Summary: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.

Top Publications

  1. Wallace L, Wheeler G, McGlaughlin M, Bresowar G, Helenurm K. Phylogeography and genetic structure of endemic Acmispon argophyllus and A. dendroideus (Fabaceae) across the California Channel Islands. Am J Bot. 2017;104:743-756 pubmed publisher
    Taxa inhabiting the California Channel Islands exhibit variation in their degree of isolation, but few studies have considered patterns across the entire archipelago...
  2. Andréfouët S, Aucan J, Jourdan H, Kench P, Menkes C, Vidal E, et al. Conservation of low-islands: high priority despite sea-level rise. A comment on Courchamp et al. Trends Ecol Evol. 2015;30:1-2 pubmed publisher
  3. Lu T, Fu Y, Hou Y, Yang Y, Liu L, Liang H, et al. Hantavirus RNA Prevalence in Myomorph Rodents on Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island at the Sino-Russian Border. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:588-595 pubmed publisher
    ..rutilus), among the rodents on Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island, and season and habitat are risk factors of hantavirus infection. ..
  4. Li C, Le Roux G, Sonke J, van Beek P, Souhaut M, Van der Putten N, et al. Recent 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am accumulation in an ombrotrophic peatland from Amsterdam Island (Southern Indian Ocean). J Environ Radioact. 2017;175-176:164-169 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a 137Cs inventory at AMS of 144 ± 13 Bq·m-2 (corrected to 1969). Our data thus contribute to the under-represented data coverage in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. ..
  5. Jałoszyński P. First record of Cephenniitae in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, with description of new species of Cephennodes and Cephennomicrus of Mussau and Manus Islands (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae). Zootaxa. 2017;4268:427-432 pubmed publisher
    ..Cephennodes (s. str.) mussauinsularis sp. n. and Cephennomicrus manusianus sp. n. are described, based on specimens collected respectively on Mussau Island (New Ireland Province) and Manus Island (Manus Province). ..
  6. Koop J, DeMatteo K, Parker P, Whiteman N. Birds are islands for parasites. Biol Lett. 2014;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands...
  7. Faurby S, Svenning J. Resurrection of the Island Rule: Human-Driven Extinctions Have Obscured a Basic Evolutionary Pattern. Am Nat. 2016;187:812-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Islands are or have been occupied by unusual species, such as dwarf proboscideans and giant rodents...
  8. Pailhories H, Kempf M, Belmonte O, Joly Guillou M, Eveillard M. First case of OXA-24-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in cattle from Reunion Island, France. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016;48:763-764 pubmed publisher
  9. Kimball H, Selmants P, Moreno A, Running S, Giardina C. Evaluating the role of land cover and climate uncertainties in computing gross primary production in Hawaiian Island ecosystems. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184466 pubmed publisher
    ..Our sensitivity analyses within a heterogeneous tropical landscape suggest that refined global land cover and climate data sets may contribute to an enhanced MOD17 product at a variety of spatial scales. ..

More Information


  1. Zaitzev A. Two new species of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands. Zootaxa. 2017;4250:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..n. and Phthinia kurilensis sp. n. are described from Kunashir I. (South Kuril Is.). Their relationships with other species of Clastobasis Skuse and Phthinia Winnertz are briefly discussed. ..
  2. Barda B, Albonico M, Buonfrate D, Ame S, Ali S, Speich B, et al. Side Benefits of Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Strongyloides stercoralis Prevalence on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:681-683 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive chemotherapy with ivermectin should be recommended in areas where S. stercoralis is endemic. ..
  3. Carravieri A, Cherel Y, Brault Favrou M, Churlaud C, Peluhet L, Labadie P, et al. From Antarctica to the subtropics: Contrasted geographical concentrations of selenium, mercury, and persistent organic pollutants in skua chicks (Catharacta spp.). Environ Pollut. 2017;228:464-473 pubmed publisher
    ..Adélie Land, south polar skua Catharacta maccormicki), through subantarctic areas (Crozet and Kerguelen Islands, brown skua C. lonnbergi), to the subtropics (Amsterdam Island, C. lonnbergi)...
  4. Alvarez F, Iliffe T, Villalobos J. A new anchialine species of <i>Naushonia</i> (Decapoda: Gebiidea: Laomediidae) from the Bahamas. Zootaxa. 2017;4258:187-194 pubmed publisher
    ..The new species inhabits anchialine caves and is the largest one reported until now. ..
  5. Foster T, Stolen E, Hall C, Schaub R, Duncan B, Hunt D, et al. Modeling vegetation community responses to sea-level rise on Barrier Island systems: A case study on the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island complex, Florida, USA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182605 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach provides a first approximation of the impacts of sea level rise on terrestrial vegetation communities, including important xeric upland communities, as a foundation for management decisions and future modeling. ..
  6. Petitpierre E, Sacarés A, Jurado Rivera J. Updated checklist of Balearic leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Zootaxa. 2017;4272:151-177 pubmed publisher
    ..followed by Menorca (71 spp.), Eivissa (39 spp.) and Formentera (19 spp.). Thus, the Gymnesian islands (Mallorca and Menorca) are more species-rich than the Pityusic ones (Eivissa and Formentera)...
  7. Want A, Crawford R, Kakkonen J, Kiddie G, Miller S, Harris R, et al. Biodiversity characterisation and hydrodynamic consequences of marine fouling communities on marine renewable energy infrastructure in the Orkney Islands Archipelago, Scotland, UK. Biofouling. 2017;33:567-579 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of the measurement resources for power generation. Further applications are suggested for future testing in other scenarios, including tidal energy. ..
  8. Rittmeyer E, Austin C. Two new species of Crocodile Skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tribolonotus) from the Solomon Archipelago. Zootaxa. 2017;4268:71-87 pubmed publisher
    We describe two new species of the scincid lizard genus Tribolonotus from the islands of Buka and Choiseul in the Solomon Archipelago, closely related to, and previously included within, T. pseudoponceleti. One species, T. parkeri sp...
  9. González Rocha G, Muñoz Cartes G, Canales Aguirre C, Lima C, Domínguez Yévenes M, Bello Toledo H, et al. Diversity structure of culturable bacteria isolated from the Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica): A phylogenetic analysis perspective. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179390 pubmed publisher
    ..e. differences in speciation and extinction rates that arise by interaction of species level traits with the environment) play a fundamental role on the culturable bacterial diversity in Antarctica. ..
  10. Khansaritoreh E, Dulamsuren C, Klinge M, Ariunbaatar T, Bat Enerel B, Batsaikhan G, et al. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:3675-3689 pubmed publisher
  11. Thorpe R. Predictability in evolution: Adaptation of the Bonaire anole (Anolis bonairensis) to an extreme environment. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176434 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this predictability may be less consistent with other character systems, for example, scalation. ..
  12. Couch C, Burns J, Liu G, Steward K, Gutlay T, Kenyon J, et al. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185121 pubmed publisher
    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve...
  13. Dolci N, Sá F, da Costa Machado E, Krul R, Rodrigues Neto R. Trace elements in feathers and eggshells of brown booby Sula leucogaster in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands, Brazil. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:496 pubmed publisher
    ..and 47 eggshells of brown boobies Sula leucogaster from one bird colony in the Marine National Park of Currais Islands, Brazil, between December 2013 and October 2014...
  14. Qiu J. Avalanche hotspot revealed. Nature. 2014;509:142-3 pubmed publisher
  15. Kronestedt T. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar. Zootaxa. 2017;4263:594-597 pubmed publisher
    ..The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.
  16. Cao Lormeau V. Tropical Islands as New Hubs for Emerging Arboviruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22:913-5 pubmed publisher
  17. Hsu Y, Huang H, Lu C. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus <i>Delias</i> at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of <i>D. pasithoe</i> (Linnaeus, 1767) and <i>D. acalis</i> (Godart, 1819) in southern Ch. Zootaxa. 2017;4276:245-254 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies...
  18. Komai T. Redescription of the pagurid hermit crab <i>Catapaguroides</i> <i>fragilis</i> (Melin, 1939) and descriptions of two new species from deep-sea off the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura). Zootaxa. 2017;4273:235-257 pubmed publisher
    ..rubromaculatus, are described and illustrated on the basis of material from upper bathyal depths off the Ryukyu Islands. Catapaguroides rubromaculatus n. sp. resembles C. fragilis and C...
  19. Sanya R, Tumwesige E, Elliott A, Seeley J. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005982 pubmed publisher
    ..However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities...
  20. Moskovchenko D, Kurchatova A, Fefilov N, Yurtaev A. Concentrations of trace elements and iron in the Arctic soils of Belyi Island (the Kara Sea, Russia): patterns of variation across landscapes. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:210 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the concentrations of trace elements in the studied soils were within the ranges typical of the background Arctic territories. However, some soils of Belyi Island contained elevated concentrations of Pb and Cd. ..
  21. Seehausen M, Theischinger G. <i>Nososticta</i> <i>impercepta</i> sp. nov. (Odonata: Platycnemididae) from Timor, with a key to the Sundaic species. Zootaxa. 2017;4250:262-274 pubmed publisher
    ..An illustrated key for the species of Nososticta known from the Lesser Sunda Islands is given. The occurrence of N. selysi in Timor is considered to be doubtful...
  22. Kurita K, Ota H, Hikida T. A new species of <i>Plestiodon</i> (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Senkaku Group, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Zootaxa. 2017;4254:520-536 pubmed publisher
    ..The biogeographical and conservation implications of these findings are briefly discussed. ..
  23. Liu X, Wang S, Jiang Y, Sun Y, Li J, Zhang G. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers in soils from planted forests and adjacent natural forests on a tropical island. Environ Pollut. 2017;227:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a better understanding of global POPs fate should take into consideration the role of planted forests. ..
  24. Montesdeoca N, Calabuig P, Corbera J, Orós J. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177366 pubmed publisher
    ..The high release rate for seabirds (68.34%) achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds. ..
  25. Postaire B, Gelin P, Bruggemann J, Magalon H. One species for one island? Unexpected diversity and weak connectivity in a widely distributed tropical hydrozoan. Heredity (Edinb). 2017;118:385-394 pubmed publisher
    ..094*** and 0.335***). Gene flow was extremely low at all spatial scales, between sites within islands (<10?km distance) and among islands (100 to>11?000?km distance), with significant pairwise FST ..
  26. Derua Y, Rumisha S, Batengana B, Max D, Stanley G, Kisinza W, et al. Lymphatic filariasis transmission on Mafia Islands, Tanzania: Evidence from xenomonitoring in mosquito vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005938 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was carried out to determine mosquito abundance and transmission of bancroftian filariasis on Mafia Islands in Tanzania as a prerequisite for a search for appropriate vector control methods to complement the ongoing MDA ..
  27. Klegarth A, Sanders S, Gloss A, Lane deGraaf K, Jones Engel L, Fuentes A, et al. Investigating biogeographic boundaries of the Sunda shelf: A phylogenetic analysis of two island populations of Macaca fascicularis. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017;163:658-670 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial D-loop from both islands was analyzed against existing data using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches...
  28. Trapanese M, Buglione M, Maselli V, Petrelli S, Aceto S, Fulgione D. The first transcriptome of Italian wall lizard, a new tool to infer about the Island Syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185227 pubmed publisher
  29. Brutto S. The Case of a Rudderfish Highlights the Role of Natural History Museums as Sentinels of Bio-invasions. Zootaxa. 2017;4254:382-386 pubmed publisher
    In September 2013 fishermen captured a rudderfish-Kyphosus vaigiensis-off Favignana Island, one of the islands of the Egadi Islands Marine Protected Area (MPA) in western Sicily (Mannino et al., 2015)...
  30. Ito T, Yu C, Nakamura K, Chung K, Yang Q, Fu C, et al. Unique parallel radiations of high-mountainous species of the genus Sedum (Crassulaceae) on the continental island of Taiwan. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;113:9-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these parallel radiations may be attributable to the geographical dynamics of Taiwan and specific biological features of Sedum that allow them to adapt to new ecological niches. ..
  31. Valtueña F, Rodríguez Riaño T, Lopez J, Mayo C, Ortega Olivencia A. Peripatric speciation in an endemic Macaronesian plant after recent divergence from a widespread relative. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178459 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a recent dispersal of S. arguta to Madeira from Canary Islands or Selvagens Islands and a rapid morphological differentiation after the colonization to generate S...
  32. Carvallo G, Castro S. Invasions but not extinctions change phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm assemblage on southeastern Pacific Oceanic islands. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182105 pubmed publisher
    We assessed changes in phylogenetic diversity of angiosperm flora on six oceanic islands located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, by comparing flora from two periods: the pre-European colonization of islands and current times...
  33. Ojanguren Affilastro A, Adilardi R, Cajade R, Ramírez M, Ceccarelli F, Mola L. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181337 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus. ..
  34. Mari L, Bonaventura L, Storto A, Melià P, Gatto M, Masina S, et al. Understanding large-scale, long-term larval connectivity patterns: The case of the Northern Line Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182681 pubmed publisher
    ..characterized by a strong spatial gradient of human impact from pristine to heavily exploited: the Northern Line Islands (NLIs), including part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRI-MNM)...
  35. Atici L, Pilaar Birch S, Erdoğu B. Spread of domestic animals across Neolithic western Anatolia: New zooarchaeological evidence from U?urlu Höyük, the island of Gökçeada, Turkey. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186519 pubmed publisher
    ..For this, the whole spectrum of human-animal interactions must be fully documented for each sub-region of southwest Asia and the circum-Mediterranean...
  36. Salvi D, Schembri P, Sciberras A, Harris D. Evolutionary history of the Maltese wall lizard Podarcis filfolensis: insights on the ‘Expansion–Contraction’ model of Pleistocene biogeography. Mol Ecol. 2014;23:1167-87 pubmed
  37. Gordon D, Taylor P. Resolving the status of <i>Pyriporoides</i> and <i>Daisyella</i> (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata), with the systematics of some additional taxa of Calloporoidea having an ooecial heterozooid. Zootaxa. 2017;4242:201-232 pubmed publisher mostly austral in distribution, ranging from the southern Indian Ocean and New Zealand's subantarctic islands to West Antarctica, with an outlier in the northeast Atlantic...
  38. Riyanto A, Mulyadi M, McGuire J, Kusrini M, Febylasmia F, Basyir I, et al. A new small bent-toed gecko of the genus <i>Cyrtodactylus</i> (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the lower slopes of Mount Tambora, Sumbawa Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa. 2017;4242:517-528 pubmed publisher
    We describe the sixth species of bent-toed gecko from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. This species was first collected on the banks of the Oi Marai River on the low northern slopes of Gunung (Mount) Tambora on Sumbawa Island...
  39. Schluter D, Pennell M. Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity. Nature. 2017;546:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Speciation gradients therefore shape, but are also shaped by, biodiversity gradients and are often more useful for predicting future patterns of biodiversity than for interpreting the past. ..
  40. Komai T. Enneophyllus ecarina, a new species of scaphopod shell dwelling hermit crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from deep-sea off the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. Zootaxa. 2017;4269:593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..on the basis of two specimens collected from the upper bathyal depths off Amami-ohshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. The new species is immediately distinguished from the sole known congener, E...
  41. Angulo Preckler C, Leiva C, Avila C, Taboada S. Macroinvertebrate communities from the shallow soft-bottoms of Deception Island (Southern Ocean): A paradise for opportunists. Mar Environ Res. 2017;127:62-74 pubmed publisher
    Deception Island (South Shetland Islands) is an atypical spot in its Antarctic context, being a still active volcano with a submerged caldera...
  42. Hennequin S, Rouhan G, Salino A, Duan Y, Lepeigneux M, Guillou M, et al. Global phylogeny and biogeography of the fern genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae), with a focus on the Indian Ocean region. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2017;112:277-289 pubmed publisher
    ..The Afro-Madagascan lineage splits into a lineage endemic to the Mascarene islands and a lineage occurring in Madagascar, the Comoros and Africa...
  43. Hsu C, Soong K. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174319 pubmed publisher
    ..hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan...
  44. Salas Leiva D, Meerow A, Calonje M, Francisco Ortega J, Griffith M, Nakamura K, et al. Shifting Quaternary migration patterns in the Bahamian archipelago: Evidence from the Zamia pumila complex at the northern limits of the Caribbean island biodiversity hotspot. Am J Bot. 2017;104:757-771 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study highlights the importance of the maintenance of the predominant direction of genetic exchange and the role of overseas dispersion among the islands during climate oscillations.
  45. Treitler J, Drissen T, Stadtmann R, Zerbe S, Mantilla Contreras J. Complementing endozoochorous seed dispersal patterns by donkeys and goats in a semi-natural island ecosystem. BMC Ecol. 2017;17:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the adaption of the goat management to a traditional land management based on directed transhumance might maintain and enrich vegetation types. ..
  46. de Aguiar S, de Souza França S, Santana B, Santos M, Freitas F, Ferreira G, et al. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1aA circulation and risk factors for sexually transmitted infections in an Amazon geographic area with lowest human development index (Marajó Island, Northern Brazil). BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:758 pubmed publisher
  47. BENGSTON I. A serological study of 37 cases of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) occurring in Burma and the Philippine Islands. Public Health Rep. 1946;61:887-94 pubmed
  48. Esposito D, Stich A, Epelboin L, Malvy D, Han P, Bottieau E, et al. Acute muscular sarcocystosis: an international investigation among ill travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59:1401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact source of infection among travelers to Tioman Island remains unclear but needs to be determined to prevent future illnesses. ..
  49. Toral Granda M, Causton C, Jäger H, Trueman M, Izurieta J, Araujo E, et al. Alien species pathways to the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184379 pubmed publisher
    ..We also assembled a comprehensive dataset on pathways to and among the Galápagos Islands, including tourist and resident numbers, tourist vessels, their itineraries and visitation sites, aircraft ..
  50. Nielsen C. <i>Loxosomella decorata</i> n. sp., a new solitary entoproct from San Juan Island, WA, USA. Zootaxa. 2017;4238:594-596 pubmed publisher
    ..2012). This paper describes a new species of Loxosomella from tubes of the maldanid polychaete Axiothella rubrocincta (Johnson, 1901) from False Bay, San Juan Island, WA, USA. ..
  51. Abramov S, Lopatina N, Litvinov Y. Cranial size and shape variation in isolated populations of the Olkhon mountain vole (Alticola olchonensis Litvinov, 1960). Zoology (Jena). 2017;123:91-100 pubmed publisher
    ..olchonensis from the Baikal islands (Olkhon, Hubyn, Borokchin, Ogoy, and Zamogoy)...
  52. Gómez S, Gerber R, Fuentes Reinés J. Redescription of <i>Cletocamptus</i> albuquerquensis and <i>C. dominicanus</i> (Harpacticoida: Canthocamptidae <i>incertae</i> <i>sedis</i>), and description of two new species from the US Virgin Island. Zootaxa. 2017;4272:301-359 pubmed publisher
    ..material from Saskatchewan (southern Canada), Wyoming (central US), Trinidad and Tobago, and the British Virgin Islands, identified by other researchers as C...
  53. Lo Y, Li F, Ding L. Description of a new subspecies of Talicada nyseus (Guérin-Méneville, 1843) from Hainan, China (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), with notes on the genus Talicada Moore, 1881. Zootaxa. 2017;4269:586-592 pubmed publisher
    ..nyseus lami ssp. nov.. Information on immature stage and host association of the new subspecies, and notes on the genus is also provided. ..