body burden


Summary: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.

Top Publications

  1. Silverstone A, Rosenbaum P, Weinstock R, Bartell S, Foushee H, Shelton C, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and diabetes: results from the Anniston Community Health Survey. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:727-32 pubmed publisher
    ..was 27% in the study population, corresponding to an estimated prevalence of 16% for Anniston overall; the PCB body burden of 35 major congeners ranged from 0.11 to 170.42 ppb, wet weight...
  2. Laird B, Goncharov A, Chan H. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. Environ Int. 2013;59:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g...
  3. Mendola P, Brett K, Dibari J, Pollack A, Tandon R, Shenassa E. Menopause and lead body burden among US women aged 45-55, NHANES 1999-2010. Environ Res. 2013;121:110-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood lead was associated with natural menopause in US women even after adjustment for bone turnover. This raises concern that lead exposure, even at low levels, may shorten women's reproductive lifespan. ..
  4. Hayashida N, Sekitani Y, Kozlovsky A, Rafalsky R, Gutevich A, Daniliuk V, et al. Screening for 137Cs body burden due to the Chernobyl accident in Korosten City, Zhitomir, Ukraine: 1996-2008. J Radiat Res. 2011;52:629-33 pubmed
    ..The total number of participants was 144,972 (96,149 females and 48,823 males). The median body burden of (137)Cs per body weight decreased from 1996 to 2008...
  5. Eng M, Elliott J, Letcher R, Williams T. Individual variation in body burden, lipid status, and reproductive investment is related to maternal transfer of a brominated diphenyl ether (BDE-99) to eggs in the zebra finch. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..transfer of contaminants within a species is influenced by individual variation in characteristics such as body burden, yolk precursor levels, or reproductive investment is not understood...
  6. Christensen K, Lorber M, Koslitz S, Bruning T, Koch H. The contribution of diet to total bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study. Environ Int. 2012;50:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..On day 2, non-dietary sources may still be present, such as from dust. Another hypothesis is that small reservoirs of BPA from past exposures are released from storage (lipid reservoirs, e.g.) and excreted. ..
  7. Watkins D, McClean M, Fraser A, Weinberg J, Stapleton H, Sjodin A, et al. Impact of dust from multiple microenvironments and diet on PentaBDE body burden. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:1192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..were to determine relative contributions of diet and dust exposure from multiple microenvironments to PentaBDE body burden, and to explore the role of handwipes as a measure of personal exposure to PentaBDE...
  8. Thompson M, Boekelheide K. Multiple environmental chemical exposures to lead, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls among childbearing-aged women (NHANES 1999-2004): Body burden and risk factors. Environ Res. 2013;121:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxicants with intergenerational health consequences from maternal body burden and gestational exposures. Little is known about multiple chemical exposures among childbearing-aged women...
  9. Quinn C, Wania F. Understanding differences in the body burden-age relationships of bioaccumulating contaminants based on population cross sections versus individuals. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Body burden-age relationships for population cross sections and individuals over time are not equivalent...

More Information


  1. Bernstein D, Donaldson K, Decker U, Gaering S, Kunzendorf P, Chevalier J, et al. A biopersistence study following exposure to chrysotile asbestos alone or in combination with fine particles. Inhal Toxicol. 2008;20:1009-28 pubmed
    ..The increased number of macrophages in the chrysotile/sanded joint exposure group was confirmed histologically, with this being the only exposure-related histological finding reported...
  2. Uemura H, Arisawa K, Hiyoshi M, Dakeshita S, Kitayama A, Takami H, et al. Congener-specific body burden levels and possible determinants of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the general Japanese population. Chemosphere. 2010;79:706-12 pubmed publisher
    Our objective was to investigate congener-specific body burden levels and possible determinants of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Japanese human population...
  3. Genuis S. Elimination of persistent toxicants from the human body. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:3-18 pubmed publisher
    ..measures to preclude further exposures, many people throughout the world have already accrued a significant body burden of toxicants, placing them at potential health risk...
  4. Sekitani Y, Hayashida N, Karevskaya I, Vasilitsova O, Kozlovsky A, Omiya M, et al. Evaluation of (137)Cs body burden in inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation, where a high incidence of thyroid cancer was observed after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;141:36-42 pubmed publisher
    To determine the current risk of internal radiation exposure after the Chernobyl accident, the (137)Cs body burden of the inhabitants of Bryansk Oblast, Russian Federation was evaluated, from 1998 to 2008...
  5. Tsang H, Wu S, Leung C, Tao S, Wong M. Body burden of POPs of Hong Kong residents, based on human milk, maternal and cord serum. Environ Int. 2011;37:142-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Human milk is a reliable and comparatively non-invasive tool for monitoring body loading of POPs, which also allows health risk assessment of residual chemicals on our next generation. ..
  6. Senthamizhchelvan S, Bravo P, Esaias C, Lodge M, Merrill J, Hobbs R, et al. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 82Rb. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior estimates of radiation-absorbed doses from (82)Rb, a frequently used PET perfusion tracer, yielded discrepant results. We reevaluated (82)Rb dosimetry using human in vivo biokinetic measurements...
  7. Deak P, Langner O, Lell M, Kalender W. Effects of adaptive section collimation on patient radiation dose in multisection spiral CT. Radiology. 2009;252:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be combined in synergy with other means of dose reduction, such as spectral optimization and automatic exposure control. ..
  8. Uemura H, Arisawa K, Hiyoshi M, Kitayama A, Takami H, Sawachika F, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with body burden levels of dioxin and related compounds among Japan's general population. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:568-73 pubmed publisher
    ..S. population. We evaluated the associations of body burden levels of dioxins and related compounds with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the general population ..
  9. Smith J, Campbell J, Busby Hjerpe A, Lee S, Poet T, Barr D, et al. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat. Toxicology. 2009;261:47-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This is of particular importance when comparing studies that use varying exposure paradigms, which are then used for extrapolation of risk to humans. ..
  10. Uemura H, Arisawa K, Hiyoshi M, Satoh H, Sumiyoshi Y, Morinaga K, et al. PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs: recent body burden levels and their determinants among general inhabitants in Japan. Chemosphere. 2008;73:30-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to grasp the recent body burden levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and to investigate their determinants among ..
  11. Turyk M, Anderson H, Knobeloch L, Imm P, Persky V. Prevalence of diabetes and body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and p,p'-diphenyldichloroethene in Great Lakes sport fish consumers. Chemosphere. 2009;75:674-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study confirms previous cross sectional associations of DDE exposure with diabetes. Future studies should address biologic pathways by which selective POPs affect glucose homeostasis. ..
  12. Nawrot T, Van Hecke E, Thijs L, Richart T, Kuznetsova T, Jin Y, et al. Cadmium-related mortality and long-term secular trends in the cadmium body burden of an environmentally exposed population. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1620-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Few population studies have reported on the long-term changes in the internal cadmium dose and simultaneously occurring mortality...
  13. Jones D. A Scandinavian tragedy. Br Dent J. 2008;204:233-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The very small contribution from dentistry to environmental mercury pollution and the significant advantages of amalgam as a dental restorative are emphasised. ..
  14. Fraser A, Webster T, McClean M. Diet contributes significantly to the body burden of PBDEs in the general U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Results were similar for both dietary instruments but were more robust using 24FR. Intake of contaminated poultry and red meat contributes significantly to PBDE body burdens in the United States. ..
  15. Ainsbury E, Lloyd D. Dose estimation software for radiation biodosimetry. Health Phys. 2010;98:290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Proposals for improving the software through implementation of recently published Bayesian analysis techniques for cytogenetics are also outlined. An evaluation copy of the software is available on request from the authors. ..
  16. Zankl M, Petoussi Henss N, Janzen T, Uusijärvi H, Schlattl H, Li W, et al. New calculations for internal dosimetry of beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;139:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Only for irradiation of the urinary bladder wall by activity in the contents, the ICRP 30 approach presents an overestimation of approximately 40-50%. ..
  17. Payne Sturges D, Cohen J, Castorina R, Axelrad D, Woodruff T. Evaluating cumulative organophosphorus pesticide body burden of children: a national case study. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7924-30 pubmed publisher
    ..a methodology for a health risk interpretation of biomonitoring data and to apply it using NHANES 1999-2002 body burden data fororganophosphorus (OP) pesticides...
  18. Joseph W, Vermeeren G, Verloock L, Heredia M, Martens L. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public. Health Phys. 2008;95:317-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. ..
  19. Breivik K, Czub G, McLachlan M, Wania F. Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN. Environ Int. 2010;36:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model ..
  20. Stabin M. Radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear cardiology: radiation dosimetry, uncertainties, and risk. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1555-63 pubmed publisher
    ..e., diagnostic) range. ..
  21. Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi R, Authier F. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72:135-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Fisher D, Shen S, Meredith R. MIRD dose estimate report No. 20: radiation absorbed-dose estimates for 111In- and 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:644-52 pubmed publisher
    ..8 in the red marrow, 0.65 in the liver, 0.077 in the intestinal wall, 0.30 in the lungs, 0.46 in the spleen, and 0.34 in the heart wall. ..
  23. Ben Saad M, Rohnean A, Sigal Cinqualbre A, Adler G, Paul J. Evaluation of image quality and radiation dose of thoracic and coronary dual-source CT in 110 infants with congenital heart disease. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:668-76 pubmed publisher
    ..DSCT together with iopromide at 300 mg/ml is a valuable tool for the routine clinical evaluation of infants with CHD. ECG-gated acquisition provides reliable visualization of the course of the coronary arteries. ..
  24. Thomas S, Kühnlein A, Heinrich S, Praml G, Nowak D, Von Kries R, et al. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry. Bioelectromagnetics. 2008;29:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. ..
  25. La Rocca C, Alivernini S, Badiali M, Cornoldi A, Iacovella N, Silvestroni L, et al. TEQ(S) and body burden for PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in human adipose tissue. Chemosphere. 2008;73:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The obese body burdens varied from 6 to 11 ng TEQ kg(-1) body weight (BW), exceeding the estimated steady-state body burden 5 ng TEQ kg(-1) BW, based on lipid adjusted serum concentrations from several populations in the mid-1990s, ..
  26. Costa L, Giordano G, Tagliaferri S, Caglieri A, Mutti A. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects. Acta Biomed. 2008;79:172-83 pubmed
    ..Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust...
  27. Geleijns J, Salvadó Artells M, de Bruin P, Matter R, Muramatsu Y, McNitt Gray M. Computed tomography dose assessment for a 160 mm wide, 320 detector row, cone beam CT scanner. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:3141-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A CT dose descriptor that is based on an integration length smaller than the actual beam width is preferably expressed as an (average) dose, such as D100 for the 160 mm wide cone beam CT scanner, and not as CTDI100. ..
  28. Ikeda M, Watanabe T, Ohashi F, Shimbo S. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;133:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan...
  29. Fromme H, Korner W, Shahin N, Wanner A, Albrecht M, Boehmer S, et al. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), as evidenced by data from a duplicate diet study, indoor air, house dust, and biomonitoring in Germany. Environ Int. 2009;35:1125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a simplified toxicokinetic model to predict the body burden from exposure doses led to results that were of the same order of magnitude as the measured blood ..
  30. Yordy J, Pabst D, McLellan W, Wells R, Rowles T, Kucklick J. Tissue-specific distribution and whole-body burden estimates of persistent organic pollutants in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:1263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique physiological adaptation should be taken into consideration when assessing contaminant-related health effects in wild cetacean populations. ..
  31. Lima Arsati Y, Martins C, Rocha L, Cury J. Fingernail may not be a reliable biomarker of fluoride body burden from dentifrice. Braz Dent J. 2010;21:91-7 pubmed
    Fingernail has been suggested as a biomarker of fluoride (F) body burden, but there is no consensus if it would be a reliable indicator of F exposure from dentifrice...
  32. Don S, Macdougall R, Strauss K, Moore Q, Goske M, Cohen M, et al. Image gently campaign back to basics initiative: ten steps to help manage radiation dose in pediatric digital radiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200:W431-6 pubmed publisher
  33. Kim N, Ahn J, Lee B, Park J, Kim Y. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors. Environ Res. 2017;156:468-476 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. ..
  34. Nieboer E, Martin I, Liberda E, Dewailly E, Robinson E, Tsuji L. Body burdens, sources and interrelations of selected toxic and essential elements among the nine Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, James Bay region of northern Quebec, Canada. Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2017;19:727-741 pubmed publisher
  35. Surucu M, Yeginer M, Kavak G, Fan J, Radosevich J, Aydogan B. Verification of dose distribution for volumetric modulated arc therapy total marrow irradiation in a humanlike phantom. Med Phys. 2012;39:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study suggest that RapidArc VMAT technique is dosimetrically accurate, safe, and efficient in delivering TMI within clinically acceptable time frame. ..
  36. Christe A, Lin M, Yen A, Hallett R, Roychoudhury K, Schmitzberger F, et al. CT patterns of fungal pulmonary infections of the lung: comparison of standard-dose and simulated low-dose CT. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:2860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simulation data suggest that tube current levels can be reduced from 300 to 30 reference mAs without impairing the diagnostic information of specific CT patterns of pulmonary fungal infections. ..
  37. Shagina N, Tolstykh E, Degteva M, Anspaugh L, Napier B. Cortical bone resorption rate in elderly persons: estimates from long-term in vivo measurements of (90)Sr in the skeleton. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012;54:e411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%/year. Comparison of the rate of cortical bone resorption in men and women older than 55 years showed that women expressed significantly higher levels of cortical bone resorption. ..
  38. Kemerink G, Franssen R, Visser M, Urbach C, Halders S, Frantzen M, et al. Hard beta and gamma emissions of 124I. Impact on occupational dose in PET/CT. Nuklearmedizin. 2011;50:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mSv. The highly energetic positrons emitted by 124I can cause high skin doses if radioprotection is poor. Under optimized conditions occupational doses are acceptable. Education of workers is of paramount importance. ..
  39. Cho E, Chung T, Oh D, Choi H, Suh S, Lee H, et al. Cerebral computed tomography angiography using a low tube voltage (80 kVp) and a moderate concentration of iodine contrast material: a quantitative and qualitative comparison with conventional computed tomography angiography. Invest Radiol. 2012;47:142-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9 mSv). The use of 80 kVp with MC-CM improved arterial enhancement, SNR, and CNR and provided superior quality images using a smaller amount of iodine and a lower radiation dose than the conventional protocol of 120 kVp with HC-CM. ..
  40. Yen T, Lin Tan D, Lin J. Food safety involving ingestion of foods and beverages prepared with phthalate-plasticizer-containing clouding agents. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110:671-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Human biomonitoring determines body burden by measuring the chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in human specimens...
  41. Takács S, Szabo A, Oszlánczi G, Pusztai P, Sápi A, Konya Z, et al. Repeated simultaneous cortical electrophysiological and behavioral recording in rats exposed to manganese-containing nanoparticles. Acta Biol Hung. 2012;63:426-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated simultaneous behavioral and electrophysiological recording during a longer treatment with neurotoxic metals (or other xenobiotics) seems to be a promising method...
  42. Horiguchi T, Lee J, Park J, Cho H, Shiraishi H, Morita M. Specific accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues of the rock shell, Thais clavigera. Mar Environ Res. 2012;76:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, approximately 40-50% and one-half of total TPT accumulated in the digestive glands of females and males, respectively. ..
  43. Paul J, Mbalisike E, Nour Eldin N, Vogl T. Dual-source 128-slice MDCT neck: radiation dose and image quality estimation of three different protocols. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:787-96 pubmed publisher
    ..HPCT and DECT can be used with similar image quality and lower radiation dose compared to SSCT for the scans and can be utilized to various clinical advantages. ..
  44. Hernández Mendoza H, Chamizo E, Delgado A, García León M, Yllera A. Reassessment of 239Pu on planchets from human urine samples at ultra-trace levels using Aridus-ICPSFMS and AMS. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;152:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is the continuation of an article published in J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25 (1410-1415) 2010...
  45. Bednarska A, Edwards P, Sibly R, Thorbek P. A toxicokinetic model for thiamethoxam in rats: implications for higher-tier risk assessment. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:548-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case study for thiamethoxam to show how data from ADME study on rats can be used to parameterize a body burden model which predicts body residue levels after exposures to LD50 dose either as a bolus or eaten at different ..
  46. Covens P, Berus D, Caveliers V, Struelens L, Vanhavere F, Verellen D. Skin dose rate conversion factors after contamination with radiopharmaceuticals: influence of contamination area, epidermal thickness and percutaneous absorption. J Radiol Prot. 2013;33:381-93 pubmed publisher
    ..07) when using an appropriate epidermal thickness in combination with the effect of percutaneous absorption. ..
  47. Suliman I, Elawed S. Radiation dose measurements for optimisation of chest X-ray examinations of children in general radiography hospitals. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:310-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent dose measurements are of particular importance for the optimisation of X-ray examination of children in general radiography hospitals. ..
  48. Adjei D, Darko E, Schandorf C, Owusu Manteaw P, Akrobortu E. Personal dose analysis of TLD glow curve data from individual monitoring records. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;152:273-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001 and 0.500 mSv). A statistical analysis of the effective doses showed no significant difference at p < 0.05 among the means of the effective doses recorded in various practices. ..
  49. Akiba S, Mizuno S. The third analysis of cancer mortality among Japanese nuclear workers, 1991-2002: estimation of excess relative risk per radiation dose. J Radiol Prot. 2012;32:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Pooled analysis or meta-analysis of nuclear workers for solid cancers needs to take this point into account. ..
  50. Majumdar D, Dutta C, Sen S. Inhalation exposure or body burden? Better way of estimating risk--An application of PBPK model. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;41:54-61 pubmed publisher
    We aim to establish a new way for estimating the risk from internal dose or body burden due to exposure of benzene in human subject utilizing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model...
  51. Kelly R, Kiviranta H, Bergdahl I, Palli D, Johansson A, Botsivali M, et al. Prediagnostic plasma concentrations of organochlorines and risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in envirogenomarkers: a nested case-control study. Environ Health. 2017;16:9 pubmed publisher
    ..percentile) the association was null for all POPs CONCLUSION: We report no evidence that a higher body burden of PCBs, DDE or HCB increased the risk of subsequent NHL diagnosis...
  52. Cong Y, Banta G, Selck H, Berhanu D, Valsami Jones E, Forbes V. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;105:403-11 pubmed publisher
    ..56 ± 6.63, 6.92 ± 5.86 and 9.86 ± 4.94 ?g/g dw for worms in nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag treatments, respectively, but there was no significant difference in Ag bioaccumulation among the three treatments. ..
  53. Cook T, Zimmerman S, Steingall S, Boonn W, Kim W. An algorithm for intelligent sorting of CT-related dose parameters. J Digit Imaging. 2012;25:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To ultimately improve radiology patient care, we must standardize series names and exam names to unequivocally sort exams by anatomy and correctly estimate whole-body effective dose. ..