endosulfan

Summary

Summary: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)

Top Publications

  1. Alegria H, Bidleman T, Figueroa M. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ Pollut. 2006;140:483-91 pubmed
  2. Sandal S, Yilmaz B. Genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, endosulfan and 2,4-D on human peripheral lymphocytes cultured from smokers and nonsmokers. Environ Toxicol. 2011;26:433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We have chosen four structurally different pesticides (endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide; chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide; cypermethrin, type II pyrethroid ..
  3. Dhingra S, Walia S, Kumar J, Singh S, Singh G, Parmar B. Field efficacy of azadirachtin-A, tetrahydroazadirachtin-A, NeemAzal and endosulfan against key pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:1187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Their use is, however, limited by the instability of azadirachtin, necessitating application at short intervals. The efficacy of relatively stable tetrahydroazadirachtin-A, therefore, needed to be established under field conditions...
  4. Patra R, Chapman J, Lim R, Gehrke P, Sunderam R. Effects of temperature on ventilatory behavior of fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:2182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..duboulayi and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, were determined at different temperatures upon exposure to endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, respectively...
  5. Sarma K, Pal A, Sahu N, Dalvi R, Chatterjee N, Mukherjee S, et al. Acute and chronic effects of endosulfan on the haemato-immunological and histopathological responses of a threatened freshwater fish, spotted murrel, Channa punctatus. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2012;38:499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..one short-term and one long-term, were conducted to elucidate the acute and chronic effects, respectively, of endosulfan exposure on the haemato-immunological and histopathological responses of Channa puncatatus...
  6. Altinok I, Capkin E. Histopathology of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of methiocarb or endosulfan. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:405-10 pubmed
    ..5 and 3.75 mg/L) or endosulfan (0.6 and 1.3 micro g/L) for 21 days...
  7. Jia Z, Misra H. Developmental exposure to pesticides zineb and/or endosulfan renders the nigrostriatal dopamine system more susceptible to these environmental chemicals later in life. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:727-35 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides such as endosulfan and/or zineb during critical periods of postnatal development could result in neuronal dysfunction and enhance ..
  8. Sarma K, Pal A, Sahu N, Mukherjee S, Baruah K. Biochemical and histological changes in the brain tissue of spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch), exposed to endosulfan. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:597-603 pubmed publisher
    ..between selected physiological parameters and histological responses of Channa punctatus brain tissue to endosulfan exposure. The fish (35.6 +/- 0.7 g) was exposed to sublethal endosulfan concentration (8...
  9. Zervos I, Nikolaidis E, Lavrentiadou S, Tsantarliotou M, Eleftheriadou E, Papapanagiotou E, et al. Endosulfan-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and its effect on t-PA and PAI-1: ameliorating effect of vitamins C and E. J Toxicol Sci. 2011;36:423-33 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan provokes systemic toxicity in mammals and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The brain is susceptible to LPO and several studies implicate ROS and LPO in CNS diseases...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Goswami S, Singh D. Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in broth medium and soil microcosm by bacterial strain Bordetella sp. B9. Biodegradation. 2009;20:199-207 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial strains were isolated from endosulfan treated soil to study the microbial degradation of this pesticide in broth medium and soil microcosm. The isolates were grown in minimal medium and screened for endosulfan degradation...
  2. Jones D, Hammond J, Relyea R. Very highly toxic effects of endosulfan across nine species of tadpoles: lag effects and family-level sensitivity. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1939-45 pubmed publisher
    ..For the insecticide endosulfan, previous studies have found that low concentrations can be very highly toxic to amphibians and have suggested ..
  3. Palma P, Palma V, Fernandes R, Soares A, Barbosa I. Acute toxicity of atrazine, endosulfan sulphate and chlorpyrifos to Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia magna, relative to their concentrations in surface waters from the Alentejo region of Portugal. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;81:485-9 pubmed publisher
    Ecotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides endosulfan sulphate and chlorpyrifos were evaluated using a test battery comprising aquatic organisms from different trophic levels...
  4. Silva M, Gammon D. An assessment of the developmental, reproductive, and neurotoxicity of endosulfan. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2009;86:1-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan has been used for over 50 years. Although most analogs have been discontinued, endosulfan has less environmental persistence. Nevertheless, pressure groups are lobbying for a worldwide ban...
  5. Lajmanovich R, Cabagna M, Peltzer P, Stringhini G, Attademo A. Micronucleus induction in erythrocytes of the Hyla pulchella tadpoles (Amphibia: Hylidae) exposed to insecticide endosulfan. Mutat Res. 2005;587:67-72 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan is a synthetic chlorinated and environmental genotoxic pesticide used worldwide for crop production...
  6. Silva M, Beauvais S. Human health risk assessment of endosulfan. I: Toxicology and hazard identification. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;56:4-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is persistent in the environment and toxic to wildlife...
  7. Kr vel A, S fteland L, Torstensen B, Olsvik P. Endosulfan in vitro toxicity in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes obtained from fish fed either fish oil or vegetable oil. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;151:175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..obtained from fish fed either a fish oil or a vegetable oil based diet, influenced the response to endosulfan exposure in vitro. The primary cultures were exposed to six different concentrations of endosulfan (0.001, 0...
  8. Ahmed T, Tripathi A, Ahmed R, Das S, Suke S, Pathak R, et al. Endosulfan-induced apoptosis and glutathione depletion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: Attenuation by N-acetylcysteine. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2008;22:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Present study investigated whether endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide is able to deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce apoptosis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro...
  9. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Citrinin and endosulfan induced teratogenic effects in Wistar rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:143-51 pubmed
    ..The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the teratogenic potential of citrinin (CIT) and endosulfan either alone or in combination in pregnant rats during gestational days 6-20...
  10. Ozdem S, Nacitarhan C, Gulay M, Hatipoglu F, Ozdem S. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on endosulfan toxicity in rabbits. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:437-46 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the endosulfan-induced alterations and the effect of vitamin C supplementation on endosulfan-induced alterations in serum biochemical markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in rabbits...
  11. Silva de Assis H, Nicaretta L, Marques M, Crestani S, Soares K, Olmedo D, et al. Anticholinesterasic activity of endosulfan in Wistar rats. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:368-72 pubmed publisher
    The in vivo and in vitro effects of the pesticide endosulfan on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity were investigated in rats...
  12. Rao M, Narayana K, Benjamin S, Bairy K. L-ascorbic acid ameliorates postnatal endosulfan induced testicular damage in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;49:331-6 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of L-ascorbic acid on postnatal exposure of endosulfan induced testis damage in the rat...
  13. Peyre L, Zucchini Pascal N, De Sousa G, Rahmani R. Effects of endosulfan on hepatoma cell adhesion: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and anoikis resistance. Toxicology. 2012;300:19-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture yet classified by the Stockholm Convention in 2011 as a persistent organic pollutant (POP)...
  14. Salvo L, Bainy A, Ventura E, Marques M, Silva J, Klemz C, et al. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2012;47:1652-8 pubmed publisher
    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0...
  15. Chan M, Morisawa S, Nakayama A, Kawamoto Y, Sugimoto M, Yoneda M. Toxicokinetics of 14C-endosulfan in male Sprague-Dawley rats following oral administration of single or repeated doses. Environ Toxicol. 2005;20:533-41 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan (ES), an organochlorine (OC) insecticide that belongs to the cyclodiene group, is one of the most commonly used pesticides to control pests in vegetables, cotton, and fruits...
  16. Casabar R, Das P, DeKrey G, Gardiner C, Cao Y, Rose R, et al. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;245:335-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture...
  17. Perobelli J, Martinez M, da Silva Franchi C, Fernandez C, de Camargo J, Kempinas W. Decreased sperm motility in rats orally exposed to single or mixed pesticides. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:991-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..exposure to agrochemicals, the reproductive toxicity of the pesticides dicofol, dichlorvos, permethrin, endosulfan, and dieldrin was evaluated in rats dosed with these chemicals individually or as mixtures...
  18. Sharma A, Mishra M, Ram K, Kumar R, Abdin M, Chowdhuri D. Transcriptome analysis provides insights for understanding the adverse effects of endosulfan in Drosophila melanogaster. Chemosphere. 2011;82:370-6 pubmed publisher
    Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals worldwide, particularly, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is of concern. Endosulfan, a POP, is used by various developing/developed nations and is known to adversely affect the development and the ..
  19. Da Cuña R, Rey Vázquez G, Piol M, Guerrero N, Maggese M, Lo Nostro F. Assessment of the acute toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:1065-73 pubmed publisher
    The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (ES) is widely used despite its high toxicity to fish (96-h LC(50) median value of 2.6 ?g L(-1))...
  20. Sarma K, Pal A, Sahu N, Ayyappan S, Baruah K. Dietary high protein and vitamin C mitigates endosulfan toxicity in the spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793). Sci Total Environ. 2009;407:3668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..dietary high protein and vitamin C against stress was evaluated in spotted murrel, Channa punctatus, exposed to endosulfan. Two hundred and forty fish (average weight: 27...
  21. Li W, Dai Y, Xue B, Li Y, Peng X, Zhang J, et al. Biodegradation and detoxification of endosulfan in aqueous medium and soil by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain CS5. J Hazard Mater. 2009;167:209-16 pubmed publisher
    Achromobacter xylosoxidans CS5, capable of utilizing endosulfan as the sole carbon, sulfur and energy source, was isolated from the activated sludge. Degradation of endosulfan by strain CS5 was examined by HPLC...
  22. Bajpayee M, Pandey A, Zaidi S, Musarrat J, Parmar D, Mathur N, et al. DNA damage and mutagenicity induced by endosulfan and its metabolites. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2006;47:682-92 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan is a widely used broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, which acts as a contact and stomach poison. Nontarget species, such as cattle, fish, birds, and even humans, are also affected...
  23. Barrett K, Jaward F. A review of endosulfan, dichlorvos, diazinon, and diuron--pesticides used in Jamaica. Int J Environ Health Res. 2012;22:481-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses four pesticides extensively applied in agricultural practices in Jamaica - endosulfan, diazinon, diuron, and dichlorvos...
  24. Jia H, Sun Y, Li Y, Tian C, Wang D, Yang M, et al. Endosulfan in China 2-emissions and residues. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2009;16:302-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is one of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and also a candidate to be included in a group of new persistent organic pollutants (UNEP 2007)...
  25. Aggarwal M, Naraharisetti S, Dandapat S, Degen G, Malik J. Perturbations in immune responses induced by concurrent subchronic exposure to arsenic and endosulfan. Toxicology. 2008;251:51-60 pubmed publisher
    The metalloid arsenic and the chlorinated insecticide endosulfan are common environmental contaminants. Humans, animals, and birds are exposed to these chemicals through water and food...
  26. Satar S, Sebe A, Alpay N, Gumusay U, Guneysel O. Unintentional endosulfan poisoning. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2009;110:301-3 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan is an organochloride insecticide, widely used in insect control. It is responsible for many severe intoxication and several deaths...
  27. Jalili S, Farshid A, Heydari R, Ilkhanipour M, Salehi S. Histopathological observations on protective effects of vitamin E on endosulfan induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:1922-5 pubmed
    The protective effects of vitamin E was investigated on the cardiotoxicity induced by endosulfan administration...
  28. Jia Z, Misra H. Exposure to mixtures of endosulfan and zineb induces apoptotic and necrotic cell death in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, in vitro. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:434-46 pubmed
    ..Earlier it was demonstrated that exposure to the pesticides endosulfan and zineb, alone and in combination, caused neurodegeneration in vivo...
  29. Hussain S, Arshad M, Saleem M, Khalid A. Biodegradation of alpha- and beta-endosulfan by soil bacteria. Biodegradation. 2007;18:731-40 pubmed
    Extensive applications of persistent organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan on cotton have led to the contamination of soil and water environments at several sites in Pakistan...
  30. Shivaramaiah H, Sanchez Bayo F, Al Rifai J, Kennedy I. The fate of endosulfan in water. J Environ Sci Health B. 2005;40:711-20 pubmed
    Although the use of endosulfan to control cotton pests has declined, this insecticide still has widespread application in agriculture and can contaminate riverine systems as runoff from soil or by aerial deposition...
  31. Mukherjee I, Mittal A. Bioremediation of endosulfan using Aspergillus terreus and Cladosporium oxysporum. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2005;75:1034-40 pubmed
  32. Dutta H, Misquitta D, Khan S. The effects of endosulfan on the testes of bluegill fish, Lepomis macrochirus: a histopathological study. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;51:149-56 pubmed
    The effect of endosulfan, an Organochlorine pesticide, on bluegill testes was studied. Endosulfan is aqua-toxic and has an immediate effect on fish and other aquatic life...
  33. Singh N, Singh D. Biodegradation of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B in broth medium. Biodegradation. 2011;22:845-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is one of the most widely used wide spectrum cyclodiene organochlorine insecticide. In environment, endosulfan can undergo either oxidation or hydrolysis reaction to form endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol respectively...
  34. Carriger J, Hoang T, Rand G, Gardinali P, Castro J. Acute toxicity and effects analysis of endosulfan sulfate to freshwater fish species. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;60:281-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan sulfate is a persistent environmental metabolite of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide-acaricide presently registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency...
  35. Pathak R, Suke S, Ahmed R, Tripathi A, Guleria K, Sharma C, et al. Endosulfan and other organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal and cord blood in North Indian population. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;81:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..contributed maximum towards the total organochlorine residues present in maternal and cord blood followed by endosulfan, pp' DDE and pp' DDT being the least...
  36. Palma P, Palma V, Matos C, Fernandes R, Bohn A, Soares A, et al. Assessment of the pesticides atrazine, endosulfan sulphate and chlorpyrifos for juvenoid-related endocrine activity using Daphnia magna. Chemosphere. 2009;76:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..magna. The aim of this study was to evaluate the juvenoid and anti-juvenoid activity of atrazine, endosulfan sulphate, and chlorpyrifos...
  37. Wan M, Kuo J, Buday C, Schroeder G, Van Aggelen G, Pasternak J. Toxicity of alpha-, beta-, (alpha + beta)-endosulfan and their formulated and degradation products to Daphnia magna, Hyalella azteca, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and biological implications in streams. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1146-54 pubmed
    The static acute toxicities of alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, (alpha + beta)-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate (their transformation product), and formulated materials were determined for a representative freshwater amphipod (Hyalella ..
  38. Sharma S, Nagpure N, Kumar R, Pandey S, Srivastava S, Singh P, et al. Studies on the genotoxicity of endosulfan in different tissues of fresh water fish Mystus vittatus using the comet assay. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;53:617-23 pubmed
    b>Endosulfan, a widely used organochlorine pesticide, is readily bio-accumulative in fishes and can be indirectly harmful to human populations...
  39. Varayoud J, Monje L, Bernhardt T, Muñoz de Toro M, Luque E, Ramos J. Endosulfan modulates estrogen-dependent genes like a non-uterotrophic dose of 17beta-estradiol. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;26:138-45 pubmed publisher
    The estrogenic activity of environmentally relevant doses of endosulfan was investigated using an animal model. Ovariectomized adult rats were injected once a day for 3 days with sesame oil (control), 0...
  40. Yuk J, Simpson M, Simpson A. Coelomic fluid: a complimentary biological medium to assess sub-lethal endosulfan exposure using ¹H NMR-based earthworm metabolomics. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:1301-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is an environmentally persistent pesticide and has been shown to be genotoxic, neurotoxic and carcinogenic to surrounding organisms. Earthworms are widely used in environmental metabolomic studies to assess soil ecotoxicity...
  41. Song M, Lee C, Yang H, Freedman J. Endosulfan upregulates AP-1 binding and ARE-mediated transcription via ERK1/2 and p38 activation in HepG2 cells. Toxicology. 2012;292:23-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide and has been implicated in neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunosuppression and teratogenicity. However, the molecular mechanism of endosulfan toxicity is not yet clear...
  42. Jia H, Li Y, Wang D, Cai D, Yang M, Ma J, et al. Endosulfan in China 1-gridded usage inventories. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2009;16:295-301 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide (OCP), is genotoxic in mammalian cells and generally considered to be toxic and classified by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants and a ..
  43. Jalali S, Singh S, Venkatesan T, Murthy K, Lalitha Y. Development of endosulfan tolerant strain of an egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:584-90 pubmed
    ..chilonis, an egg parasitoid of lepidopteran pests tolerant to the most commonly used cyclodiene insecticide--endosulfan was developed in the laboratory...
  44. Briz V, Molina Molina J, Sánchez Redondo S, Fernandez M, Grimalt J, Olea N, et al. Differential estrogenic effects of the persistent organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and lindane in primary neuronal cultures. Toxicol Sci. 2011;120:413-27 pubmed publisher
    The organochlorine chemicals endosulfan, dieldrin, and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) are persistent pesticides to which people are exposed mainly via diet...
  45. Karatas A, Aygun D, Baydin A. Characteristics of endosulfan poisoning: a study of 23 cases. Singapore Med J. 2006;47:1030-2 pubmed
    ..Case series of endosulfan poisoning are extremely rare in the literature. We report 23 cases of endosulfan poisoning...
  46. Scremin O, Chialvo D, Lavarello S, Berra H, Lucero M. The environmental pollutant endosulfan disrupts cerebral cortical function at low doses. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:31-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan can induce convulsions that could lead to brain damage. The variability and lack of specificity of neurological signs and symptoms in the pre-convulsive stages makes early diagnosis difficult...
  47. Wang X, Li X, Cheng H, Xu X, Zhuang G, Zhao C. Organochlorine pesticides in particulate matter of Beijing, China. J Hazard Mater. 2008;155:350-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compositional analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that past usage of OCPs was the main source, though there were new inputs in some sites. ..
  48. Walker C, Salinas K, Harris P, Wilkinson S, Watts J, Hemmer M. A proteomic (SELDI-TOF-MS) approach to estrogen agonist screening. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:74-81 pubmed
    ..and treatments of 17beta-estradiol (E2), methoxychlor (MXC), bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP), endosulfan (ES), and chlorpyriphos (CP)...
  49. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Experimentally induced citrinin and endosulfan toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of fetuses. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:901-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present investigation, citrinin (CIT) (10 mg kg(-1) feed) and endosulfan (1 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered orally alone and in combination to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 to 20 and their fetuses were ..
  50. Rana I, Shivanandappa T. Mechanism of potentiation of endosulfan cytotoxicity by thiram in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:40-4 pubmed publisher
    Cytotoxicity of the two pesticides, thiram and endosulfan, have been studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Thiram cytotoxicity was much lower than that of endosulfan with LC(50) (1h exposure) of 4.02 and 1.12mM, respectively...
  51. Pereira V, Bortolotto J, Kist L, Azevedo M, Fritsch R, Oliveira R, et al. Endosulfan exposure inhibits brain AChE activity and impairs swimming performance in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:469-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is a broad spectrum organochlorine pesticide that is still widely in use in many developing countries...
  52. Brunelli E, Bernabò I, Berg C, Lundstedt Enkel K, Bonacci A, Tripepi S. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan impair development, metamorphosis and behaviour in Bufo bufo tadpoles. Aquat Toxicol. 2009;91:135-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Endosulfan is a widely used organochlorine pesticide with well-documented neurotoxic effects in both humans and laboratory animals (mammals and fish)...
  53. Singh N, Sharma A, Dwivedi P, Patil R, Kumar M. Citrinin and endosulfan induced maternal toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats: pathomorphological study. J Appl Toxicol. 2007;27:589-601 pubmed
    ..The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the maternal toxicity of citrinin (CIT) and endosulfan administered per os either alone or in combination in pregnant rats during gestational days 6-20...