Summary: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.

Top Publications

  1. Noto A, Shurin J. Population variation affects interactions between two California salt marsh plant species more than precipitation. Oecologia. 2016;180:499-506 pubmed
    ..Geographic intraspecific variation may therefore play an important role in determining the strength of interactions in communities...
  2. Wefferling K, Castro S, Loureiro J, Castro M, Tavares D, Hoot S. Cytogeography of the subalpine marsh marigold polyploid complex (Caltha leptosepala s.l., Ranunculaceae). Am J Bot. 2017;104:271-285 pubmed publisher
    ..leptosepala subsp. leptosepala in the Rockies. Sympatry between cytotypes in the Cascades and a parapatric distribution in the Northern Rockies suggest unique origins and separate lineages in the respective contact zones. ..
  3. Fidalgo C, Rocha J, Martins R, Proença D, Morais P, Henriques I, et al. Altererythrobacter halimionae sp. nov. and Altererythrobacter endophyticus sp. nov., two endophytes from the salt marsh plant Halimione portulacoides. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3057-3062 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. (type strain CPA5T=CECT 9130T=LMG 29519T) and Altererythrobacter endophyticus sp. nov (type strain BR75T=CECT 9129T=LMG 29518T) are proposed. ..
  4. de Castro Ferreira E, Pereira A, Silveira M, Margonari C, Marcon G, de Oliveira França A, et al. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis infecting bats from Pantanal wetland, Brazil: First records for Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris. Acta Trop. 2017;172:217-222 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments. ..
  5. Wiessner A, Kuschk P, Nguyen P, Müller J. The sulfur depot in the rhizosphere of a common wetland plant, Juncus effusus, can support long-term dynamics of inorganic sulfur transformations. Chemosphere. 2017;184:375-383 pubmed publisher
    The sulfur cycle in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands is frequently interlaced with transformations of carbon and nitrogen...
  6. Zhang S, Yang X, Li H, Song H, Wang R, Dai Z. Degradation of sulfamethoxazole in bioelectrochemical system with power supplied by constructed wetland-coupled microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:345-352 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) and VadinCA11 (3.1%) increased with an increase in voltage up to 1.2V. However, the opposite was observed for Methanosaeta and Methanomassiliicoccus. The current in the BES influenced the methanogenic communities. ..
  7. Du L, Chen Q, Liu P, Zhang X, Wang H, Zhou Q, et al. Phosphorus removal performance and biological dephosphorization process in treating reclaimed water by Integrated Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs). Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:204-211 pubmed publisher
    ..and optimum operating parameters have not been discussed or quantified in Integrated Vertical-flow Constructed Wetlands (IVCWs)...
  8. Winton R, Flanagan N, Richardson C. Neotropical peatland methane emissions along a vegetation and biogeochemical gradient. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187019 pubmed publisher
    Tropical wetlands are thought to be the most important source of interannual variability in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations, yet sparse data prevents them from being incorporated into Earth system models...
  9. K M, S V, Limaye R, Padmalal D, Kumaran N. Geomorphic response to sea level and climate changes during Late Quaternary in a humid tropical coastline: Terrain evolution model from Southwest India. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176775 pubmed publisher
    ..and Thenmala Shear Zones reveal a unique set of geomorphic features like beach ridges, runnels, chain of wetlands, lakes, estuaries, etc...

More Information


  1. Hu Y, Sun Y, Li X, Xu W, Zhang Y, Luo X, et al. Organophosphorus flame retardants in mangrove sediments from the Pearl River Estuary, South China. Chemosphere. 2017;181:433-439 pubmed publisher
    Forty-eight surface sediments were collected from three mangrove wetlands in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) of South China to investigate the distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and the relationship between OPFRs and ..
  2. Liu S, Feng X, Li X. Bioelectrochemical approach for control of methane emission from wetlands. Bioresour Technol. 2017;241:812-820 pubmed publisher
    To harvest electricity and mitigate methane emissions from wetlands, a novel microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (MFC-CW) was assembled with an anode placing in the rhizosphere and a cathode on the water surface...
  3. Blackburn M, Farrar R, Sparks M, Kuhar D, Mitchell A, Gundersen Rindal D. Chromobacterium sphagni sp. nov., an insecticidal bacterium isolated from Sphagnum bogs. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:3417-3422 pubmed publisher
    ..subtsugae, but represented a distinct species. We propose the name Chromobacterium sphagni sp. nov. for this taxon; the type strain is IIBBL 14B-1T (=NRRL B-67130T=JCM 31882T). ..
  4. Srivastava P, Dwivedi S, Kumar N, Abbassi R, Garaniya V, Yadav A. Performance assessment of aeration and radial oxygen loss assisted cathode based integrated constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell systems. Bioresour Technol. 2017;244:1178-1182 pubmed publisher
    ..7gL-1and 2.0gL-1, respectively. The maximum power density of 31.04mWm-3 and 19.60mWm-3 was achieved in CW-MFC with additional IA and CW-MFC dependent on ROL, respectively. ..
  5. Bibi F, Ullah I, Alvi S, Bakhsh S, Yasir M, Al Ghamdi A, et al. Isolation, diversity, and biotechnological potential of rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with mangrove plants from Saudi Arabia. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..These bacteria are a source of novel halophilic enzymes and antibiotics that can find industrial and medicinal use. ..
  6. Machado A, Dordio A, Fragoso R, Leitão A, Duarte E. Furosemide removal in constructed wetlands: Comparative efficiency of LECA and Cork granulates as support matrix. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:422-428 pubmed publisher
    ..Both materials showed good removal efficiencies and a combination of the two should be further explored in order to applied both materials as support matrix to cope with different furosemide concentrations. ..
  7. Zhang S, Su J, Sun G, Yang Y, Zhao Y, Ding J, et al. Land scale biogeography of arsenic biotransformation genes in estuarine wetland. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:2468-2482 pubmed publisher
    ..We proposed several possible mechanisms to explain these results. ..
  8. Cianferoni F, Norbiato M, Dogliotti M. First records in Italy of the red-listed shore bug <i>Salda henschii</i> (Reuter, 1891) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Saldidae). Zootaxa. 2017;4238:597-598 pubmed publisher
    ..g., Western Carpathians, Alps) and to freshwater wetlands in lowland coastal areas in northern Europe (Fennoscandia); it is a vicariant of the arctic (Holarctic) element S...
  9. Li Y, Zhang L, Liu L, Tian Y, Liu X, Li W, et al. Paludicola psychrotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant chitinolytic anaerobe of the family Ruminococcaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:4100-4103 pubmed publisher
    ..nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type species is NC1253T (DSM 104738T=KCTC 15582T). ..
  10. MCCARTHY M, Colna K, El Mezayen M, Laureano Rosario A, Méndez Lázaro P, Otis D, et al. Satellite Remote Sensing for Coastal Management: A Review of Successful Applications. Environ Manage. 2017;60:323-339 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review examples of remote sensing applications in the sectors of coral reefs, wetlands, water quality, public health, and fisheries and aquaculture that have successfully contributed to management and ..
  11. Dubansky B, Rice C, Barrois L, Galvez F. Biomarkers of Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Activity in Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis) From Northern Gulf of Mexico Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;73:63-75 pubmed publisher
  12. Bus A, Karczmarczyk A. Supporting constructed wetlands in P removal efficiency from surface water. Water Sci Technol. 2017;75:2554-2561 pubmed publisher
    ..the implementation of suspended reactive filters to support the phosphorus (P) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs). The reactive material (RM) used in this study was autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC)...
  13. Sun M, Zhang Y, Ma J, Yuan W, Li X, Cheng X. Satellite data based estimation of methane emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain in northeast China. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176765 pubmed publisher
    ..The results will improve our understanding of the inter-annual and spatial variations of CH4 emissions and provide a more accurate regional budget of CH4 emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain. ..
  14. Dózsa Farkas K, Csitári B, Felföldi T. A new <i>Cernosvitoviella</i> species (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae) and its comparison with other <i>Cernosvitoviella</i> species from <i>Sphagnum</i> mires in Hungary. Zootaxa. 2017;4254:322-338 pubmed publisher
    ..However, C. minor seems to be a species complex on the basis of these investigations, so it was referred as C. minor sensu lato. The status of the C. minor variants requires further studies. ..
  15. Ilyas H, Masih I. Intensification of constructed wetlands for land area reduction: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:12081-12091 pubmed publisher
    The large land area requirement of constructed wetlands (CWs) is a major limitation of its application especially in densely populated and mountainous areas...
  16. Poulin B, Ryan J, Nagy K, Stubbins A, Dittmar T, Orem W, et al. Spatial Dependence of Reduced Sulfur in Everglades Dissolved Organic Matter Controlled by Sulfate Enrichment. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;51:3630-3639 pubmed publisher
    ..sulfur chemistry in the hydrophobic organic acid fraction of DOM from unimpacted and sulfate-impacted Everglades wetlands using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry...
  17. Stoler A, Mattes B, Hintz W, Jones D, Lind L, Schuler M, et al. Effects of a common insecticide on wetland communities with varying quality of leaf litter inputs. Environ Pollut. 2017;226:452-462 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that attention to local forest composition, as well as the timing of pesticide application might help ameliorate the harmful effects of pesticides observed in freshwater systems. ..
  18. Kettenring K, Whigham D, Hazelton E, Gallagher S, Weiner H. Biotic resistance, disturbance, and mode of colonization impact the invasion of a widespread, introduced wetland grass. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:466-80 pubmed
    ..influencing the invasion of nonnative Phragmites australis, which has been rapidly expanding in brackish tidal wetlands in Chesapeake Bay...
  19. Cesário R, Hintelmann H, Mendes R, Eckey K, Dimock B, Araújo B, et al. Evaluation of mercury methylation and methylmercury demethylation rates in vegetated and non-vegetated saltmarsh sediments from two Portuguese estuaries. Environ Pollut. 2017;226:297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ± 0.2 h). This study clearly shows that the presence of vegetation in sediments favors the formation of MMHg. Moreover, this effect might be site specific and further studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here. ..
  20. Yi X, Tran N, Yin T, He Y, Gin K. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system. Water Res. 2017;121:46-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. ..
  21. Guo C, Cui Y, Dong B, Luo Y, Liu F, Zhao S, et al. Test study of the optimal design for hydraulic performance and treatment performance of free water surface flow constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol. 2017;238:461-471 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship among various hydraulic indicators and that among the purification indicators displayed extremely significant correlation. However, there was no significant correlation between hydraulic and treatment performance. ..
  22. Balasubramaniam J, Prasath D, Jayaraj K. Microphytobenthic biomass, species composition and environmental gradients in the mangrove intertidal region of the Andaman Archipelago, India. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:231 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first detailed study on the MPB from these mangrove sediments, providing benchmark data for future studies about these remote groups of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. ..
  23. Warnken J, Ohlsson R, Welsh D, Teasdale P, Chelsky A, Bennett W. Antimony and arsenic exhibit contrasting spatial distributions in the sediment and vegetation of a contaminated wetland. Chemosphere. 2017;180:388-395 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results of this study highlight clear differences in the behaviour of antimony and arsenic in freshwater wetlands, which should be considered during the management and remediation of such sites.
  24. Crotty S, Angelini C, Bertness M. Multiple stressors and the potential for synergistic loss of New England salt marshes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183058 pubmed publisher
  25. Pálfy T, Gerodolle M, Gourdon R, Meyer D, Troesch S, Molle P. Performance assessment of a vertical flow constructed wetland treating unsettled combined sewer overflow. Water Sci Technol. 2017;75:2586-2597 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, sludge was analysed for quality and a sludge depth map was created. The map, and calculating the changes in sludge volume, helped to understand solid accumulation dynamics. ..
  26. Morris L, Petch D, May D, Steele W. Monitoring for a specific management objective: protection of shorebird foraging habitat adjacent to a waste water treatment plant. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:208 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the importance of monitoring data from a range of scales in reducing uncertainty and improving decision making in complex systems. ..
  27. Huang W, Chou L. Temperature effects on life history traits of two sympatric branchiopods from an ephemeral wetland. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179449 pubmed publisher
    ..kugenumaensis showed no significant change in reproductive mode with temperature. This is the first study indicating a significant differentiation in life history parameters of two sympatric branchiopods mediated by temperature. ..
  28. Rasooli M, Naghoni A, Amoozegar M, Mirfeizi L, Moshtaghi Nikou M, Shahzadeh Fazeli S, et al. Natrinema soli sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from a hypersaline wetland. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:2142-2147 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, a novel species of the family Natrialbaceae, Natrinema soli sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 5-3T (=IBRC-M 11063T=LMG 29247T). ..
  29. Bayraktarov E, Saunders M, Abdullah S, Mills M, Beher J, Possingham H, et al. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration. Ecol Appl. 2016;26:1055-74 pubmed
    ..Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques applied rather than on money spent. We need enhanced investment in both improving restoration practices and large-scale restoration. ..
  30. de Las Marinas M, Martorell A, Felix R, Cerdá J, Garcia A, Navalpotro D. Strongyloidiasis: an emerging infectious disease that simulates allergic diseases. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22:286-7 pubmed
  31. Moshtaghi Nikou M, Ramezani M, Harirchi S, Makzoom S, Amoozegar M, Shahzadeh Fazeli S, et al. Salinifilum gen. nov., with description of Salinifilum proteinilyticum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic actinomycete isolated from Meighan wetland, Iran, and reclassification of Saccharopolyspora aidingensis as Salinifilum aidingensis comb. nov. and. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:4221-4227 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is TRM 46074T (=CCTCCAA 2012014T=JCM 30185T) and the type strain of Salinifilum ghardaiensis comb. nov. is CCUG 63370T (=DSM 45606T=CECT 8304T)...
  32. Chuah C, Tan E, Sermswan R, Ziegler A. Hydrological connectivity and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence in wetland environments: investigating rice-farming community's risk of exposure to melioidosis in North-East Thailand. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:287 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, it may be important to investigate melioidosis through transdisciplinary approaches that consider the complex social and ecological contexts in which the disease occurs. ..
  33. Tang L, Xia Y, Wu X, Chen X, Zhang X, Li H. Screening and characterization of a novel thermostable lipase with detergent-additive potential from the metagenomic library of a mangrove soil. Gene. 2017;625:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These beneficial characteristics of Lip906 lipase provide some advantages for its potential application in industry. ..
  34. Aboagye S, Asare P, Otchere I, Koka E, Mensah G, Yirenya Tawiah D, et al. Environmental and Behavioral Drivers of Buruli Ulcer Disease in Selected Communities Along the Densu River Basin of Ghana: A Case-Control Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1076-1083 pubmed publisher
  35. Damastuti E, de Groot R. Effectiveness of community-based mangrove management for sustainable resource use and livelihood support: A case study of four villages in Central Java, Indonesia. J Environ Manage. 2017;203:510-521 pubmed publisher
  36. Schaefer J, Kronberg R, Morel F, Skyllberg U. Detection of a key Hg methylation gene, hgcA, in wetland soils. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2014;6:441-7 pubmed
    ..This first report on hgcA diversity in environmental samples suggests a role in Hg methylation for various phenotypic groups in different portions of wetlands.
  37. Rickelt L, Askaer L, Walpersdorf E, Elberling B, Glud R, Kuhl M. An optode sensor array for long-term in situ oxygen measurements in soil and sediment. J Environ Qual. 2013;42:1267-73 pubmed publisher
    Long-term measurements of molecular oxygen (O) dynamics in wetlands are highly relevant for understanding the effects of water level changes on net greenhouse gas budgets in these ecosystems...
  38. Lanctôt C, Cresswell T, Melvin S. Uptake and tissue distributions of cadmium, selenium and zinc in striped marsh frog tadpoles exposed during early post-embryonic development. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;144:291-299 pubmed publisher
  39. Feng J, Zhou J, Wang L, Cui X, Ning C, Wu H, et al. Effects of short-term invasion of Spartina alterniflora and the subsequent restoration of native mangroves on the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stock. Chemosphere. 2017;184:774-783 pubmed publisher
    The exotic cordgrass Spartina alterniflora has severely invaded the mangrove wetlands in southern China and ecological restoration using native mangroves was conducted in an attempt to control this invasive species...
  40. González C, Reyes C, Rada Chaparro V, Saldarriaga Córdoba M. A new species of <i>Aedes</i> Meigen subgenus <i>Ochlerotatus</i> Lynch Arribálzaga (Diptera: Culicidae) from the coastal wetlands of the desert in northern Chile: morphological and molecular identification. Zootaxa. 2017;4273:31-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Och.) sallumae divergent from its sister species Ae. (Och.) albifasciatus. Molecular characterization showed a difference of more than 8% between these species, supporting their recognition as different species. ..
  41. Walsh M, Willem de Smalen A, Mor S. Wetlands, wild Bovidae species richness and sheep density delineate risk of Rift Valley fever outbreaks in the African continent and Arabian Peninsula. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005756 pubmed publisher
    ..These results await validation by studies employing a deeper, field-based interrogation of potential wildlife hosts within high risk taxa. ..
  42. Bamford A, Razafindrajao F, Young R, Hilton G. Profound and pervasive degradation of Madagascar's freshwater wetlands and links with biodiversity. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182673 pubmed publisher
    Reflecting a global trend, freshwater wetlands in Madagascar have received little conservation or research attention...
  43. Roe H, Elliott S, Patterson R. Re-assessing the vertical distribution of testate amoeba communities in surface peats: Implications for palaeohydrological studies. Eur J Protistol. 2017;60:13-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underline the complexity of testate amoeba community structure and highlight the importance of analysing both living and dead Sphagnum stem sections when developing calibration sets. ..
  44. Wittmann F, Marques M, Damasceno Júnior G, Budke J, Piedade M, de Oliveira Wittmann A, et al. The Brazilian freshwater wetscape: Changes in tree community diversity and composition on climatic and geographic gradients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175003 pubmed publisher
    b>Wetlands harbor an important compliment of regional plant diversity, but in many regions data on wetland diversity and composition is still lacking, thus hindering our understanding of the processes that control it...
  45. Zhu G, Xie Z, Li T, Ma Z, Xu X. Assessment ecological risk of heavy metal caused by high-intensity land reclamation in Bohai Bay, China. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175627 pubmed publisher
    ..The results shows that 910.7 km2 of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed and conversed to industrial land during the past 36 years...
  46. Osland M, Griffith K, Larriviere J, Feher L, Cahoon D, Enwright N, et al. Assessing coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast: Gaps and opportunities for developing a coordinated regional sampling network. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183431 pubmed publisher
    ..This regional network would provide data for predicting and preparing for the responses of coastal wetlands to accelerated sea-level rise and other aspects of global change.
  47. Liang J, Yang Z, Tang L, Zeng G, Yu M, Li X, et al. Changes in heavy metal mobility and availability from contaminated wetland soil remediated with combined biochar-compost. Chemosphere. 2017;181:281-288 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that different ratios of biochar and compost have a significant effect on availability and speciation of heavy metals in multi-metal-contaminated wetland soil. ..
  48. Mihajlovic J, Stärk H, Rinklebe J. Rare earth elements and their release dynamics under pre-definite redox conditions in a floodplain soil. Chemosphere. 2017;181:313-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should further elucidate the specific release kinetics of REEs, the controlling factors on the release dynamics and the underlying mobilization processes in highly dynamic wetland soils around the globe. ..
  49. de Oliveira Junior J, Beirigo R, Chiapini M, do Nascimento A, Couto E, Vidal Torrado P. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179197 pubmed publisher
    ..In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion. ..
  50. Shi P, Jiang Y, Zhu H, Sun D. Impact of steel slag on the ammonium adsorption by zeolite and a new configuration of zeolite-steel slag substrate for constructed wetlands. Water Sci Technol. 2017;76:584-593 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental results showed that this novel filling configuration was superior to two other filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal. ..
  51. Short J, Geiger H, Haney J, Voss C, Vozzo M, Guillory V, et al. Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;73:76-92 pubmed publisher
  52. Huang J, Cao C, Yan C, Liu J, Hu Q, Guan W. Impacts of silver nanoparticles on the nutrient removal and functional bacterial community in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol. 2017;243:1216-1226 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing analyses also showed that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla. These results may provide valuable information and reference for evaluating the effect of AgNPs on constructed wetlands.
  53. Mojiri A, Ahmad Z, Tajuddin R, Arshad M, Gholami A. Ammonia, phosphate, phenol, and copper(II) removal from aqueous solution by subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:337 pubmed publisher
    ..99%. So this combined CW showed a good performance in removing pollutants. Graphical abstract Wetlands arrangement for treating aqueous solution in current study.