median eminence

Summary

Summary: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.

Top Publications

  1. Morgan W, Bartke A, Pfeil K. Deficiency of dopamine in the median eminence of Snell dwarf mice. Endocrinology. 1981;109:2069-75 pubmed
  2. Sanchez E, Vargas M, Singru P, Pascual I, Romero F, Fekete C, et al. Tanycyte pyroglutamyl peptidase II contributes to regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis through glial-axonal associations in the median eminence. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether PPII has any role in the region where axons containing hypophysiotropic TRH terminate, the median eminence, is unknown...
  3. Naum O G, Fernanda Rubio M, Golombek D. Rhythmic variation in gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-receptor subunit composition in the circadian system and median eminence of Syrian hamsters. Neurosci Lett. 2001;310:178-82 pubmed
    ..beta1 and beta3 were characterized by Western blot analysis in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei, retina and median eminence. A nocturnal maximum in the level of GABA(A) receptor beta1 subunit at midday and midnight (12:00 and 00...
  4. Loum Ribot E, Lafon P, Chaigniau M, Pape J, Tramu G, Corio M. Paraventricular nucleus neurons producing neurotensin after lipopolysaccharide treatment project to the median eminence. Brain Res. 2004;1030:294-6 pubmed
    ..Combining in situ hybridization with a retrograde neuronal marker, we demonstrated that neurotensin-containing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus project to the median eminence.
  5. Krajewski S, Anderson M, Iles Shih L, Chen K, Urbanski H, Rance N. Morphologic evidence that neurokinin B modulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion via neurokinin 3 receptors in the rat median eminence. J Comp Neurol. 2005;489:372-86 pubmed
    ..interweaving and close apposition of GnRH and proNKB-immunoreactive (ir) fibers was observed within the rat median eminence, where GnRH axons expressed NK3R immunoreactivity...
  6. Chiocchio S, Gallardo M, Louzan P, Gutnisky V, Tramezzani J. Melanin-concentrating hormone stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and gonadotropins in the female rat acting at both median eminence and pituitary levels. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:1466-72 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) acts directly on the median eminence and on the anterior pituitary of female rats regulating LHRH and gonadotropin release...
  7. Liu B, Arbogast L. Phosphorylation state of tyrosine hydroxylase in the stalk-median eminence is decreased by progesterone in cycling female rats. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1462-9 pubmed
    ..study, we examined enzyme activity and phosphorylation state of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the stalk-median eminence of cycling female rats on proestrus and estrus and related these to circulating progesterone levels...
  8. Prevot V, Croix D, Rialas C, Poulain P, Fricchione G, Stefano G, et al. Estradiol coupling to endothelial nitric oxide stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone release from rat median eminence via a membrane receptor. Endocrinology. 1999;140:652-9 pubmed
    The median eminence (ME), which is the common termination field for adenohypophysiotropic systems, has been shown to produce nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule involved in neuroendocrine secretion...
  9. van Wijk D, Roubos E. Neurochemistry and plasticity of the median eminence and neural pituitary lobe in relation to background adaptation of Xenopus laevis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..but also mesotocin and met-enkephalin from both neurohemal areas in the pituitary neural lobe and in the median eminence. We also show that the external zone of the median eminence is plastic, depending in size on the state of ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Prevot V, Bellefontaine N, Baroncini M, Sharif A, Hanchate N, Parkash J, et al. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone nerve terminals, tanycytes and neurohaemal junction remodelling in the adult median eminence: functional consequences for reproduction and dynamic role of vascular endothelial cells. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..areas within the hypothalamus are involved in the secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the median eminence of the hypothalamus, where the nerve terminals are located, plays a particularly critical role in the release ..
  2. Uenoyama Y, Inoue N, Pheng V, Homma T, Takase K, Yamada S, et al. Ultrastructural evidence of kisspeptin-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) interaction in the median eminence of female rats: implication of axo-axonal regulation of GnRH release. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..functional interaction between kisspeptin and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal elements at the median eminence in female rats to clarify a possibility that kisspeptin directly stimulates GnRH release at the nerve end...
  3. Hiney J, Dees W. Ethanol inhibits luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release from the median eminence of prepubertal female rats in vitro: investigation of its actions on norepinephrine and prostaglandin-E2. Endocrinology. 1991;128:1404-8 pubmed
    ..the in vitro effects of ETOH on basal and stimulated LHRH and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from the median eminence (ME) of prepubertal female rats...
  4. Colman Saizarbitoria T, Boutros P, Amesty A, Bahsas A, Mathison Y, Garrido M, et al. Ferutinin stimulates nitric oxide synthase activity in median eminence of the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;106:327-32 pubmed
    ..is able to increase nitric oxide synthase activity and inositol monophosphate accumulation (49%, each) in the median eminence of the rat brain, suggesting that compound (1) is associated to the activation of phosphoinositide breakdown ..
  5. Yamamura T, Yasuo S, Hirunagi K, Ebihara S, Yoshimura T. T(3) implantation mimics photoperiodically reduced encasement of nerve terminals by glial processes in the median eminence of Japanese quail. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;324:175-9 pubmed
    ..interaction between gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) nerve terminals and glial endfeet in the median eminence (ME)...
  6. Gill J, Tsai P. Expression of a dominant negative FGF receptor in developing GNRH1 neurons disrupts axon outgrowth and targeting to the median eminence. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:463-72 pubmed
    ..neurons that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH1) extend their axons to the median eminence (ME) to establish neurosecretory contacts necessary for hormone secretion...
  7. Rodriguez E, Blázquez J, Guerra M. The design of barriers in the hypothalamus allows the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus to enjoy private milieus: the former opens to the portal blood and the latter to the cerebrospinal fluid. Peptides. 2010;31:757-76 pubmed publisher
    ..located at the endothelial cells and in the circumventricular organs, such as the choroid plexuses (CP) and median eminence (ME), is displaced to specialized ependymal cells...
  8. De Seranno S, d Anglemont de Tassigny X, Estrella C, Loyens A, Kasparov S, Leroy D, et al. Role of estradiol in the dynamic control of tanycyte plasticity mediated by vascular endothelial cells in the median eminence. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1760-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In the median eminence of the hypothalamus, endothelial cells are key players in the plasticity of tanycytes (specialized astroglia) ..
  9. Meddle S, Follett B. Photoperiodically driven changes in Fos expression within the basal tuberal hypothalamus and median eminence of Japanese quail. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8909-18 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this activation occurred before the LH rise. Median eminence activation appeared within glial cells, whereas activated infundibular nucleus cells were neuronal, providing ..
  10. Gibson M, Ingraham L, Dobrjansky A. Soluble factors guide gonadotropin-releasing hormone axonal targeting to the median eminence. Endocrinology. 2000;141:3065-71 pubmed
    Axons of GnRH neurons terminate at the median eminence in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of the brain early in development...
  11. Esquifino A, Cano P, Jimenez V, Reyes Toso C, Cardinali D. Changes of prolactin regulatory mechanisms in aging: 24-h rhythms of serum prolactin and median eminence and adenohypophysial concentration of dopamine, serotonin, (gamma-aminobutyric acid, taurine and somatostatin in young and aged rats. Exp Gerontol. 2004;39:45-52 pubmed
    Twenty-four hour rhythmicity of serum prolactin and median eminence and anterior pituitary content of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine and somatostatin were examined in 2 months-old and 18-20 months-..
  12. Hoffman G, Le W, Franceschini I, Caraty A, Advis J. Expression of fos and in vivo median eminence release of LHRH identifies an active role for preoptic area kisspeptin neurons in synchronized surges of LH and LHRH in the ewe. Endocrinology. 2011;152:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..With a modified push-pull cannula in vivo LHRH release from the median eminence was sampled in luteal phase ewes, ewes undergoing an LH surge for 2-4 h, and postsurge animals whose LH surge ..
  13. Knauf C, Prevot V, Stefano G, Mortreux G, Beauvillain J, Croix D. Evidence for a spontaneous nitric oxide release from the rat median eminence: influence on gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2343-50 pubmed
    ..NO is secreted at the median eminence (ME), the common termination field for the antehypophysiotropic neurons, under the stimulation of other ..
  14. Cheunsuang O, Morris R. Astrocytes in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence that take up a fluorescent dye from the circulation express leptin receptors and neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors. Glia. 2005;52:228-33 pubmed
    ..several different dyes and markers are found to accumulate rapidly in cells in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence, and the capillaries in this region appear specialised for exchange of molecules...
  15. Yamada S, Uenoyama Y, Kinoshita M, Iwata K, Takase K, Matsui H, et al. Inhibition of metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in the arcuate nucleus-median eminence region during lactation in rats. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2226-32 pubmed
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls...
  16. Saleri R, Giustina A, Tamanini C, Valle D, Burattin A, Wehrenberg W, et al. Leptin stimulates growth hormone secretion via a direct pituitary effect combined with a decreased somatostatin tone in a median eminence-pituitary perifusion study. Neuroendocrinology. 2004;79:221-8 pubmed
    ..In some experiments, pituitary slices were coincubated with stalk median eminence (SME)...
  17. Keen K, Wegner F, Bloom S, Ghatei M, Terasawa E. An increase in kisspeptin-54 release occurs with the pubertal increase in luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-1 release in the stalk-median eminence of female rhesus monkeys in vivo. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study measures the release of kisspeptin-54 in the stalk-median eminence (S-ME) during puberty and examines its potential role in the pubertal increase in LHRH-1 release in female ..
  18. Prevot V, Cornea A, Mungenast A, Smiley G, Ojeda S. Activation of erbB-1 signaling in tanycytes of the median eminence stimulates transforming growth factor beta1 release via prostaglandin E2 production and induces cell plasticity. J Neurosci. 2003;23:10622-32 pubmed
    ..Earlier studies suggested that tanycytes, an ependymoglial cell type of the median eminence, regulate LHRH release during the estrous cycle by undergoing plastic changes that alternatively allow or ..
  19. Clerens S, D Hondt E, Berghman L, Vandesande F, Arckens L. Identification of cGnRH-II in the median eminence of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;131:48-56 pubmed
    ..we described the presence of cGnRH-II in the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus) median eminence using highly specific antibodies directed against a polypeptide corresponding to the C-terminal portion of ..
  20. Yin W, Mendenhall J, Monita M, Gore A. Three-dimensional properties of GnRH neuroterminals in the median eminence of young and old rats. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..vertebrates, is stored in, and secreted from, large dense-core secretory vesicles in nerve terminals in the median eminence. GnRH is released from these terminals with biological rhythms that are critical for the maintenance of ..
  21. Lafuente A, González Carracedo A, Romero A, Cano P, Esquifino A. Cadmium exposure differentially modifies the circadian patterns of norepinephrine at the median eminence and plasma LH, FSH and testosterone levels. Toxicol Lett. 2004;146:175-82 pubmed
    ..work was designed to analyze the cadmium effects on time-of-day variations of norepinephrine (NE) content in median eminence and on plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone in ..
  22. Eghlidi D, Haley G, Noriega N, Kohama S, Urbanski H. Influence of age and 17beta-estradiol on kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and prodynorphin gene expression in the arcuate-median eminence of female rhesus macaques. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3783-94 pubmed publisher
    ..3 receptor (encoded by NK3), and kappa-opioid receptor (encoded by KOR), in the female rhesus macaque ARC-median eminence (ARC-ME)...
  23. Prevot V, Croix D, Bouret S, Dutoit S, Tramu G, Stefano G, et al. Definitive evidence for the existence of morphological plasticity in the external zone of the median eminence during the rat estrous cycle: implication of neuro-glio-endothelial interactions in gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. Neuroscience. 1999;94:809-19 pubmed
    Despite intense investigation, the demonstration of morphological plasticity in the external zone of the median eminence concerning the gonadotropin-releasing hormone system has never been reported...
  24. Hrabovszky E, Deli L, Turi G, Kallo I, Liposits Z. Glutamatergic innervation of the hypothalamic median eminence and posterior pituitary of the rat. Neuroscience. 2007;144:1383-92 pubmed
    ..The present studies were aimed to map the neuronal sources of VGLUT2 in the median eminence and the posterior pituitary, the main terminal fields of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons...
  25. Yin W, Gore A. The hypothalamic median eminence and its role in reproductive aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1204:113-22 pubmed publisher
    The median eminence at the base of the hypothalamus serves as an interface between the neural and peripheral endocrine systems...
  26. Yin W, Wu D, Noel M, Gore A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuroterminals and their microenvironment in the median eminence: effects of aging and estradiol treatment. Endocrinology. 2009;150:5498-508 pubmed publisher
    The GnRH decapeptide controls reproductive function through its release from neuroendocrine terminals in the median eminence, a site where there is a convergence of numerous nerve terminals and glial cells...
  27. Liu B, Arbogast L. Progesterone decreases tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation state and increases protein phosphatase 2A activity in the stalk-median eminence on proestrous afternoon. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..is associated with dephosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and reduced TH activity in the stalk-median eminence (SME), which contributes to the proestrous prolactin surge in rats...
  28. Esquifino A, Seara R, Fernández Rey E, Lafuente A. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats. Arch Toxicol. 2001;75:127-33 pubmed
    ..In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum...
  29. MohanKumar P, MohanKumar S, Quadri S, Voogt J. Effects of chronic bromocriptine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression, TH activity and median eminence dopamine concentrations in ageing rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2001;13:261-9 pubmed
    ..or exogenous prolactin was monitored by measuring tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the stalk median eminence of middle-aged cycling female rats (10-12 months), old constant oestrous rats (18-20 months) and old ..
  30. Smith J, Li Q, Yap K, Shahab M, Roseweir A, Millar R, et al. Kisspeptin is essential for the full preovulatory LH surge and stimulates GnRH release from the isolated ovine median eminence. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1001-12 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation of GnRH neurons, we examined the origin of kisspeptin neuronal fibers in the external zone of the median eminence (ME) using neuronal tracing and immunohistochemical techniques...
  31. Ojeda S, Lomniczi A, Sandau U. Glial-gonadotrophin hormone (GnRH) neurone interactions in the median eminence and the control of GnRH secretion. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:732-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The available evidence suggests that glial cells of the median eminence regulate GnRH secretion via two related mechanisms...
  32. Knauf C, Ferreira S, Hamdane M, Mailliot C, Prevot V, Beauvillain J, et al. Variation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase synthesis in the median eminence during the rat estrous cycle: an additional argument for the implication of vascular blood vessel in the control of GnRH release. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4288-94 pubmed
    Recent studies from our laboratory suggested that the vascular endothelium of the median eminence was involved via nitric oxide secretion in the modulation of GnRH release during the estrous cycle...
  33. Fiorini Z, Jasoni C. A novel developmental role for kisspeptin in the growth of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurites to the median eminence in the mouse. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:1113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..in other neurones, we investigated whether KISS1 may play a role in the normal growth of GnRH neurites to the median eminence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the expression of Kiss1 mRNA in the embryonic ..
  34. Yi C, van der Vliet J, Dai J, Yin G, Ru L, Buijs R. Ventromedial arcuate nucleus communicates peripheral metabolic information to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Endocrinology. 2006;147:283-94 pubmed
    ..Due to variation of injection sites, tracer was also injected into the subependymal layer of the median eminence (seME), which showed similar projection patterns as the vmARC...
  35. Matsuyama S, Ohkura S, Mogi K, Wakabayashi Y, Mori Y, Tsukamura H, et al. Morphological evidence for direct interaction between kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons at the median eminence of the male goat: an immunoelectron microscopic study. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Kisspeptin-ir cell bodies and fibers in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence (ME) were fewer in intact male goats compared with castrated animals...
  36. Okere C, Waterhouse B. Capsaicin increases GFAP and glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity in rat arcuate nucleus and median eminence. Neuroreport. 2004;15:255-8 pubmed
    ..c. capsaicin (after 75 min) on astroglial cells in the rat arcuate nucleus-median eminence (ARC-ME). Compared to vehicle, capsaicin significantly increased GFAP and GS immunoreactivity in the ARC-ME...
  37. Lee D, Bedont J, Pak T, Wang H, Song J, Miranda Angulo A, et al. Tanycytes of the hypothalamic median eminence form a diet-responsive neurogenic niche. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:700-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Using genetic fate mapping, we found that median eminence tanycytes generate newborn neurons...
  38. Givalois L, Arancibia S, Alonso G, Tapia Arancibia L. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptors in the median eminence cells with sensitivity to stress. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4737-47 pubmed
    The median eminence (ME) is considered as the final common pathway connecting the nervous and endocrine systems...
  39. Claypool L, Kasuya E, Saitoh Y, Marzban F, Terasawa E. N-methyl D,L-aspartate induces the release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the prepubertal and pubertal female rhesus monkey as measured by in vivo push-pull perfusion in the stalk-median eminence. Endocrinology. 2000;141:219-28 pubmed
    ..receptor agonist, in stimulating in vivo luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) release in the stalk-median eminence of conscious prepubertal and pubertal female rhesus monkeys was evaluated using push-pull perfusion...
  40. Advis J, Klein J, Kuljis R, Sarkar D, McDonald J, Conover C. Regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone release by neuropeptide Y at the median eminence during the preovulatory period in ewes. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;77:246-57 pubmed
    The median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus is known to be an important brain site where hypophysiotropic release might be regulated by excitatory and inhibitory signals impinging on their neuronal terminals...
  41. Ambati S, Duan J, Duff E, Choi Y, Hartzell D, Della Fera M, et al. Gene expression in arcuate nucleus-median eminence of rats treated with leptin or ciliary neurotrophic factor. Biofactors. 2007;31:133-44 pubmed
    ..ICV) injection of leptin and CNTF on gene expression in micropunched hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-median eminence (ARC-ME) complex samples from rats...
  42. Knauf C, Chuoï M, Jirou Najou J, Mortreux G, Beauvillain J, Croix D. Involvement of NPY Y2 receptor subtype in the control of the spontaneous NO/GnRH release at the rat median eminence. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3365-9 pubmed
    The role of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium in the control of GnRH release at the median eminence (ME) level is well established. Interactions between NPY receptor/endothelium/nitric oxide are clearly demonstrated...
  43. Bellion A, Metin C. Early regionalisation of the neocortex and the medial ganglionic eminence. Brain Res Bull. 2005;66:402-9 pubmed
    ..The neurogenesis of future cortical interneurons is seen to be highly active in a small area located in the rostral MGE, at mid dorso-ventral level. ..
  44. Henry B, Lightman S, Lowry C. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein-immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus: association with corticotropin-releasing factor-, urocortin 1- and vimentin-immunoreactive fibres. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:135-44 pubmed
    ..extending from the third ventricle were found in the mediobasal hypothalamus and within the arcuate nucleus-median eminence region...
  45. Hu L, Fernstrom J, Goldsmith P. Exogenous glutamate enhances glutamate receptor subunit expression during selective neuronal injury in the ventral arcuate nucleus of postnatal mice. Neuroendocrinology. 1998;68:77-88 pubmed
    ..The arcuate nucleus-median eminence complex (ARC-ME) appears to be the most Glu-sensitive of these brain regions, perhaps because of the intimate ..
  46. Barnes M, Lapanowski K, Rafols J, Lawson D, Dunbar J. GnRH and gonadotropin release is decreased in chronic nitric oxide deficiency. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2001;226:701-6 pubmed
    ..of brain slices demonstrated that NO-deficient rats had a large qualitative decrease of GnRH in the median eminence compared with their controls...
  47. Matta S, Singh J, Newton R, Sharp B. The adrenocorticotropin response to interleukin-1 beta instilled into the rat median eminence depends on the local release of catecholamines. Endocrinology. 1990;127:2175-82 pubmed
    ..Recently, it was reported that IL-1 beta, instilled directly into the hypothalamic median eminence (ME), rapidly induced ACTH secretion...
  48. Chu Y, Tsou M, Pan J. Prostaglandins may participate in opioidergic and cholinergic control of the diurnal changes of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neuronal activity and serum prolactin level in ovariectomized, estrogen-treated rats. Brain Res Bull. 2001;56:61-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PG may be involved in opioidergic and cholinergic control of the diurnal changes of TIDA neuronal activity and the PRL secretion in ovariectomized (OVX) + E(2) rats. ..
  49. Yetkin D, Kafadar A, Gazioglu N, Oz B, Kaner G, Oguz O, et al. Kaposi sarcoma related to an ectopic hypothalamic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:E110-1; discussion E111 pubmed publisher
    ..We aim to report a case of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with Cushing's syndrome caused by endogenic glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression...
  50. Macchi C, Steffani L, Oleari R, Lettieri A, Valenti L, Dongiovanni P, et al. Iron overload induces hypogonadism in male mice via extrahypothalamic mechanisms. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;454:135-145 pubmed publisher
    ..increment in hypothalamic GnRH gene expression (+34%) and in the intensity of GnRH-neuron innervation of the median eminence (+1...
  51. Yamamura T, Hirunagi K, Ebihara S, Yoshimura T. Seasonal morphological changes in the neuro-glial interaction between gonadotropin-releasing hormone nerve terminals and glial endfeet in Japanese quail. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4264-7 pubmed
    ..The expression of thyroid hormone receptors in the median eminence (ME) suggested that photoperiodically generated T3 acts on the ME...
  52. Kappeler C, Saillour Y, Baudoin J, Tuy F, Alvarez C, Houbron C, et al. Branching and nucleokinesis defects in migrating interneurons derived from doublecortin knockout mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1387-400 pubmed
    ..These novel data thus highlight a role for Dcx, a microtubule-associated protein enriched at the leading edge in the branching and nucleokinesis of migrating interneurons. ..
  53. Wójcik Gładysz A, Szlis M, Misztal A, Przybył B, Polkowska J. Obestatin stimulates the somatotrophic axis activity in sheep. Brain Res. 2018;1678:278-287 pubmed publisher
    ..immunoreactivity in the periventricular nucleus and an increase in somatostatin immunopositive fibers in the median eminence were noted...
  54. Oldfield B, Davern P, Giles M, Allen A, Badoer E, McKinley M. Efferent neural projections of angiotensin receptor (AT1) expressing neurones in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2001;13:139-46 pubmed
    ..strongly with neurones in the anterior parvocellular division of the nucleus which direct axons to the median eminence. Such neurones often contain corticotropin releasing factor...
  55. Lookingland K, Gunnet J, Moore K. Electrical stimulation of the arcuate nucleus increases the metabolism of dopamine in terminals of tuberoinfundibular neurons in the median eminence. Brain Res. 1987;436:161-4 pubmed
    ..procedures that alter impulse flow in tuberoinfundibular dopamine (DA) neurons on the metabolism of DA in the median eminence and on the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary...
  56. Merali Z, Hayley S, Kent P, McIntosh J, Bedard T, Anisman H. Impact of repeated stressor exposure on the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine-vasopressin and bombesin-like peptides at the anterior pituitary. Behav Brain Res. 2009;198:105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..exposure (daily restraint over 14 days) was associated with increased co-expression of CRH and AVP at the median eminence. In addition, in vivo interstitial levels of anterior pituitary AVP, GRP and NMB (but not CRH) were elevated ..
  57. Levine S, Saltzman A, Ginsberg S. Mitotic figures in the median eminence of the hypothalamus. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:1743-6 pubmed publisher
    The median eminence of the hypothalamus is part of the avenue by which neurosecreted hormones from the hypothalamic nuclei reach the pars nervosa (neural lobe) of the pituitary and eventually the bloodstream...
  58. Barakat Y, Pape J, Boutahricht M, El Ouezzani S, Alaoui A, Chaigniau M, et al. Vasopressin-containing neurons of the hypothalamic parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the jerboa: plasticity related to immobilization stress. Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84:396-404 pubmed
    ..The VP/CRH coexpression within PVN and median eminence was investigated by double immunocytochemistry...
  59. Windsor Engnell B, Kasuya E, Mizuno M, Keen K, Terasawa E. An increase in in vivo release of LHRH and precocious puberty by posterior hypothalamic lesions in female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LHRH, GABA, and glutamate levels in the stalk-median eminence before and after lesions were assessed over two 6-h periods (0600-1200 and 1800-2400) using push-pull ..
  60. Yuan Q, Scott D, So K, Wu W. Developmental changes of nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat hypothalamoneurohypophyseal system. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:36-45 pubmed
    ..neurons were not discernable in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the median eminence (ME) at PN1 and PN7. A few neurons positive for nNOS were first detected at PN14...
  61. Murphy L, Steger R, Smith M, Bartke A. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol and cannabidiol, alone and in combinations, on luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and on hypothalamic neurotransmitters in the male rat. Neuroendocrinology. 1990;52:316-21 pubmed
    ..There were no changes in plasma PRL in response to cannabinoid treatments. The turnover of NE in both the median eminence (ME) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was dramatically affected by all the cannabinoid treatments...
  62. Arciszewska E, Borowska H, Niklinska W. Histological and histochemical study of the magnocellular neuroendocrine system in white rat after parenteral administration of adrenaline. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2001;39:211-2 pubmed
    ..As shown in numerous reports, there is a link between the neuroendocrine system and the hypothalamic adrenergic system...
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