epidemiologic methods


Summary: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

Top Publications

  1. Reza T, Melesse D, Shafer L, Salim M, Altaf A, Sonia A, et al. Patterns and trends in Pakistan's heterogeneous HIV epidemic. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89 Suppl 2:ii4-10 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need to closely monitor regional and subpopulation epidemic patterns and implement prevention programmes customised to local epidemics. ..
  2. Roy S, Sarkar R, Sinha S. Theoretical investigation of malaria prevalence in two Indian cities using the response surface method. Malar J. 2011;10:301 pubmed publisher
    ..This method promises to provide reliable forecast of malaria incidence across varying environmental conditions, which may help in designing useful control programmes for malaria. ..
  3. Vandenbroucke J, Pearce N. Case-control studies: basic concepts. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41:1480-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our focus is on case-control studies of disease incidence ('incident case-control studies'); we will not consider the situation of case-control studies of prevalent disease, which are published much less frequently. ..
  4. Lai C, Wang C, Lu H, Chen L, Teng N, Yan Y, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Taiwan - a population-based study. Respir Med. 2012;106:1566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In Taiwan, elderly men were the major group suffering from IPF. Survival time was short after IPF diagnosis, and the poor survival was largely attributable to quick IPF progression after diagnosis. ..
  5. Andersson N. Building the community voice into planning: 25 years of methods development in social audit. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S1 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet teams in Mexico, Nicaragua, Canada, southern Africa, and Pakistan all have more than a decade of experience in social audit, their in-service training supported by a customised Masters programme. ..
  6. Edwards T, Smith J, Sturrock H, Kur L, Sabasio A, Finn T, et al. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1585 pubmed publisher
    ..In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions. ..
  7. Lidegaard Ø, Nielsen L, Skovlund C, Skjeldestad F, Løkkegaard E. Risk of venous thromboembolism from use of oral contraceptives containing different progestogens and oestrogen doses: Danish cohort study, 2001-9. BMJ. 2011;343:d6423 pubmed publisher
    ..After adjustment for length of use, users of oral contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, or drospirenone were at least at twice the risk of venous thromboembolism compared with users of oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. ..
  8. Vandenbroucke J, Pearce N. Incidence rates in dynamic populations. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41:1472-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The second part will briefly explain how and why incidence rates are calculated in cohorts. ..
  9. Andersson N. Proof of impact and pipeline planning: directions and challenges for social audit in the health sector. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S16 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Mitchell S, Cockcroft A, Andersson N. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S14 pubmed publisher
    ..Maps complement epidemiological analysis, but they are not a substitute. Much less do they substitute for rigorous epidemiological designs, like randomised controlled trials. ..
  2. Suzuki E, Yamamoto E, Tsuda T. On the relations between excess fraction, attributable fraction, and etiologic fraction. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the authors clarify the relation between 3 distinct assumptions-positive monotonicity, no preventive action (or sufficient-cause positive monotonicity), and no preventive sequence. ..
  3. Jorge A, Ribeiro M, Rosa M, Licio F, Fernandes L, Lanzieri P, et al. Left atrium measurement in patients suspected of having heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2012;98:175-81 pubmed
    ..For diagnosing HFPEF in ambulatory patients, the ILAV proved to be a more accurate parameter than ILAD. On echocardiographic assessment, ILAV, rather than ILAD, should be routinely measured. ..
  4. Tsai T, Cheng J, Lai Y. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related factors in Taiwanese high-tech industry workers. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1531-5 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to explore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlates among Taiwanese high-tech industry workers...
  5. Romano S, Salvaggio A, Lo Bue A, Marrone O, Insalaco G. A negative expiratory pressure test during wakefulness for evaluating the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in patients referred for sleep studies. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1887-94 pubmed
    ..The negative expiratory pressure test appears to be a useful screening test for suspected obstructive sleep apnea. ..
  6. Mondin T, Konradt C, Cardoso T, Quevedo L, Jansen K, Mattos L, et al. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2013;35:347-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities. ..
  7. Comino E, Harris M, Islam M, Tran D, Jalaludin B, Jorm L, et al. Impact of diabetes on hospital admission and length of stay among a general population aged 45 year or more: a record linkage study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:12 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased risk in association with other factors such as gender and low income in participants with diabetes is likely to be due to their synergistic influence on health status and the way services are accessed. ..
  8. Fluckinger C. Prediction of socially desirable and discreet hand hygiene behaviors. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:1112-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This proved useful because socially desirable practices were predicted by health promotion focus and individual identity, whereas discreet practices were predicted by health prevention focus and collective identity. ..
  9. Kretzschmar M, Schim van der Loeff M, Birrell P, de Angelis D, Coutinho R. Prospects of elimination of HIV with test-and-treat strategy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Empirical estimates of the epidemic growth rate from phylogenetic studies were used to assess the potential for elimination in specific populations. ..
  10. Porto J, Santos R, Gontijo Filho P, Ribas R. Active surveillance to determine the impact of methicillin resistance on mortality in patients with bacteremia and influences of the use of antibiotics on the development of MRSA infection. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2013;46:713-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance results showed that the use of high levels of antibiotics was directly related to the development of MRSA infection, and the mortality attributable to MRSA in patients with bacteremia was significant. ..
  11. Silva G, Sousa A, Soares D, Colósimo F, Piotto R. [Evaluation of the length of hospital stay in cases of coronary artery bypass graft by payer]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2013;59:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..017). ICU readmission (p=0.636) and postoperative complications rates were similar in both groups (p=0.055). The Non-SUS group showed longer LOS compared to the SUS group. ..
  12. Souza A, Souza A, Kirsztajn R, Kirsztajn G. Cervical cancer: Renal complications and survival after percutaneous nephrostomy. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2016;62:255-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Hb levels >8.7g/dL and Ht >27% were associated to longer survival, and the presence of low blood pressure during follow-up was associated with progression to death. ..
  13. López Martínez T, Goettems M, Azevedo M, Correa M, Demarco F, Romano A. Black stains and dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Braz Oral Res. 2016;30:e110 pubmed publisher
    ..67; 95%CI 0.49-0.92). In conclusion, the presence of BS showed an association with lower dental caries experience in the evaluated population. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms behind this association. ..
  14. Ortiz G, Schacht L, Lane G. Smoking cessation care in state-operated or state-supported psychiatric hospitals: from policy to practice. Psychiatr Serv. 2013;64:666-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional resources and staff training may be needed to continue to address smoking cessation both during and after hospitalization. ..
  15. Goetz C, Coste J, Lemetayer F, Rat A, Montel S, Recchia S, et al. Item reduction based on rigorous methodological guidelines is necessary to maintain validity when shortening composite measurement scales. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013;66:710-8 pubmed publisher
  16. Ebach M, Michael M. From Correlation to Causation: What Do We Need in the Historical Sciences?. Acta Biotheor. 2016;64:241-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Four methods are assessed in order to show how the HSBHC can be used to examine the assumptions between our data and the causal biogeographical processes we infer. ..
  17. Fuchs J, Grabka M, Gruber S, Linkohr B, Schmidt C, Schon G, et al. [Data for epidemiological research on ageing in Germany. Opportunities and limitations of existing datasets: results of the second workshop of the working group Epidemiology of Ageing within the German Society for Epidemiology (DGEpi)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2013;56:1425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..All presented datasets can be used for longitudinal analyses and are available to the scientific community. ..
  18. Perumal V. Reproductive risk factors assessment for anaemia among pregnant women in India using a multinomial logistic regression model. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, intensive health education on reproductive practices and the impact of lifestyle characteristics are warranted to reduce anaemia prevalence. ..
  19. Moura H, Faller S, Benzano D, Szobot C, von Diemen L, Stolf A, et al. The effects of ADHD in adult substance abusers. J Addict Dis. 2013;32:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..48.4 ± 8.4, respectively). Our results suggest that comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders is associated with a more severe course of substance use and with social and psychiatric impairment. ..
  20. de Stavola B, Daniel R, Ploubidis G, Micali N. Mediation analysis with intermediate confounding: structural equation modeling viewed through the causal inference lens. Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181:64-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (1990-2005) are used for illustration. ..
  21. Frimpong J, Amo Addae M, Adewuyi P, Hall C, Park M, Nagbe T. Conducting a surveillance problem analysis on poor feedback from Reference Laboratory, Liberia, February 2016. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:11 pubmed publisher
    ..It is designed for public health training in a classroom setting and can be completed within 2 hours 30 minutes. ..
  22. Voicu S, Baud F, Malissin I, Deye N, Bihry N, Vivien B, et al. Can mortality due to circulatory failure in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients be predicted on admission? A study in a retrospective derivation cohort validated in a prospective cohort. J Crit Care. 2016;32:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..11 had a CF-related death probability greater than 0.5. A logistic score based on arterial pH and shock requiring catecholamines on admission can predict CF-related death in OHCA patients. ..
  23. Otani K, Teshima T, Ito Y, Kawaguchi Y, Konishi K, Takahashi H, et al. Risk factors for vertebral compression fractures in preoperative chemoradiotherapy with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2016;118:424-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0 Gy. The RFs for VCF after CRT were identified. The side effect of VCF might be avoided by regulating the radiation dose to neighboring vertebral bodies after considering the RFs. ..
  24. Bloch K, Klein C, Szklo M, Kuschnir M, Abreu G, Barufaldi L, et al. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. Rev Saude Publica. 2016;50 Suppl 1:9s pubmed publisher
    ..Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the control of obesity would lower the prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian adolescents by 1/5. ..
  25. Levy B, Sidel V. Documenting the Effects of Armed Conflict on Population Health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2016;37:205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend the establishment of an independent mechanism, operated by the United Nations or a multilateral organization, to investigate and document the effects of armed conflict on population health. ..
  26. Roy N, Kizhakke Veetil D, Khajanchi M, Kumar V, Solomon H, Kamble J, et al. Learning from 2523 trauma deaths in India- opportunities to prevent in-hospital deaths. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:142 pubmed publisher
    ..Establishment of clinical protocols and timely processes of trauma care delivery are the next steps towards improving care. ..
  27. de Kerchove L, Mastrobuoni S, Boodhwani M, Astarci P, Rubay J, Poncelet A, et al. The role of annular dimension and annuloplasty in tricuspid aortic valve repair. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016;49:428-37; discussion 437-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable circumferential annuloplasty is recommended in tricuspid aortic valve repair whenever the basal ring size is ≥28 mm. ..
  28. Ünlü Ince B, Fassaert T, de Wit M, Cuijpers P, Smit J, Ruwaard J, et al. The relationship between acculturation strategies and depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants in the Netherlands. BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:252 pubmed publisher
    ..Participation in Dutch culture is associated with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders. Further research should focus on the assessment of acculturation in the detection of depression. ..
  29. McNamara M, Templeton A, Maganti M, Walter T, Horgan A, McKeever L, et al. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic factor in biliary tract cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50:1581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..01) and advanced group (N = 111) (HR-1.57, 95% CI; 1.04-2.44, P = 0.048). Baseline NLR is a readily available and inexpensive prognostic biomarker in patients with BTC and likely warrants validation in large prospective clinical trials. ..
  30. Thin N, Horrocks E, Hotouras A, Palit S, Thaha M, Chan C, et al. Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of neuromodulation in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Br J Surg. 2013;100:1430-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical effectiveness of TTNS is still uncertain owing to the paucity of available evidence. A consensus to standardize the use of outcome measures is recommended in order that further reports can be compared meaningfully. ..
  31. Huppert A, Katriel G. Mathematical modelling and prediction in infectious disease epidemiology. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:999-1005 pubmed
    ..Models can also assist in decision-making by making projections regarding important issues such as intervention-induced changes in the spread of disease. ..
  32. Power K, Davies M, Hargest R, Phillips S, Torkington J, Morris C. A case-control study of risk factors for wound infection in a colorectal unit. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2014;96:37-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Open surgery and obesity are independent risk factor for wound infections. An increase in laparoscopically performed operations and new strategies for managing wounds in obese patients may help to reduce the rate of wound infection. ..
  33. Schuler G, Adams V, Goto Y. Role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: results, mechanisms, and new perspectives. Eur Heart J. 2013;34:1790-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Mahande M, Daltveit A, Obure J, Mmbaga B, Masenga G, Manongi R, et al. Recurrence of preterm birth and perinatal mortality in northern Tanzania: registry-based cohort study. Trop Med Int Health. 2013;18:962-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the recurrence risk of preterm delivery and estimate the perinatal mortality in repeated preterm deliveries...
  35. Skare T, Verceze G, Oliveira A, Perreto S. Carotid intima-media thickness in spondyloarthritis patients. Sao Paulo Med J. 2013;131:100-5 pubmed
    ..0014; Pearson R 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.72). SpA patients have a higher degree of subclinical atherosclerosis than in controls, thus supporting clinical evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients. ..
  36. Virlogeux V, Zoulim F, Pugliese P, Poizot Martin I, Valantin M, Cuzin L, et al. Modeling HIV-HCV coinfection epidemiology in the direct-acting antiviral era: the road to elimination. BMC Med. 2017;15:217 pubmed publisher
    ..Our model suggests that DAA could nearly eliminate coinfection in France within 10 years for most risk groups, including LR MSM. Elimination in HR MSM will require increased TC. ..
  37. Cruz M, Lima M, Santos J, Lebrão M, Duarte Y, Ramos Cerqueira A. Incidence of self-reported hearing loss and associated risk factors among the elderly in São Paulo, Brazil: the SABE survey. Cad Saude Publica. 2013;29:702-12 pubmed
    ..Steps must be taken to reduce incidence by ameliorating the risks identified, particularly those related to occupational noise and specific diseases, notably osteoporosis. ..
  38. Lee W. Sharp bounds on sufficient-cause interactions under the assumption of no redundancy. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017;17:71 pubmed publisher
    ..Two real data sets are used to demonstrate the method (R codes provided). The proposed bounds are sharp and sharper than previous bounds. Sufficient-cause interactions can be quantified by setting bounds on them. ..
  39. Taniguchi J, Elui V, Osório F, Hallak J, Crippa J, Machado de Sousa J, et al. Quality of life in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2013;71:392-6 pubmed publisher
  40. Muraki I, Imamura F, Manson J, Hu F, Willett W, van Dam R, et al. Fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from three prospective longitudinal cohort studies. BMJ. 2013;347:f5001 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes...
  41. Canova C, Jarvis D, Walker S, Cullinan P. Systematic review of the effects of domestic paints on asthma related symptoms in people with or without asthma. J Asthma. 2013;50:1020-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The variable quality of the exposure assignment and heterogeneous study design makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions on whether domestic paint exposures cause or exacerbate asthma in children and/or adults. ..
  42. Hernán M. Counterpoint: epidemiology to guide decision-making: moving away from practice-free research. Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182:834-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exceptions to this synchronizing of the start of follow-up and the treatment strategies may be justified on a case-by-case basis. ..
  43. Verstraeten T, Cohet C, Dos Santos G, Ferreira G, Bollaerts K, Bauchau V, et al. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2016;12:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate. ..
  44. Ng C, Ng K. Does practice size matter? Review of effects on quality of care in primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:e604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..There is limited evidence to support an association between practice size and quality of care in primary care. ..
  45. Fareed A, Patil D, Scheinberg K, Blackinton Gale R, Vayalapalli S, Casarella J, et al. Comparison of QTc interval prolongation for patients in methadone versus buprenorphine maintenance treatment: a 5-year follow-up. J Addict Dis. 2013;32:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients in BMT may not need to be screened routinely for QTc prolongation. ..
  46. Schuck Paim C, Taylor R, Lindley D, Klugman K, Simonsen L. Use of near-real-time medical claims data to generate timely vaccine coverage estimates in the US: the dynamics of PCV13 vaccine uptake. Vaccine. 2013;31:5983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they demonstrate the feasibility of tracking uptake patterns in near real-time even with simple summary counts of medical claims data. ..
  47. Loerup L, Pullon R, Birks J, Fleming S, Mackillop L, Watkinson P. Trends of vital signs with gestational age in normal pregnancies: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e008769 pubmed publisher
    ..We will compare existing reference ranges to those derived from our centile charts. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated electronically and in print. CRD42014009673. ..
  48. Chan K, Wu J, Liu L, Theodoratou E, Car J, Middleton L, et al. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China, 1990-2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013;381:2016-23 pubmed publisher
  49. Sampaio D, Mattos A, Ribeiro T, Leite M, Cole C, Costa Ribeiro H. Zinc and other micronutrients supplementation through the use of sprinkles: impact on the occurrence of diarrhea and respiratory infections in institutionalized children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..2) for the test and control groups, respectively. Zinc supplementation through the use of sprinkles did not reduce the incidence of DD or ARI among the evaluated children. The sprinkles were well accepted by all study participants. ..
  50. Berr C, Gabelle A, Fievet N, Goldberg M, Zins M, Carriere I. How to optimize the use of biobanks from population-based cohorts in aging research. Biogerontology. 2016;17:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our purpose will be illustrated with some examples and results obtained in an ongoing aging cohort, the Three-City Study. ..
  51. Hazamy P, Van Antwerpen C, Tserenpuntsag B, Haley V, Tsivitis M, Doughty D, et al. Trends in validity of central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance data, New York State, 2007-2010. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41:1200-4 pubmed publisher
    ..6%. A standardized audit process has helped improve the accuracy of CLABSI reporting. Data validation provides consistent data for measuring the progress of infection prevention strategies and allows for relevant comparison of ICU data. ..
  52. De Bruijn K, Arends L, Hansen B, Leeflang S, Ruiter R, van Eijck C. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between diabetes mellitus and incidence and mortality in breast and colorectal cancer. Br J Surg. 2013;100:1421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the association between DM and cancer incidence and cancer-specific mortality in patients with breast and colorectal carcinoma...
  53. Dalhat M, Fawole O, Nguku P, Park M, Hall C, Sani Gwarzo N. Response to an unusual outbreak in a high-risk situation. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;27:7 pubmed publisher