Summary: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.

Top Publications

  1. Jørgensen M, Borch Johnsen K, Witte D, Bjerregaard P. Diabetes in Greenland and its relationship with urbanization. Diabet Med. 2012;29:755-60 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that Greenland Inuit follow the pattern usually observed in industrialized countries with the highest risk of diabetes in the lower socio-economic groups. ..
  2. Sharma S, Gittelsohn J, Rosol R, Beck L. Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions. ..
  3. Pakseresht M, Sharma S. Validation of a culturally appropriate quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Inuvialuit population in the Northwest Territories, Canada. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The QFFQ developed is valid and can be used to assess usual dietary intake and dietary adequacy, determine the contribution of foods to specific nutrient intakes, and identify dietary risk factors for chronic disease amongst Inuvialuit. ..
  4. Bonefeld Jorgensen E, Long M, Bossi R, Ayotte P, Asmund G, Krüger T, et al. Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in Greenlandic Inuit: a case control study. Environ Health. 2011;10:88 pubmed publisher
    ..Hormone disruption by the combined serum POP related xenoestrogenic and xenoandrogenic activities may contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer in Inuit. Further investigations are needed to document these study conclusions. ..
  5. Cerigo H, Macdonald M, Franco E, Brassard P. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec. J Community Health. 2011;36:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of awareness and knowledge and misconceptions found in this study has been consistently found in other non-Indigenous populations. ..
  6. Crighton E, Wilson K, Senécal S. The relationship between socio-economic and geographic factors and asthma among Canada's Aboriginal populations. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:138-50 pubmed
  7. Gittelsohn J, Roache C, Kratzmann M, Reid R, Ogina J, Sharma S. Participatory research for chronic disease prevention in Inuit communities. Am J Health Behav. 2010;34:453-64 pubmed
    ..Behaviors for promotion were identified and prioritized. This approach resulted in project acceptance, stakeholder collaboration, and a culturally appropriate program in stores, worksites, and other community venues. ..
  8. Zienczuk N, Egeland G. Association between socioeconomic status and overweight and obesity among Inuit adults: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes. ..
  9. Rosol R, Huët C, Wood M, Lennie C, Osborne G, Egeland G. Prevalence of affirmative responses to questions of food insecurity: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70:488-97 pubmed
    ..Immediate action and meaningful interventions are needed to mitigate the negative health impacts of food insecurity and ensure a healthy Inuit population. ..

More Information


  1. Livingston S, Deubner H, Bruden D, McMahon B, Homan C, Townshend Bulson L, et al. Factors associated with the progression of fibrosis on liver biopsy in Alaska Native and American Indian persons with chronic hepatitis C. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010;24:445-51 pubmed
    ..Various factors influence the development and rate of fibrosis progression in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection...
  2. Erber E, Hopping B, Beck L, Sheehy T, De Roose E, Sharma S. Assessment of dietary adequacy in a remote Inuvialuit population. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study revealed an inadequate consumption of essential nutrients in an Inuvialuit population. If these nutrient deficiencies continue, this population will face an increased burden of chronic diseases and malnutrition. ..
  3. Pacey A, Nancarrow T, Egeland G. Prevalence and risk factors for parental-reported oral health of Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008. Rural Remote Health. 2010;10:1368 pubmed
    ..It also demonstrates the continued importance of oral health initiatives that are currently in place in Nunavut. ..
  4. Pakseresht M, Sharma S. Validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for Inuit population in Nunavut, Canada. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:67-74 pubmed publisher
  5. Ford J, Lardeau M, Vanderbilt W. The characteristics and experience of community food program users in arctic Canada: a case study from Iqaluit, Nunavut. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:464 pubmed publisher
    ..Addressing these broader challenges is essential for food policy, yet CFPs also have an essential role in providing for those who would otherwise have limited food access. ..
  6. Sharma S. Development and use of FFQ among adults in diverse settings across the globe. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011;70:232-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These and other case studies highlight the diversity in dietary intake between populations and the need for FFQ to be developed to capture this diversity. ..
  7. Chateau Degat M, Dewailly E, Louchini R, Counil E, Noel M, Ferland A, et al. Cardiovascular burden and related risk factors among Nunavik (Quebec) Inuit: insights from baseline findings in the circumpolar Inuit health in transition cohort study. Can J Cardiol. 2010;26:190-6 pubmed
    ..However, actual sociocultural transition and related major, modifiable risk factors have scarcely been quantified in the Inuit population. Such knowledge is extremely valuable in terms of public health intervention...
  8. Jamieson J, Weiler H, Kuhnlein H, Egeland G. Traditional food intake is correlated with iron stores in Canadian Inuit men. J Nutr. 2012;142:764-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of iron metabolism in this population and the high prevalence of anemia in older men warrants further investigation. ..
  9. Makhoul Z, Kristal A, Gulati R, Luick B, Bersamin A, O BRIEN D, et al. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65:808-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This may help inform recommendations for n-3 fatty acid intakes in the reduction of obesity-related disease risk. ..
  10. Zhou Y, Kubow S, Egeland G. Highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids status of Canadian Inuit: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70:498-510 pubmed
    ..The analyses also suggested multifactorial determinants of HUFA n-3 status among Canadian Arctic Inuit. A nutritional intervention strategy with multiple approaches may be needed to improve and maintain their HUFA n-3 status. ..
  11. Boucher O, Bastien C, Saint Amour D, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Jacobson J, et al. Prenatal exposure to methylmercury and PCBs affects distinct stages of information processing: an event-related potential study with Inuit children. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects seem to be mitigated in children who are breast-fed for a more extended period. ..
  12. Ferland A, Lamarche B, Chateau Degat M, Counil E, Anassour Laouan Sidi E, Abdous B, et al. Dairy product intake and its association with body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population in dietary transition. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30:92-9 pubmed
    ..The consumption of dairy products in Nunavik Inuit is probably not sufficient to withdraw beneficial effects on body weight or CVD risk factors, as observed in North American populations. ..
  13. Chateau Degat M, Pereg D, Dallaire R, Ayotte P, Dery S, Dewailly E. Effects of perfluorooctanesulfonate exposure on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Northern Quebec). Environ Res. 2010;110:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show a relationship between PFOS and plasma lipid levels in an environmentally exposed human population, and this effect appears distinct from that of n-3 PUFAs. ..
  14. Wesche S, Chan H. Adapting to the impacts of climate change on food security among Inuit in the Western Canadian Arctic. Ecohealth. 2010;7:361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding linkages between climate change and traditional food security provides a basis for strengthening adaptive capacity and determining effective adaptation options to respond to future change. ..
  15. Peters P. Causes and contributions to differences in life expectancy for Inuit Nunangat and Canada, 1994-2003. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:38-49 pubmed
    ..There are clear gender differences in life expectancy and mortality, with the total effect of mortality being greatest for males between 15 and 25 years of age and for females over the age of 60. ..
  16. Erber E, Beck L, Hopping B, Sheehy T, De Roose E, Sharma S. Food patterns and socioeconomic indicators of food consumption amongst Inuvialuit in the Canadian Arctic. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants with higher SES were more likely to consume nutrient-dense foods, suggesting possible cost barriers. ..
  17. Beaumier M, Ford J. Food insecurity among Inuit women exacerbated by socioeconomic stresses and climate change. Can J Public Health. 2010;101:196-201 pubmed
    ..Intervention by local, territorial and federal governments is required to implement, coordinate and monitor strategies to enhance women's food security, strengthen the food system, and reduce vulnerability to future stressors. ..
  18. Galloway T, Young T, Egeland G. Emerging obesity among preschool-aged Canadian Inuit children: results from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:151-7 pubmed
    ..The gender difference in child overweight prevalence runs counter to that reported in adults, leading to concern that contemporary growth atterns may result in significant increases in obesity-related illness for young Inuit men. ..
  19. Rex K, Krarup H, Laurberg P, Andersen S. Population-based comparative epidemiological survey of hepatitis B, D, and C among Inuit migrated to Denmark and in high endemic Greenland. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:692-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, previously undetected exposure to delta virus associated with elevated liver biochemistry, and the introduction of delta virus is a liability to Greenlanders and to Greenland. ..
  20. Cerigo H, Macdonald M, Franco E, Brassard P. Inuit women's attitudes and experiences towards cervical cancer and prevention strategies in Nunavik, Quebec. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:17996 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the low awareness of cervical cancer, the Pap smear and the HPV vaccine, education on cervical cancer and prevention strategies may be beneficial. ..
  21. Hamlin Douglas L, Coutlee F, Roger M, Hanley J, Franco E, Brassard P. Determinants of human papillomavirus infection among Inuit women of northern Quebec, Canada. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings suggest that for older women, markers of recent sexual activity are more predictive of HR-HPV status than markers of lifetime sexual history. ..
  22. Medehouenou T, Larochelle C, Dumas P, Dewailly E, Ayotte P. Determinants of AhR-mediated transcriptional activity induced by plasma extracts from Nunavik Inuit adults. Chemosphere. 2010;80:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..AhR-mediated transcriptional activity measures may prove useful in investigating possible associations between exposure to AhR agonists and adverse health effects in this indigenous population. ..
  23. Plante C, Blanchet C, Rochette L, O Brien H. Prevalence of anemia among Inuit women in Nunavik, Canada. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70:154-65 pubmed
    ..Sources of heavy metals are also major sources of iron in the diet of Nunavik women which could explain the positive association found between heavy metals and iron status. ..
  24. Ghisari M, Long M, Bonefeld Jørgensen E. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COMT genes in Greenlandic Inuit and Europeans. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21113 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide new information on gene polymorphisms in Greenlandic Inuit that might support evaluation of susceptibility to environmental contaminants and warrant further studies. ..
  25. Huët C, Rosol R, Egeland G. The prevalence of food insecurity is high and the diet quality poor in Inuit communities. J Nutr. 2012;142:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Actions are required to improve food security that incorporate the traditional food system and healthy market food choices. ..
  26. Muckle G, Laflamme D, Gagnon J, Boucher O, Jacobson J, Jacobson S. Alcohol, smoking, and drug use among Inuit women of childbearing age during pregnancy and the risk to children. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:1081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. ..
  27. Rudkowska I, Dewailly E, Hegele R, Boiteau V, Dubé Linteau A, Abdous B, et al. Gene-diet interactions on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:953-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene-diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. ..
  28. Egeland G, Faraj N, Osborne G. Cultural, socioeconomic, and health indicators among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008. Rural Remote Health. 2010;10:1365 pubmed
    ..Interventions are needed to improve housing and reduce poverty for families with young children. ..
  29. Ebbesson S, Devereux R, Cole S, Ebbesson L, Fabsitz R, Haack K, et al. Heart rate is associated with red blood cell fatty acid concentration: the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) study. Am Heart J. 2010;159:1020-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These relations may at least partially explain the relations between omega-3 FAs, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden death. ..
  30. Mead E, Gittelsohn J, Roache C, Sharma S. Healthy food intentions and higher socioeconomic status are associated with healthier food choices in an Inuit population. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Behaviour change strategies emphasising economic benefits of a healthy diet should be employed to target individuals of low socioeconomic status. ..
  31. Egeland G, Pacey A, Cao Z, Sobol I. Food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers: Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, 2007-2008. CMAJ. 2010;182:243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3%). We observed a high prevalence of household food insecurity, with a substantial proportion of children with severely food insecure status. Interventions are needed to ensure a healthy start in life for Inuit preschoolers. ..
  32. Bjerregaard P, Jeppesen C. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:13-24 pubmed
    ..The normative approach can be extended to other data sets and its results are directly applicable to dietary intervention, while the data-driven approach can identify novel patterns but is tied to the actual data set. ..
  33. Nancarrow T, Chan H. Observations of environmental changes and potential dietary impacts in two communities in Nunavut, Canada. Rural Remote Health. 2010;10:1370 pubmed
    ..Local and regional efforts are needed to plan for food security and health promotion in the region, and global actions are needed to slow down the process of climate change. ..
  34. Boucher O, Burden M, Muckle G, Saint Amour D, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, et al. Response inhibition and error monitoring during a visual go/no-go task in inuit children exposed to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:608-15 pubmed publisher
  35. Egeland G, Williamson Bathory L, Johnson Down L, Sobol I. Traditional food and monetary access to market-food: correlates of food insecurity among Inuit preschoolers. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70:373-83 pubmed
    ..TF and market food contribute to food security and both need to be considered in food security assessments. Support systems and dietary interventions for families with young children are needed. ..
  36. Miller C, Pearce M, Moniruzzaman A, Thomas V, Christian W, Schechter M, et al. The Cedar Project: risk factors for transition to injection drug use among young, urban Aboriginal people. CMAJ. 2011;183:1147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Young Aboriginal women in our study were twice as likely to inject drugs as men, and participants who injected drugs at baseline were more than twice as likely as those who did not to be involved in sex work. ..
  37. Hopping B, Erber E, Mead E, Sheehy T, Roache C, Sharma S. Socioeconomic indicators and frequency of traditional food, junk food, and fruit and vegetable consumption amongst Inuit adults in the Canadian Arctic. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:51-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that the nutrition transition taking place amongst Inuit in Nunavut results in elevated consumption of NNDF compared with TF and FV. ..
  38. Egeland G, Cao Z, Young T. Hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype and glucose intolerance among Canadian Inuit: the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey for Adults 2007-2008. CMAJ. 2011;183:E553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Assessment of waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels could represent an efficient means for identifying Inuit at high risk for diabetes. ..
  39. El Hayek J, Egeland G, Weiler H. Vitamin D status of Inuit preschoolers reflects season and vitamin D intake. J Nutr. 2010;140:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The predictors of vitamin D status were dietary intake and age. Given low traditional food consumption and low consumption of milk, interventions promoting vitamin D supplementation may be required. ..
  40. Lucas M, Proust F, Blanchet C, Ferland A, Dery S, Abdous B, et al. Is marine mammal fat or fish intake most strongly associated with omega-3 blood levels among the Nunavik Inuit?. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2010;83:143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that marine mammal fat intake is more important than fish in accounting for RBC n-3 LC-PUFA levels among the Nunavik Inuit. ..
  41. Martin L, Houston S, Yasui Y, Wild T, Saunders L. All-cause and HIV-related mortality rates among HIV-infected patients after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy: the impact of Aboriginal ethnicity and injection drug use. Can J Public Health. 2011;102:90-6 pubmed
    ..Future research should examine reasons for the observed poorer survival of Aboriginal and IDU HIV patients after initiating HAART to develop interventions to improve the prognosis for these vulnerable populations. ..
  42. Johnson R, Morales R, Leavitt D, Carry C, Kinnon D, Rideout D, et al. Pan-Arctic TV Series on Inuit wellness: a northern model of communication for social change?. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70:236-44 pubmed
  43. Bonefeld Jørgensen E, Long M. Dioxin-like activity in the blood of Greenlandic Inuit and Danish women: a pilot study. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:181-94 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to elucidate the differences in geographical determinants of blood DL-activity. ..
  44. Hopping B, Mead E, Erber E, Sheehy C, Roache C, Sharma S. Dietary adequacy of Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained indicate inadequate intakes of several essential nutrients, as well as a reliance on a nontraditional diet. A nutrition intervention is needed to prevent a continued rise in diet-related chronic disease incidence. ..
  45. Douglas V. The Inuulitsivik Maternities: culturally appropriate midwifery and epistemological accommodation. Nurs Inq. 2010;17:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This epistemological accommodation between modern biomedicine and the distinctly premodern Inuit epistemology of health has led to the creation of a new and profoundly non-modern approach to childbirth in Nunavik. ..
  46. Galloway T, Chateau Degat M, Egeland G, Young T. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey. Am J Hum Biol. 2011;23:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..More complex anthropometric and imaging studies in Inuit are needed. ..
  47. Burden M, Westerlund A, Muckle G, Dodge N, Dewailly E, Nelson C, et al. The effects of maternal binge drinking during pregnancy on neural correlates of response inhibition and memory in childhood. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:69-82 pubmed publisher
  48. Sharma S. Assessing diet and lifestyle in the Canadian Arctic Inuit and Inuvialuit to inform a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:5-17 pubmed publisher
    ..A further paper describes how these data were utilised to inform and develop Healthy Foods North. ..
  49. Lardeau M, Healey G, Ford J. The use of Photovoice to document and characterize the food security of users of community food programs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11:1680 pubmed
    ..This research method can assist in making a valuable contribution to health research, both in the Arctic and worldwide, because it promotes an understanding of the experiences of individuals from their own perspective. ..
  50. Hopping B, Erber E, Mead E, Roache C, Sharma S. High levels of physical activity and obesity co-exist amongst Inuit adults in Arctic Canada. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23 Suppl 1:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings obtained in the present study indicate the co-existence of high BMI and high self-reported PA amongst Inuit adults. ..
  51. Byrd K, Redd J, Holman R, Haberling D, Cheek J. Changing trends in viral hepatitis-associated hospitalizations in the American Indian/Alaska Native population, 1995-2007. Public Health Rep. 2011;126:816-25 pubmed
    ..Prevention and education efforts should focus on decreasing hepatitis C risk behaviors and identifying people with hepatitis C infection so they may be referred for treatment. ..
  52. Goldhar C, Ford J, Berrang Ford L. Prevalence of food insecurity in a Greenlandic community and the importance of social, economic and environmental stressors. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010;69:285-303 pubmed
    ..While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future. ..
  53. Luo Z, Senécal S, Simonet F, Guimond E, Penney C, Wilkins R. Birth outcomes in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada. CMAJ. 2010;182:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an urgent need for more effective interventions to improve maternal and infant health in Inuit-inhabited areas. ..