endangered species


Summary: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.

Top Publications

  1. Hutchings J. Thresholds for impaired species recovery. Proc Biol Sci. 2015;282:20150654 pubmed
  2. Wayne R, Hedrick P. Genetics and wolf conservation in the American West: lessons and challenges. Heredity (Edinb). 2011;107:16-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Woodward S, Boa E. Ash dieback in the UK: a wake-up call. Mol Plant Pathol. 2013;14:856-60 pubmed publisher
  4. Maxwell S, Fuller R, Brooks T, Watson J. Biodiversity: The ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature. 2016;536:143-5 pubmed publisher
  5. Ellis Soto D, Blake S, Soultan A, Guézou A, Cabrera F, Lötters S. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181333 pubmed publisher
    ..Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities. ..
  6. Bedford Guaus S, Kim S, Mulero L, Vaquero J, Morera C, Adan Milanès R, et al. Molecular markers of putative spermatogonial stem cells in the domestic cat. Reprod Domest Anim. 2017;52 Suppl 2:177-186 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should identify additional surface markers that alone or in combination can be used to further enrich SSCs from cat germ cells. ..
  7. Waite D, Eason D, Taylor M. Influence of hand rearing and bird age on the fecal microbiota of the critically endangered kakapo. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014;80:4650-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, the microbial community structure of juvenile and adult kakapos changed over time, reinforcing the need for continual monitoring of the microbiota as part of regular health screening. ..
  8. Di Sabatino D, Savini G, Lorusso A. Canine distemper and endangered wildlife: Is it time for mandatory vaccination of dogs?. Vaccine. 2015;33:6519 pubmed publisher
  9. Margalida A, Colomer M, Oro D. Man-induced activities modify demographic parameters in a long-lived species: effects of poisoning and health policies. Ecol Appl. 2014;24:436-44 pubmed

More Information


  1. Cardós J, Aragón G, Martinez I. A species on a tightrope: Establishment limitations of an endangered lichen in a fragmented Mediterranean landscape. Am J Bot. 2017;104:527-537 pubmed publisher
    ..This habitat is scarce, but P. plumbea has successfully tracked all of these scattered areas via its high dispersal capacity. ..
  2. Denoël M, Ficetola G. Using kernels and ecological niche modeling to delineate conservation areas in an endangered patch-breeding phenotype. Ecol Appl. 2015;25:1922-31 pubmed
    ..In a broader perspective, KDEs are thus a pertinent tool in providing quantitative spatial measurements to delineate conservation areas based on patch-abundance data with a specific focus to connectivity. ..
  3. Simplicio R, Pereira D, Waldschmidt A. Transferability of microsatellite markers in Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc. (Arecaceae), an iconic palm tree from the Brazilian semiarid region. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..785 to 1.000. In conclusion, the tested loci are transferrable and highly efficient to population studies in S. coronata, thus minimizing the lack of species-specific loci to the genetic monitoring of licuri populations. ..
  4. Wake D. Ecology. Facing extinction in real time. Science. 2012;335:1052-3 pubmed publisher
  5. Wheatley C, Beale C, Bradbury R, Pearce Higgins J, Critchlow R, Thomas C. Climate change vulnerability for species-Assessing the assessments. Glob Chang Biol. 2017;23:3704-3715 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our validation provide more support for the use of trend-based rather than purely trait-based approaches, although further validation will be required as data become available. ..
  6. Thomas J. ECOLOGY. Butterfly communities under threat. Science. 2016;353:216-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Gruen L, Fultz A, Pruetz J. Ethical issues in African great ape field studies. ILAR J. 2013;54:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This text will end with specific proposals that focus on the ethical concerns in great ape field studies. ..
  8. Kelly B, Whiteley A, Tallmon D. The Arctic melting pot. Nature. 2010;468:891 pubmed publisher
  9. Stewart J, Wright D, Heckman K. Apparent climate-mediated loss and fragmentation of core habitat of the American pika in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181834 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding provides empirical support to model projections, indicating that even core areas of species habitat are vulnerable to climate change within a timeframe of decades...
  10. Sajeva M, Augugliaro C, Smith M, Oddo E. Regulating Internet trade in CITES species. Conserv Biol. 2013;27:429-30 pubmed publisher
  11. Curran M, Hellweg S, Beck J. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy?. Ecol Appl. 2014;24:617-32 pubmed
    ..Restoration offset policy therefore leads to a net loss of biodiversity, and represents an inappropriate use of the otherwise valuable tool of ecosystem restoration. ..
  12. Weltz K, Lyle J, Ovenden J, Morgan J, Moreno D, Semmens J. Application of environmental DNA to detect an endangered marine skate species in the wild. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178124 pubmed publisher
    ..With the rate of decay being influenced by starting eDNA concentrations, it is recommended that samples be filtered as soon as possible after collection to minimize further loss of eDNA prior to and during sample processing. ..
  13. Alvares Carvalho S, Silva Mann R, Gois I, Melo M, Oliveira A, Ferreira R, et al. Restoration over time and sustainability of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..However, gene flow may also introduce potentially adaptive alleles in the populations of the recovered area, and the native population is necessary to ensure the sustainability and maintenance of the populations by allelic exchange. ..
  14. Wasser S, Lundin J, Ayres K, Seely E, Giles D, Balcomb K, et al. Population growth is limited by nutritional impacts on pregnancy success in endangered Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179824 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological measures used in this study can also be used to monitor the success of actions aimed at promoting adaptive management of this important apex predator to the Pacific Northwest. ..
  15. Falcão L, Campos A, Freitas J, Furtado Neto M, Faria V. Molecular identification of cetaceans from the West Atlantic using the E3-I5 region of COI. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..acutorostrata), vulnerable sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), and melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra). ..
  16. González Maya J, Martinez Meyer E, Medellín R, Ceballos G. Distribution of mammal functional diversity in the Neotropical realm: Influence of land-use and extinction risk. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175931 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results help to pinpoint key areas requiring urgent conservation action to reduce natural land-cover loss and areas where threatened species play influential roles on ecosystem functioning. ..
  17. Vincenot C, Florens F, Kingston T. Can we protect island flying foxes?. Science. 2017;355:1368-1370 pubmed publisher
  18. Waeber P, Gardner C, Lourenço W, Wilmé L. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183903 pubmed publisher
  19. Monastersky R. Biodiversity: Life--a status report. Nature. 2014;516:158-61 pubmed publisher
  20. Cailly Arnulphi V, Lambertucci S, Borghi C. Education can improve the negative perception of a threatened long-lived scavenging bird, the Andean condor. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185278 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that highlighting the central ecological role of scavengers and recovering their cultural value would be fundamental to reverse their persecution and their negative perception by people. ..
  21. Yap T, Koo M, Ambrose R, Wake D, Vredenburg V. BIODIVERSITY. Averting a North American biodiversity crisis. Science. 2015;349:481-2 pubmed publisher
  22. Gordon C, Banyard A, Hussein A, Laurenson M, Malcolm J, Marino J, et al. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:824-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. ..
  23. Martín Torrijos L, Campos Llach M, Pou Rovira Q, Diéguez Uribeondo J. Resistance to the crayfish plague, Aphanomyces astaci (Oomycota) in the endangered freshwater crayfish species, Austropotamobius pallipes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181226 pubmed publisher
    ..e., genotype Pc. The identification of this population is of key importance for the management of these endangered species, and represents a crucial step forward towards the elucidation of the factors involved in the immune ..
  24. Pielech R, Zajac K, Kadej M, Malicki M, Malkiewicz A, Tarnawski D. Ellenberg's indicator values support prediction of suitable habitat for pre-diapause larvae of endangered butterfly Euphydryas aurinia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179026 pubmed publisher
    ..An absence of light-demanding species decreases the community's mean EIV of light and thus indicates the influence of meadow abandonment. ..
  25. Arratia G, Vila I, Lam N, Guerrero C, Quezada Romegialli C. Morphological and taxonomic descriptions of a new genus and species of killifishes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes) from the high Andes of northern Chile. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181989 pubmed publisher
    ..There is high probability it will become extinct due to water demands and climate change in the region. ..
  26. Rocha L, Aleixo A, Allen G, Almeda F, Baldwin C, Barclay M, et al. Specimen collection: an essential tool. Science. 2014;344:814-5 pubmed publisher
  27. Tollis M, DeNardo D, Cornelius J, Dolby G, Edwards T, Henen B, et al. The Agassiz's desert tortoise genome provides a resource for the conservation of a threatened species. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177708 pubmed publisher
    ..agassizii) is a long-lived species native to the Mojave Desert and is listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act...
  28. Lindenmayer D, Laurance W, Franklin J. Ecology. Global decline in large old trees. Science. 2012;338:1305-6 pubmed publisher
  29. Marmesat E, Schmidt K, Saveljev A, Seryodkin I, Godoy J. Retention of functional variation despite extreme genomic erosion: MHC allelic repertoires in the Lynx genus. BMC Evol Biol. 2017;17:158 pubmed publisher
    Demographic bottlenecks erode genetic diversity and may increase endangered species' extinction risk via decreased fitness and adaptive potential...
  30. Duruz S, Flury C, Matasci G, Joerin F, Widmer I, Joost S. A WebGIS platform for the monitoring of Farm Animal Genetic Resources (GENMON). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176362 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the platform is illustrated by means of an example based on three local livestock breeds from different species in Switzerland. ..
  31. Fox A, Madsen J. Threatened species to super-abundance: The unexpected international implications of successful goose conservation. Ambio. 2017;46:179-187 pubmed publisher
    ..It also provides the context for finding common solutions to problems, presenting experiences from regional-, national- and flyway-coordinated management to find solutions to conflict. ..
  32. Hajirezaee S, Mirvaghefi A, Farahmand H, Agh N. NMR-based metabolomic study on the toxicological effects of pesticide, diazinon on adaptation to sea water by endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus fingerlings. Chemosphere. 2017;185:213-226 pubmed publisher
    ..9 mg L-1 diazinon treatment) elevated significantly after 24 h acclimation in BW (P < 0.05). Our results may help to understand the effects of pesticides on fish osmoregulation from a metabolic approach. ..
  33. Dhamorikar A, Mehta P, Bargali H, Gore K. Characteristics of human - sloth bear (Melursus ursinus) encounters and the resulting human casualties in the Kanha-Pench corridor, Madhya Pradesh, India. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176612 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the compensation program for attack victims as well as other governmental programs which can help reduce conflict. Finally, we recommend short-term mitigation measures for forest-dependent communities. ..
  34. Wani N, Vettical B, Hong S. First cloned Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) calf produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer: A step towards preserving the critically endangered wild Bactrian camels. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177800 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, birth of a cloned Bactrian calf by iSCNT using dromedary camel as a source for oocytes as well as a surrogate for carrying the pregnancy to term. ..
  35. Wasser S, Poole J, Lee P, Lindsay K, Dobson A, Hart J, et al. Conservation. Elephants, ivory, and trade. Science. 2010;327:1331-2 pubmed publisher
  36. Ng H, Kottelat M. The <i>Glyptothorax</i> of the Bolaven Plateau, Laos (Teleostei: Sisoridae): new and endangered. Zootaxa. 2017;4238:406-416 pubmed publisher
    ..Both species are endemic to the Bolaven Plateau, have a very limited distribution and are threatened by hydropower and agricultural activities. ..
  37. Simkova A, Civánová K, Gettová L, Gilles A. Genomic Porosity between Invasive Chondrostoma nasus and Endangered Endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma (Cyprinidae): The Evolution of MHC IIB Genes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65883 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive significant correlation between MHC and microsatellites suggests that demographic factors may contribute to MHC variation on a short time scale. ..
  38. Balazik M, Farrae D, Darden T, Garman G. Genetic differentiation of spring-spawning and fall-spawning male Atlantic sturgeon in the James River, Virginia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179661 pubmed publisher
    ..occurrence of putative dual spawning groups leads to questions regarding the true stock structure of this endangered species. In the James River, VA specifically, captures of spawning Atlantic sturgeon and accompanying telemetry data ..
  39. Currylow A, Mandimbihasina A, Gibbons P, Bekarany E, Stanford C, Louis E, et al. Comparative ecophysiology of a critically endangered (CR) ectotherm: Implications for conservation management. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182004 pubmed publisher
    Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction...
  40. Savoy T, Maceda L, Roy N, Peterson D, Wirgin I. Evidence of natural reproduction of Atlantic sturgeon in the Connecticut River from unlikely sources. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175085 pubmed publisher
    Atlantic Sturgeon is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five Distinct Population Segments (DPS)...
  41. Conde D, FLESNESS N, Colchero F, Jones O, Scheuerlein A. Conservation. An emerging role of zoos to conserve biodiversity. Science. 2011;331:1390-1 pubmed publisher
  42. Creel S, Becker M, Christianson D, Droge E, Hammerschlag N, Hayward M, et al. CONSERVATION POLICY. Questionable policy for large carnivore hunting. Science. 2015;350:1473-5 pubmed publisher
  43. Huang H. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future. Bot J Linn Soc. 2011;166:282-300 pubmed
    ..Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of far-reaching significance for sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. ..
  44. Sarmah J, Hazarika C, Berkeley E, Ganswindt S, Ganswindt A. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function as a measure of stress in the endangered golden langur. Zoo Biol. 2017;36:278-283 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a validated practical method for non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in this rare and declining species. ..
  45. Kumar S. Extinction need not be forever. Nature. 2012;492:9 pubmed publisher
  46. Jesus T, Moreno J, Repolho T, Athanasiadis A, Rosa R, Almeida Val V, et al. Protein analysis and gene expression indicate differential vulnerability of Iberian fish species under a climate change scenario. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181325 pubmed publisher
    ..This work also highlights that assessments of the potential of endangered freshwater species to cope with environmental change are crucial to help decision-makers adopt future conservation strategies. ..
  47. Navarro B, Elbl P, De Souza A, Jardim V, de Oliveira L, Macedo A, et al. Carbohydrate-mediated responses during zygotic and early somatic embryogenesis in the endangered conifer, Araucaria angustifolia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180051 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sheds light on how carbohydrate metabolism is influenced during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis in the endangered conifer species, A. angustifolia. ..
  48. Ellison A. Political borders should not hamper wildlife. Nature. 2014;508:9 pubmed publisher
  49. Heard G, Scroggie M, Clemann N, Ramsey D. Wetland characteristics influence disease risk for a threatened amphibian. Ecol Appl. 2014;24:650-62 pubmed
    ..g., complementing inflows with groundwater) could be trialed to reduce the impacts of chytridiomycosis on this species. This and other recent studies highlight the value of research on environmental risk factors for chytridiomycosis. ..
  50. Gaafar A, Al Qurainy F, Khan S. Assessment of genetic diversity in the endangered populations of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae) growing in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. BMC Genet. 2014;15:109 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, this locally endangered species is on the verge of local extinction...
  51. Liu Q, Chen Y, Maltby L, Ma Q. Conservation efforts of captive golden takin (Budorcas taxicolor bedfordi) are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical elements exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;143:72-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservation efforts of captive golden takin are potentially compromised by the elevated chemical element exposure and effort should focus on providing uncontaminated food for captive animals. ..
  52. Williams K, Huyvaert K, Piaggio A. Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179282 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of eDNA techniques to the detection of terrestrial invasive or endangered species may require sampling at intermittent water sources that are used for drinking and cooling; these water ..
  53. Wait L, Fox S, Peck S, Power M. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174994 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission. ..
  54. Fang J. Wildlife service plans for a warmer world. Nature. 2010;464:332-3 pubmed publisher
  55. Rowley J, Tapley B, Chung N, Altig R. Tadpole of the Critically Endangered Sterling's Toothed Toad (<i>Oreolalax sterlingae</i>). Zootaxa. 2017;4272:579-582 pubmed publisher
    ..sterlingae within the genus is not known. Because of its extremely small range and profound habitat modifications and pollution at the site, O. sterlingae was recently assessed as Critically Endangered (IUCN SSC 2015). ..
  56. Drury C, Manzello D, Lirman D. Genotype and local environment dynamically influence growth, disturbance response and survivorship in the threatened coral, Acropora cervicornis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174000 pubmed publisher
  57. Hvistendahl M. Endangered species. Captive pandas succumb to killer virus. Science. 2015;347:700-1 pubmed publisher
  58. Wall J, Wittemyer G, Klinkenberg B, Douglas Hamilton I. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring. Ecol Appl. 2014;24:593-601 pubmed
    ..Real-time processing of remotely collected, animal biospatial data promises to open novel directions in ecological research, applied species monitoring, conservation programs, and public outreach and education. ..
  59. Bennett E, Champlot S, Peters J, Arbuckle B, Guimaraes S, Pruvost M, et al. Taming the late Quaternary phylogeography of the Eurasiatic wild ass through ancient and modern DNA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174216 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, appropriately placing extant relict populations into a broader phylogeographic and genetic context can better inform ongoing conservation strategies for this highly-endangered species.
  60. Boyer S. Fauna in decline: the community way. Science. 2014;346:821 pubmed publisher
  61. Mason E, Firn J, Hines H, Baker A. Plant diversity and structure describe the presence of a new, threatened Australian marsupial within its highly restricted, post-fire habitat. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182319 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, in predicting the distribution of rare species like A. argentus, data quality (i.e., spatial resolution) may prevail over data quantity (i.e., number of data). ..
  62. Konowalik K, Proćków M, Proćków J. Climatic niche of Selinum alatum (Apiaceae, Selineae), a new invasive plant species in Central Europe and its alterations according to the climate change scenarios: Are the European mountains threatened by invasion?. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182793 pubmed publisher
    ..Future (2070) models mostly rendered similar suitability maps, but showed slight differences over particular areas and a contraction of suitable habitats, mainly in the northern part of the non-native range. ..
  63. Wang Z, Zhou X, Lin Q, Fang W, Chen X. Diversity and selection of MHC class I genes in the vulnerable Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176671 pubmed publisher
  64. Vaz J, Narayan E, Dileep Kumar R, Thenmozhi K, Thiyagesan K, Baskaran N. Prevalence and determinants of stereotypic behaviours and physiological stress among tigers and leopards in Indian zoos. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174711 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study is promising and is comparable with their natural behaviour in the wild; for example, tigers require larger natural habitats, while leopards can manage even with smaller isolated patches but with dense vegetation cover. ..
  65. Selvaraj V, Wildt D, Pukazhenthi B. Induced pluripotent stem cells for conserving endangered species?. Nat Methods. 2011;8:805-7 pubmed publisher
  66. Mackenzie Dodds J, Clarke A, Lermen D, Rey I, Astrin J, Seberg O, et al. Recent initiatives in biodiversity biobanking: summary of presentations from the ESBB 2012 Conference. Biopreserv Biobank. 2013;11:182-8 pubmed publisher
  67. Sherkow J, Greely H. Genomics. What if extinction is not forever?. Science. 2013;340:32-3 pubmed publisher
  68. Strong C, Burnside N, Llewellyn D. The potential of small-Unmanned Aircraft Systems for the rapid detection of threatened unimproved grassland communities using an Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186193 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms behind the improved performance of the ENDVI are discussed and recommendations are made for areas of future research and study...
  69. Stuart S, Wilson E, McNeely J, Mittermeier R, Rodriguez J. Ecology. The barometer of life. Science. 2010;328:177 pubmed publisher
  70. Bruskotter J, Enzler S, Treves A. Science and law. Rescuing wolves from politics: wildlife as a public trust resource. Science. 2011;333:1828-9 pubmed publisher
  71. Rose K, Agius J, Hall J, Thompson P, Eden J, Srivastava M, et al. Emergent multisystemic Enterococcus infection threatens endangered Christmas Island reptile populations. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181240 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular characterisation of the organism placed it as a novel member of the genus Enterococcus. Disease Risk Analyses including this organism should now be factored into conservation management actions and island biosecurity. ..
  72. Feutry P, Kyne P, Pillans R, Chen X, Naylor G, Grewe P. Mitogenomics of the Speartooth Shark challenges ten years of control region sequencing. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:232 pubmed publisher
  73. Willoughby J, Ivy J, Lacy R, Doyle J, DeWoody J. Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175996 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild. ..
  74. Akiyama T, Kohyama T, Nishida C, Onuma M, Momose K, Masuda R. Genetic variation of major histocompatibility complex genes in the endangered red-crowned crane. Immunogenetics. 2017;69:451-462 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides useful data for the optimal management of the red-crowned crane population in Hokkaido and can contribute to future studies on MHC genes of the continental populations of the red-crowned crane and other crane species. ..