subfornical organ


Summary: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.

Top Publications

  1. Noda M. The subfornical organ, a specialized sodium channel, and the sensing of sodium levels in the brain. Neuroscientist. 2006;12:80-91 pubmed
    ..with an adenoviral expression vector, only animals that received a transduction of the Na(x) gene into the subfornical organ (SFO) among the CVOs recovered salt-avoiding behavior under dehydrated conditions...
  2. Cao X, Peterson J, Wang G, Anrather J, Young C, Guruju M, et al. Angiotensin II-dependent hypertension requires cyclooxygenase 1-derived prostaglandin E2 and EP1 receptor signaling in the subfornical organ of the brain. Hypertension. 2012;59:869-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The subfornical organ (SFO) is a key forebrain region that mediates systemic Ang II-dependent HTN via reactive oxygen species (ROS)..
  3. Hiyama T, Watanabe E, Okado H, Noda M. The subfornical organ is the primary locus of sodium-level sensing by Na(x) sodium channels for the control of salt-intake behavior. J Neurosci. 2004;24:9276-81 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, we demonstrated that Na(x) is a Na-level-sensitive Na channel. Here we show that the subfornical organ (SFO) is the principal site for the control of salt-intake behavior, where the Na(x) channel is the Na-level ..
  4. Zimmerman M, Lazartigues E, Sharma R, Davisson R. Hypertension caused by angiotensin II infusion involves increased superoxide production in the central nervous system. Circ Res. 2004;95:210-6 pubmed
    ..developing hypertension that was correlated with marked elevations in O2*- production specifically in the subfornical organ (SFO), a brain region lying outside the blood-brain barrier and known to be a primary sensor for blood-borne ..
  5. Nunes F, Braga V. Chronic angiotensin II infusion modulates angiotensin II type I receptor expression in the subfornical organ and the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis that increased circulating levels of Ang II activate angiotensin type I (AT1) receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO), increasing the Ang II signalling in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)...
  6. Hindmarch C, Fry M, Yao S, Smith P, Murphy D, Ferguson A. Microarray analysis of the transcriptome of the subfornical organ in the rat: regulation by fluid and food deprivation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R1914-20 pubmed publisher
    ..0 genome chips to initially catalog the transcriptome of the subfornical organ (SFO) under control conditions and to also evaluate the changes (common and differential) in gene expression ..
  7. Hilzendeger A, Cassell M, Davis D, Stauss H, Mark A, Grobe J, et al. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the subfornical organ are required for deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. Hypertension. 2013;61:716-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT(1a)R) within the subfornical organ (SFO) mediate these responses...
  8. Ferguson A. Angiotensinergic regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine outputs: critical roles for the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;89:370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The following review will focus on work identifying the subfornical organ (SFO), and its efferent projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), as a critical ..
  9. Smith P, Chambers A, Price C, Ho W, Hopf C, Sharkey K, et al. The subfornical organ: a central nervous system site for actions of circulating leptin. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..are well-established sites of action of leptin, we tested the hypothesis that leptin signaling occurs in the subfornical organ (SFO)...

More Information


  1. Son Y, Hur M, Ryu B, Park S, Damante G, D Elia A, et al. TTF-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, participates in the control of body fluid homeostasis by regulating angiotensinogen gene transcription in the rat subfornical organ. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:27043-52 pubmed
    ..We now report that the subfornical organ, an important site of angiotensinogen synthesis, is an extra-hypothalamic site of TTF-1 expression...
  2. Sakai K, Agassandian K, Morimoto S, Sinnayah P, Cassell M, Davisson R, et al. Local production of angiotensin II in the subfornical organ causes elevated drinking. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1088-95 pubmed
    ..Ang II-like immunoreactivity was markedly increased in the subfornical organ (SFO)...
  3. Feng Y, Yue X, Xia H, Bindom S, Hickman P, Filipeanu C, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 overexpression in the subfornical organ prevents the angiotensin II-mediated pressor and drinking responses and is associated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor downregulation. Circ Res. 2008;102:729-36 pubmed publisher
    ..produced time-dependent expression and activity (with a peak at 7 days) in the mouse subfornical organ. More importantly, 7 days after virus infection, the pressor response to angiotensin (Ang) II (200 pmol ..
  4. Baraboi E, Smith P, Ferguson A, Richard D. Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1098-110 pubmed publisher
    ..was to investigate the potential role of two circumventricular organs (CVOs), the area postrema (AP) and the subfornical organ (SFO), in mediating the metabolic and CNS-stimulating effects of Ex-4...
  5. Cottrell G, Zhou Q, Ferguson A. Prokineticin 2 modulates the excitability of subfornical organ neurons. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2375-9 pubmed
    ..suprachiasmatic nucleus and its receptors in critical autonomic control centers of the brain, including the subfornical organ (SFO), suggests the intriguing possibility that PK2 regulates the excitability of SFO neurons and thus ..
  6. Lavoie J, Cassell M, Gross K, Sigmund C. Adjacent expression of renin and angiotensinogen in the rostral ventrolateral medulla using a dual-reporter transgenic model. Hypertension. 2004;43:1116-9 pubmed
    ..amygdala and are in adjacent cells in the RVLM, reticular formation, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ, and CA1-3 region...
  7. Xue B, Zhao Y, Johnson A, Hay M. Central estrogen inhibition of angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice and the role of reactive oxygen species. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H1025-H1032 pubmed publisher
    ..In subfornical organ slices, the application of ANG II resulted in a 21.5 +/- 2.5% increase in ROS production...
  8. Tang Christensen M, Vrang N, Larsen P. Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide's central inhibition of feeding and peripheral inhibition of drinking are abolished by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. Diabetes. 1998;47:530-7 pubmed
    ..Thus it is evident that centrally acting GLP-1 modulates feeding and drinking behavior via neurones sensitive to MSG lesioning in the arcuate nucleus and circumventricular organs, respectively. ..
  9. Schmid H, Schafer F, Simon E. Excitatory action of the bird antidiuretic hormone vasotocin on neurons in the subfornical organ. J Comp Physiol A. 1995;176:653-60 pubmed
    The responsiveness of spontaneously active neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) of adult ducks to angiotensin II (ANGII) and the bird specific antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasotocin (AVT), the analog of the mammalian arginine ..
  10. Wang H, Huang B, Chen A, Ahmad M, White R, Leenen F. Role of brain aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptors in aldosterone-salt hypertension in rats. Neuroscience. 2016;314:90-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of the subfornical organ (SFO), aldo synthesized locally in the brain, and MR and AT1R specifically in the paraventricular nucleus (..
  11. Ciriello J. Caudal ventrolateral medulla mediates baroreceptor afferent inputs to subfornical organ angiotensin II responsive neurons. Brain Res. 2013;1491:127-35 pubmed publisher
    Although anatomical data indicates that the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) projects directly to the subfornical organ (SFO), little is known about the afferent information relayed through the CVLM to SFO...
  12. Young C, Morgan D, Butler S, Mark A, Davisson R. The brain subfornical organ mediates leptin-induced increases in renal sympathetic activity but not its metabolic effects. Hypertension. 2013;61:737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..have identified leptin receptors (ObR) in a distributed brain network, including the circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain region devoid of a blood-brain barrier...
  13. Somponpun S. Neuroendocrine regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance by ovarian steroids: contributions from central oestrogen receptors. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:809-18 pubmed
    ..Plasticity in receptor expression that accompanies fluid disturbances at these central loci suggests the functional importance of the receptors and implicates E(2) as one of the fluid regulating hormones in water homeostasis. ..
  14. Washburn D, Ferguson A. Selective potentiation of N-type calcium channels by angiotensin II in rat subfornical organ neurones. J Physiol. 2001;536:667-75 pubmed
    1. Here we have characterized Ca(2+) currents in rat subfornical organ neurones, and their modulation by angiotensin II...
  15. Liu Y, Huang Y, Lee S, Bookout A, Castorena C, Wu H, et al. PPARγ mRNA in the adult mouse hypothalamus: distribution and regulation in response to dietary challenges. Front Neuroanat. 2015;9:120 pubmed publisher
    ..the neocortex, the olfactory bulb, the organ of the vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (VOLT), and the subfornical organ. Within the hypothalamus, PPARγ was present at moderate levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh) and ..
  16. Sun X, Tommasi E, Molina D, Sah R, Brosnihan K, Diz D, et al. Deletion of proton-sensing receptor GPR4 associates with lower blood pressure and lower binding of angiotensin II receptor in SFO. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;311:F1260-F1266 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that GPR4 mRNA was higher in subfornical organ (SFO) than other brain regions...
  17. Smith P, Samson W, Ferguson A. Cardiovascular actions of orexin-A in the rat subfornical organ. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:7-13 pubmed
    ..Intracerebroventricular injections of orexin-A increase blood pressure and stimulate drinking, and the subfornical organ (SFO), a circumventricular structure implicated in autonomic control, is a potential site at which orexin ..
  18. Matsumoto M, Fujikawa A, Suzuki R, Shimizu H, Kuboyama K, Hiyama T, et al. SAP97 promotes the stability of Nax channels at the plasma membrane. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:3805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97/DLG1) was coexpressed with Na(x) in the subfornical organ. In C6 glioblastoma cells, destruction of the PDZ-binding motif of Na(x) or depletion of SAP97 resulted in a ..
  19. Ciriello J, Rosas Arellano M, Solano Flores L. Direct projections to subfornical organ from catecholaminergic neurons in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract. Brain Res. 1996;726:227-32 pubmed
    ..the distribution of neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) that projected directly to the subfornical organ (SFO) and to determine whether these neurons were components of the catecholaminergic cell groups in the ..
  20. Dai S, Fan J, Shen Y, He J, Peng W. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the brain subfornical organ contributes to sex differences in angiotensin-dependent hypertension in rats. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2016;217:33-44 pubmed publisher
    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the brain subfornical organ (SFO), a key cardiovascular regulatory centre, has been implicated in angiotensin (ANG) II-induced hypertension in males; however, the contribution of ER stress to ANG II-..
  21. Rowland N, Goldstein B, Robertson K. Role of angiotensin in body fluid homeostasis of mice: fluid intake, plasma hormones, and brain Fos. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1586-94 pubmed
    ..ANG II failed to drink substantial amounts of water or NaCl, yet showed strong Fos immunoreactivity (ir) in subfornical organ (SFO)...
  22. Cancelliere N, Ferguson A. Subfornical organ neurons integrate cardiovascular and metabolic signals. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017;312:R253-R262 pubmed publisher
    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a critical circumventricular organ involved in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis...
  23. Mikkelsen J. Immunohistochemical localization of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the circumventricular organs of the rat. Cell Tissue Res. 1989;255:307-13 pubmed
    ..No immunoreactivity was observed in the subfornical organ or the subcommissural organ...
  24. Morita Takemura S, Nakahara K, Tatsumi K, Okuda H, Tanaka T, Isonishi A, et al. Changes in endothelial cell proliferation and vascular permeability after systemic lipopolysaccharide administration in the subfornical organ. J Neuroimmunol. 2016;298:132-7 pubmed publisher
    The subfornical organ (SFO) has highly permeable fenestrated vasculature and is a key site for immune-to-brain communications. Recently, we showed the occurrence of continuous angiogenesis in the SFO...
  25. Vollmer L, Ghosal S, McGuire J, Ahlbrand R, Li K, Santin J, et al. Microglial Acid Sensing Regulates Carbon Dioxide-Evoked Fear. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;80:541-51 pubmed publisher
    ..was associated with reduced microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β within the subfornical organ. Central infusion of microglial activation blocker minocycline and IL-1β antagonist IL-1RA attenuated CO2-..
  26. Petrov T, Howarth A, Krukoff T, Stevenson B. Distribution of the tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 in circumventricular organs of the CNS. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994;21:235-46 pubmed
    ..In two of the circumventricular organs examined, the median eminence and the subfornical organ, many capillaries lacked detectable ZO-1 immunoreactivity while the apical aspects of the specialized ..
  27. Tribollet E, Raufaste D, Maffrand J, Serradeil Le Gal C. Binding of the non-peptide vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist SR-49059 in the rat brain: an in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic study. Neuroendocrinology. 1999;69:113-20 pubmed
    ..barrier, the choroid plexus and other circumventricular organs expressing V1a receptors, namely the subfornical organ, the pineal gland and the area postrema...
  28. Wang G, Sarkar P, Peterson J, Anrather J, Pierce J, Moore J, et al. COX-1-derived PGE2 and PGE2 type 1 receptors are vital for angiotensin II-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) influx in the subfornical organ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H1451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..that ANG-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) type 1 receptors (EP1R) are required in the subfornical organ (SFO) for ROS-mediated hypertension induced by slow-pressor ANG-II infusion...
  29. McKinley M, McAllen R, Davern P, Giles M, Penschow J, Sunn N, et al. The sensory circumventricular organs of the mammalian brain. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol. 2003;172:III-XII, 1-122, back cover pubmed
    The brain's three sensory circumventricular organs, the subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the area postrema lack a blood brain barrier and are the only regions in the brain in which neurons are exposed to ..
  30. Grobe J, Rowland N, Katovich M. Role of angiotensin II and the subfornical organ in the pharmacological actions of ethanol. Alcohol Alcohol. 2004;39:410-7 pubmed
    ..We also tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO) is a site responsible for the alterations in body temperature and aerial righting reflex mediated by ..
  31. Lu B, Yang X, Chen K, Yang D, Yan J. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae ..
  32. Zucker I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a new player in central sympathetic regulation?. Circ Res. 2008;102:628-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Hay M. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors. Clin Sci (Lond). 2016;130:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of ..
  34. Sunn N, McKinley M, Oldfield B. Identification of efferent neural pathways from the lamina terminalis activated by blood-borne relaxin. J Neuroendocrinol. 2001;13:432-7 pubmed
    ..Neurones exhibiting Fos were present in the outer parts of the subfornical organ (SFO), the dorsal part of the organum vasculosum (OVLT), the supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular ..
  35. Smith P, Ferguson A. Cardiovascular actions of leptin in the subfornical organ are abolished by diet-induced obesity. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:504-10 pubmed publisher
    The subfornical organ (SFO), a sensory circumventricular organ lacking the normal blood-brain barrier with well documented roles in cardiovascular regulation, has recently been identified as a potential site at which the adipokine, ..
  36. Samson W, White M, Price C, Ferguson A. Obestatin acts in brain to inhibit thirst. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R637-43 pubmed
    ..Current-clamp recordings from cultured, subfornical organ neurons revealed significant effects of the peptide on membrane potential, suggesting this as a potential ..
  37. Matsuda T, Hiyama T, Niimura F, Matsusaka T, Fukamizu A, Kobayashi K, et al. Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ. Nat Neurosci. 2017;20:230-241 pubmed publisher
    ..appetite are driven by distinct groups of angiotensin II receptor type 1a-positive excitatory neurons in the subfornical organ. Neurons projecting to the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis control water intake, while those projecting ..
  38. Ku Y, Li Y. Subfornical organ-angiotensin II pressor system takes part in pressor response of emotional circuit. Peptides. 2003;24:1063-7 pubmed
    It has been proved that there are the subfornical organ (SFO)-nucleus paraventricularis (NPV)-rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) angiotension II (AngII) pressor system and the central amygdaloid nucleus (AC)-lateral hypothalamus/..
  39. Inenaga K, Wakasugi Sato N, Ono K, Hirase M, Honda E. Intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine activates neurons in the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus in rats. Brain Res. 2008;1200:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The injections increased the numbers of c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the subfornical organ, median nucleus of preoptic area, organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, paraventricular nucleus and ..
  40. Ciriello J, Roder S. 17?-Estradiol alters the response of subfornical organ neurons that project to supraoptic nucleus to plasma angiotensin II and hypernatremia. Brain Res. 2013;1526:54-64 pubmed publisher
    ..containing17?-estradiol (E2) to investigate the effect of systemic changes in E2 on the discharge rate of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons that projected to supraoptic nucleus (SON) and responded to changes in plasma levels of ..
  41. Medeiros N, Dai L, Ferguson A. Glucose-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ of the rat--a novel site for direct CNS monitoring of circulating glucose. Neuroscience. 2012;201:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..electrophysiology to examine whether neurons in a specialized region lacking the blood-brain barrier, the subfornical organ (SFO), are also glucose sensitive...
  42. Nation H, Nicoleau M, Kinsman B, Browning K, Stocker S. DREADD-induced activation of subfornical organ neurons stimulates thirst and salt appetite. J Neurophysiol. 2016;115:3123-9 pubmed publisher
    The subfornical organ (SFO) plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis through its ability to integrate neurohumoral signals and subsequently alter behavior, neuroendocrine function, and autonomic outflow...
  43. Donadio M, Gomes C, Sagae S, Franci C, Anselmo Franci J, Lucion A, et al. Angiotensin II receptors are upregulated by estradiol and progesterone in the locus coeruleus, median preoptic nucleus and subfornical organ of ovariectomized rats. Brain Res. 2005;1065:47-52 pubmed
    ..homeostatic and reproductive functions, such as the locus coeruleus (LC), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and subfornical organ (SFO)...
  44. Ono K, Honda E, Toyono T, Kataoka S, Nakamura T, Inenaga K. Evidence for the presence of nicotinic receptors on rat subfornical organ neurons. Auton Neurosci. 2003;108:87-90 pubmed
    The sensitivity of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons in rat slice preparations to nicotine was studied using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and immunohistochemistry...
  45. Tanaka J. Alpha-adrenergic control of ANG II-induced drinking in the rat median preoptic nucleus. Physiol Behav. 2002;77:155-60 pubmed in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the drinking response elicited by activation of the subfornical organ (SFO) following injections of angiotensin II (ANG II) in the awake unrestrained rat...
  46. Hindmarch C, Ferguson A. Physiological roles for the subfornical organ: a dynamic transcriptome shaped by autonomic state. J Physiol. 2016;594:1581-9 pubmed publisher
    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ recognized for its ability to sense and integrate hydromineral and hormonal circulating fluid balance signals, information which is transmitted to central autonomic nuclei to which ..
  47. Duvernoy H, Risold P. The circumventricular organs: an atlas of comparative anatomy and vascularization. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56:119-47 pubmed
    ..lining the cavity of the third ventricle (neurohypophysis, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, pineal gland and subcommissural organ) and of the fourth ventricle (area postrema)...
  48. Rossi N, Chen H. Aminopropionic acid receptors in paraventricular nucleus mediate pressor and vasopressin responses to endothelin-1 in subfornical organ. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006;231:1075-80 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that both the pressor response and AVP secretion in response to ET-1 microinjection into subfornical organ (SFO) would be suppressed by ionotropic glutamatergic receptor antagonists in the paraventricular nucleus (..
  49. Tanaka J, Kariya K, Nomura M. Angiotensin II reduces serotonin release in the rat subfornical organ area. Peptides. 2003;24:881-7 pubmed
    ..whether angiotensin II (ANG II) modulates the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the subfornical organ (SFO) in freely moving rats...
  50. Falnikar A, Stratton J, Lin R, Andrews C, Tyburski A, Trovillion V, et al. Differential response in novel stem cell niches of the brain following cervical spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..and glial lineage fate of resident NSCs in three CVO nuclei - area postrema (AP), median eminence (ME), and subfornical organ (SFO) - in rat models of cervical contusion-type SCI and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced TBI...
  51. Krause E, de Kloet A, Scott K, Flak J, Jones K, Smeltzer M, et al. Blood-borne angiotensin II acts in the brain to influence behavioral and endocrine responses to psychogenic stress. J Neurosci. 2011;31:15009-15 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that systemic ANGII mediates stress responding via the subfornical organ (SFO), we first found that the timing of increased systemic ANGII in response to 60 min restraint coincides ..
  52. Takayama K, Johno Y, Hayashi K, Yakabi K, Tanaka T, Ro S. Expression of c-Fos protein in the brain after intravenous injection of ghrelin in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;417:292-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ghrelin released into the circulation may stimulate central neurons that have some role in the control mechanism for gastric acid secretion. ..
  53. Collister J, Hendel M. Chronic effects of angiotensin II and at1 receptor antagonists in subfornical organ-lesioned rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:462-6 pubmed
    ..Of these, the subfornical organ (SFO) has been shown to be involved in many of the acute dipsogenic and pressor effects of AngII, but much ..