. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:129 pubmed
  22. Lievre L, Deveau C, Gerbe J, Enel P, Tran L, de Castro N, et al. Yearly number of patients diagnosed with primary HIV-1 infection in France estimated by a capture-recapture approach. AIDS. 2006;20:2392-5 pubmed
    ..The estimated number of patients was 325 per year, which represents only 5% (approximately 6000 cases) of all new cases diagnosed each year and only 8% of all new infections (approximately 4000 cases). ..
  23. van Hest N, Smit F, Baars H, de Vries G, de Haas P, Westenend P, et al. Completeness of notification of tuberculosis in The Netherlands: how reliable is record-linkage and capture-recapture analysis?. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1021-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the possible impact of violation of assumptions underlying capture-recapture analysis, especially the perfect record-linkage, perfect positive predictive value and absent three-way interaction assumptions. ..
  24. Brabazon E, O Farrell A, Murray C, Carton M, Finnegan P. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations in a health board region in Ireland: room for improvement?. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:241-7 pubmed
    ..This under-reporting negatively impacts on the effectiveness of the notification process as a 'real-time' surveillance tool and an early warning system for outbreaks. ..
  25. van Hest N, Hoebe C, Den Boer J, Vermunt J, IJzerman E, Boersma W, et al. Incidence and completeness of notification of Legionnaires' disease in The Netherlands: covariate capture-recapture analysis acknowledging regional differences. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:540-50 pubmed
    ..Covariate capture-recapture analysis acknowledging regional differences of LD incidence appears to reduce bias in the estimated national incidence rate. ..
  26. Overhage J, Grannis S, McDonald C. A comparison of the completeness and timeliness of automated electronic laboratory reporting and spontaneous reporting of notifiable conditions. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:344-50 pubmed publisher
    ..9 days earlier than spontaneous reporting. Automated electronic laboratory reporting improves the completeness and timeliness of disease surveillance, which will enhance public health awareness and reporting efficiency. ..
  27. Rodier G, Greenspan A, Hughes J, Heymann D. Global public health security. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The new International Association of National Public Health Institutes aims to strengthen and invigorate existing NPHIs, to create new NPHIs where none exist, and to provide funded grants to support NPHI development priorities. ..
  28. Sengupta S, Calman N, Hripcsak G. A model for expanded public health reporting in the context of HIPAA. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008;15:569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The appropriateness of these approaches varies with the definition of what data may be included, the requirements of the minimum necessary standard, the accounting of disclosures, and the feasibility of the approach. ..
  29. Schnitzler J, Schöneberg I, Altmann D, Alpers K, Krause G. [Echinococcosis in Germany. Notifications under the Protection Against Infection Act (2001-2004)]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2007;149:47 pubmed
  30. Nguyen T, Thorpe L, Makki H, Mostashari F. Benefits and barriers to electronic laboratory results reporting for notifiable diseases: the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene experience. Am J Public Health. 2007;97 Suppl 1:S142-5 pubmed
    ..Although ELR streamlines data processing, electronic reporting has its own limitations. A more successful use of ELR can be achieved by understanding its strengths and limitations for different disease types. ..
  31. Krause G, Altmann D, Faensen D, Porten K, Benzler J, Pfoch T, et al. SurvNet electronic surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..SurvNet may be a useful tool for other outbreak surveillance systems because it minimizes the workload of local health departments and captures outbreaks even when causative pathogens have not yet been identified. ..
  32. Vogt R, Spittle R, Cronquist A, Patnaik J. Evaluation of the timeliness and completeness of a Web-based notifiable disease reporting system by a local health department. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2006;12:540-4 pubmed
    ..0 days for both datasets. Both Colorado datasets were found to be relatively complete and timely. Improved data collection by interviewers will help better determine demographic information of reported cases and timeliness of reports. ..
  33. Gething P, Noor A, Gikandi P, Ogara E, Hay S, Nixon M, et al. Improving imperfect data from health management information systems in Africa using space-time geostatistics. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e271 pubmed
    ..The modelling framework presented here provides, to our knowledge for the first time, reliable information from imperfect HMIS data to support evidence-based decision-making at national and sub-national levels. ..
  34. Sousa M, Silva D, Carneiro L, Almino M, Costa A. Epidemiological profile of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Piauí between 2003 and 2008. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:389-95 pubmed
    ..Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It is considered a major public health issue in developing countries...
  35. Gossner C, Severi E, Danielsson N, Hutin Y, Coulombier D. Changing hepatitis A epidemiology in the European Union: new challenges and opportunities. Euro Surveill. 2015;20: pubmed
    ..Data about risk behaviours, exposure and mortality are scarce at the EU/EEA level. EU/EEA countries should report to ECDC comprehensive epidemiological and microbiological data to identify opportunities for prevention. ..
  36. Herzig C, Reagan J, Pogorzelska Maziarz M, Srinath D, Stone P. State-mandated reporting of health care-associated infections in the United States: trends over time. Am J Med Qual. 2015;30:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the facility and state resources needed to comply with HAI reporting mandates, future studies should focus on whether these laws have had the desired impact of reducing infection rates. ..
  37. Voldstedlund M, Haarh M, Mølbak K. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2014;19: pubmed
  38. Necula G, Lazar M, Stanescu A, Pistol A, Santibanez S, Mankertz A, et al. Transmission and molecular characterisation of wild measles virus in Romania, 2008 to 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20658 pubmed
    ..The detection of several distinct MV-D4 genotypes suggests multiple virus importations to Romania. The outbreak associated with D4 genotype is the second largest outbreak in Romania in less than 10 years. ..
  39. Khan M, Hasan R, Godfrey Faussett P. Unusual sex differences in tuberculosis notifications across Pakistan and the role of environmental factors. East Mediterr Health J. 2013;19:821-5 pubmed
  40. Vodstrcil L, Hocking J, Read T, Grulich A, Fairley C. Anal cancers attributed to human papillomavirus are more common in areas in Victoria, Australia, with higher HIV notifications. Sex Health. 2013;10:220-3 pubmed publisher
    ..47; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.97). At a population level, about one in five cases (r(2)=0.20) of anal SCCs in men are explained by the rate of HIV notifications in that LGA. ..
  41. Martinez P, Ortega D, Salinas K. [Evolution of leptospirosis according to the National Epidemiological Surveillance System, Chile 2003-2009]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2012;29:648-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that the surveillance of this disease should be further evaluated for its consistency, comparability, validity, sensitivity, and integrity. ..
  42. Melosini L, Vetrano U, Dente F, Cristofano M, Giraldi M, Gabbrielli L, et al. Evaluation of underreporting tuberculosis in Central Italy by means of record linkage. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:472 pubmed publisher
    ..001). TB is underreported in Pisa, particularly in older patients and those without microbiological confirmation. The TB code in first position of HDR seems fairly accurate in confirming TB diagnosis. ..
  43. Jones S, Coulter S, Conner W. Using administrative medical claims data to supplement state disease registry systems for reporting zoonotic infections. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20:193-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There are limitations with administrative claims data, but health plans may help bridge data gaps and support the federal administration's vision of combining public and private data into one source. ..
  44. Baloch N, Pai M. Tuberculosis control: business models for the private sector. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:579-80 pubmed publisher
  45. Ratnayake R, Allard R, Pilon P. Shifting dominance of Shigella species in men who have sex with men. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2082-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the surveillance of Shigella species in order to detect species shifts is beneficial for surveillance, given the potential for increased transmission and severity of S. flexneri in HIV-positive MSM. ..
  46. Lal A, Baker M, French N, Dufour M, Hales S. The epidemiology of human salmonellosis in New Zealand, 1997-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteritidis. For a developed country, salmonellosis rates in New Zealand have remained consistently high suggesting more work is needed to investigate, control and prevent this disease. ..
  47. de Moraes J, Toscano C, de Barros E, Kemp B, Lievano F, Jacobson S, et al. Etiologies of rash and fever illnesses in Campinas, Brazil. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 2:S627-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports on enhanced febrile-rash illness surveillance in Campinas, Brazil, a setting of low measles and rubella virus transmission...
  48. Rosewell A, Spokes P, Gilmour R. NSW Annual vaccine-preventable disease report, 2011. N S W Public Health Bull. 2012;23:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccine-preventable diseases are generally well controlled in NSW. However, pertussis remains an important public health issue. To prevent measles high population vaccination coverage, including vaccination in risk groups, is essential. ..
  49. Kho A, Doebbeling B, Cashy J, Rosenman M, Dexter P, Shepherd D, et al. A regional informatics platform for coordinated antibiotic-resistant infection tracking, alerting, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, electronic alerts can notify of the need to isolate early and to institute other measures to prevent transmission. ..
  50. Zarate R, Birnbaum D. Postdischarge surgical site infection surveillance practices in Washington acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2012;33:87-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While the vast majority of facilities use multiple techniques, wide variation in practices was discovered. ..
  51. McPherson M, McMahon T, Moreton R, Ward K. Using HIV notification data to identify priority migrant groups for HIV prevention, New South Wales, 2000-2008. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2011;35:185-91 pubmed
  52. Santos S, Penna G, Costa M, Natividade M, Teixeira M. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2016;111:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. ..
  53. Mutsigiri Murewanhema F, Mafaune P, Juru T, Gombe N, Bangure D, Mungati M, et al. Evaluation of the maternal mortality surveillance system in Mutare district, Zimbabwe, 2014-2015: a cross sectional study. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:204 pubmed publisher
    ..Timeliness and completeness were the weaker components of the system. The system was found to be simple; however, resources were not adequately available in all health facilities. ..