mass casualty incidents


Summary: Events that overwhelm the resources of local HOSPITALS and health care providers. They are likely to impose a sustained demand for HEALTH SERVICES rather than the short, intense peak customary with smaller scale disasters.

Top Publications

  1. Wang H, Wu H. Problems in the management of mass casualties in the Tianjin explosion. Crit Care. 2016;20:47 pubmed publisher
  2. Bower W, Hendricks K, Pillai S, Guarnizo J, Meaney Delman D. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1-22 pubmed publisher
  3. Kelley R. EMS response to mass shootings. EMS Mag. 2008;37:86-90 pubmed
  4. Dickinson E. Crosshairs on EMS. Responding to MCIs caused by low-tech terrorism. JEMS. 2013;38:46-51 pubmed
  5. Fernandez Pacheco A, Rodriguez L, Price M, Perez A, Alonso N, Ríos M. Drones at the service for training on mass casualty incident: A simulation study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7159 pubmed publisher
    b>Mass casualty incidents (MCI) are characterized by a large number of victims with respect to the resources available...
  6. Cumberland S. Banning cluster munitions. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;87:8-9 pubmed
  7. Gharahbaghian L, Anderson K, Lobo V, Huang R, Poffenberger C, Nguyen P. Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Austere Environments: A Complete Review of Its Utilization, Pitfalls, and Technique for Common Applications in Austere Settings. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35:409-441 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the technique and illustrates pathology of common POCUS applications in austere environments. A brief description of common POCUS-guided procedures used in austere environments is also provided. ..
  8. Piza F, Steinman M, Baldisserotto S, Morbeck R, Silva E. Is there a role for telemedicine in disaster medicine?. Crit Care. 2014;18:646 pubmed publisher
  9. West B, Cusser A, Etengoff S, Landsgaard H, LaBond V. The use of FAST scan by paramedics in mass-casualty incidents: a simulation study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29:576-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this simulation study, paramedics had difficulty performing FAST scans with a high degree of accuracy. However, they were more apt to call a patient positive, limiting the likelihood for false-negative triage. ..

More Information


  1. Koehler A, Scott R, Davis R. Surviving the dark night: the Aurora, Colorado, mass shootings. J Emerg Nurs. 2014;40:440-5 pubmed publisher
  2. Rosman Y, Eisenkraft A, Milk N, Shiyovich A, Ophir N, Shrot S, et al. Lessons learned from the Syrian sarin attack: evaluation of a clinical syndrome through social media. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:644-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is believed to be the first time that social media was used to evaluate clinical data and management protocols to better prepare against future possible events. ..
  3. Jacobs L, McSwain N, Rotondo M, Wade D, Fabbri W, Eastman A, et al. Improving survival from active shooter events: the Hartford Consensus. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74:1399-400 pubmed publisher
  4. Silvestri S, Field A, Mangalat N, Weatherford T, Hunter C, McGowan Z, et al. Comparison of START and SALT triage methodologies to reference standard definitions and to a field mass casualty simulation. Am J Disaster Med. 2017;12:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In our field exercise, paramedic use of the START methodology yielded a higher rate of undertriage compared to the SALT classification. ..
  5. Callcut R, Moore S, Wakam G, Hubbard A, Cohen M. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events?. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186118 pubmed publisher
  6. Goffman T. Nuclear terrorism and the problem of burns. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:224-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Stroebe W, Leander N, Kruglanski A. The impact of the Orlando mass shooting on fear of victimization and gun-purchasing intentions: Not what one might expect. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182408 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these responses are representative for the majority of Americans and, therefore, people who are influenced by mass shootings to buy guns are probably an atypical minority. ..
  8. Jacobs L, Wade D, McSwain N, Butler F, Fabbri W, Eastman A, et al. The Hartford Consensus: THREAT, a medical disaster preparedness concept. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;217:947-53 pubmed publisher
  9. Jacobs L. Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events: Hartford Consensus II. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218:476-8, 478.e1 pubmed publisher
  10. Levy M. The Columbia Mall shooting: reflections of a physician responder. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29:113-4 pubmed publisher
  11. Jonson C, Pettersson J, Rybing J, Nilsson H, Prytz E. Short simulation exercises to improve emergency department nurses' self-efficacy for initial disaster management: Controlled before and after study. Nurse Educ Today. 2017;55:20-25 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that short computer based simulation exercises provide opportunities for head nurses to improve management skills and increase their general self-efficacy. ..
  12. Chen G, Lai W, Liu F, Mao Q, Tu F, Wen J, et al. The dragon strikes: lessons from the Wenchuan earthquake. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:908-15 pubmed publisher
  13. Chauhan V, Duncan D, Wilkins R. Radiological/Nuclear Human Monitoring Tabletop Exercise: Recommendations and Lessons Identified. Health Phys. 2017;112:580-586 pubmed publisher
  14. Amlot R, Carter H, Riddle L, Larner J, Chilcott R. Volunteer trials of a novel improvised dry decontamination protocol for use during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK'S Initial Operational Response (IOR). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179309 pubmed publisher
  15. Miranda E, Shoaf K, Silva R, Freitas C, Osorio de Castro C. Expected hazards and hospital beds in host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2017;33:e00010616 pubmed publisher
    ..93-2.19) in all 12 cities. Total shortage, considering all the cities, ranged from -47,670 (for surges) to -60,569 beds (for mass casualties). The study can contribute to discussions on mass-gathering preparedness. ..
  16. Morris S, Pelley J, Mitchell S. Using a novel technology for disaster staff notification. Am J Disaster Med. 2017;12:63-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This article highlights a unique disaster staff notification system using a novel technology, an outside administrator, and a multilayer system of redundant communication. ..
  17. Taichman D, Bauchner H, Drazen J, Laine C, Peiperl L. Firearm-Related Injury and Death: A U.S. Health Care Crisis in Need of Health Care Professionals. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002430 pubmed publisher
    ..The U.S.-based Editors of ICMJE journals call for health-care professionals to act against the public health crisis of injury and death from guns...
  18. McAlister C, Marble A, Murray T. The 1917 Halifax Explosion: the first coordinated local civilian medical response to disaster in Canada. Can J Surg. 2017;60:372-374 pubmed
    ..This commentary has an appendix, available at
  19. Kimberly H, Stone M. Clinician-performed ultrasonography during the Boston marathon bombing mass casualty incident. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;62:199-200 pubmed publisher
  20. Biddinger P, Baggish A, Harrington L, d Hemecourt P, HOOLEY J, Jones J, et al. Be prepared--the Boston Marathon and mass-casualty events. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1958-60 pubmed publisher
  21. Careless J. High-tech training preps agency: simulation assists Northwest Fire/Rescue District with emergency response. EMS World. 2012;41:33 pubmed
  22. Studdert D, Zhang Y, Rodden J, Hyndman R, Wintemute G. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings. Ann Intern Med. 2017;166:698-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood...
  23. Karasova J, Maderycova Z, Tumova M, Jun D, Rehacek V, Kuca K, et al. Activity of cholinesterases in a young and healthy middle-European population: Relevance for toxicology, pharmacology and clinical praxis. Toxicol Lett. 2017;277:24-31 pubmed publisher
  24. Jacobs L, Burns K. Improving survival from intentional mass casualty incidents: the need for a national curriculum. JAMA Surg. 2014;149:891-2 pubmed publisher
  25. Lampi M, Junker J, Berggren P, Jonson C, Vikstrom T. Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2017;25:53 pubmed publisher
    ..These courses should be modified in order to assure proper training in triage skills. ..
  26. Tucker P, Pfefferbaum B, Jeon Slaughter H, Garton T, North C. Extended mental health service utilization among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65:559-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Although 33% received treatment for more than one year, only 7% were receiving services at seven years. Although service needs decreased over time, results support provision of diverse services adapted to changing needs. ..
  27. Jacobs L, Wade D, McSwain N, Butler F, Fabbri W, Eastman A, et al. Hartford Consensus: a call to action for THREAT, a medical disaster preparedness concept. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;218:467-75 pubmed publisher
  28. Bruneau E, Kteily N. The enemy as animal: Symmetric dehumanization during asymmetric warfare. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181422 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illuminates the striking potency and symmetry of blatant dehumanization among those on both sides of an active asymmetric conflict. ..
  29. Butler F, Blackbourne L. Battlefield trauma care then and now: a decade of Tactical Combat Casualty Care. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:S395-402 pubmed publisher
  30. Carhart E. How to develop tactical EMS protocols. EMS World. 2012;41:26-31 pubmed
  31. Lockey D. The shootings in Oslo and Utøya island July 22, 2011: lessons for the International EMS community. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;20:4 pubmed publisher
  32. Elster E, Butler F, Rasmussen T. Implications of combat casualty care for mass casualty events. JAMA. 2013;310:475-6 pubmed publisher