thyroid gland

Summary

Summary: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.

Top Publications

  1. Economidou F, Douka E, Tzanela M, Nanas S, Kotanidou A. Thyroid function during critical illness. Hormones (Athens). 2011;10:117-24 pubmed
    ..Data on the beneficial effect of thyroid hormone treatment on outcome in critically ill patients are so far controversial. Thyroid function generally returns to normal as the acute illness resolves. ..
  2. Koprowski R, Zieleznik W, Wróbel Z, Małyszek J, Stepień B, Wójcik W. Assessment of significance of features acquired from thyroid ultrasonograms in Hashimoto's disease. Biomed Eng Online. 2012;11:48 pubmed
    ..The applied methods of analysis and image processing were profiled to obtain 10 features of the image. Then, their significance in the classification was shown...
  3. Skeaff S. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy: the effect on neurodevelopment in the child. Nutrients. 2011;3:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is a need for well-designed trials to determine the effect of iodine supplementation in moderate to mildly iodine deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment in the child...
  4. Dickerman A, Barnhill J. Abnormal thyroid function tests in psychiatric patients: a red herring?. Am J Psychiatry. 2012;169:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the fact that thyroid function test abnormalities seen in non-thyroidal illness usually resolve spontaneously, treatment is generally unnecessary, and may even be potentially harmful...
  5. Lassalle S, Hofman V, Ilie M, Bonnetaud C, Puissegur M, Brest P, et al. Can the microRNA signature distinguish between thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential and other well-differentiated tumors of the thyroid gland?. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011;18:579-94 pubmed publisher
    ..FT-UMP and WDT-UMP as distinct and specific clinical entities may improve the diagnosis of WDT of the thyroid gland. In this context, a small set of miRNAs (i.e...
  6. Petric R, Perhavec A, Gazic B, Besic N. Preoperative serum thyroglobulin concentration is an independent predictive factor of malignancy in follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. J Surg Oncol. 2012;105:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this retrospective study was to find predictive factors of carcinoma in patients with FN...
  7. Ferrara A, Liao X, Gil Ibáñez P, Marcinkowski T, Bernal J, Weiss R, et al. Changes in thyroid status during perinatal development of MCT8-deficient male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:2533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to identify that the ontogenesis of TH abnormalities in Mct8-deficient mice manifests with TH excess in the perinatal period...
  8. Bian D, Li Z, Ma H, Mu S, Ma C, Cui B, et al. Effects of diosgenin on cell proliferation induced by IGF-1 in primary human thyrocytes. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:997-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that diosgenin inhibited cell proliferation, caused G(0)/G(1) arrest, and could inhibit cell proliferation induced by IGF-1 in primary human thyroid cells...
  9. De Felice M, Di Lauro R. Minireview: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in thyroid gland development: an update. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2948-56 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates the portion of the thyroid gland synthesizing the thyroid hormones develops from a small group of endodermal cells in the foregut...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Kutz M, Vila J, Urman J, Garaigorta M, Guinduláin E, Tarifa A, et al. [Ectopic retroperitoneal thyroid gland]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;35:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with an ectopic mesenteric thyroid gland forming a retroperitoneal mass that was surgically removed. Outcome was favorable.
  2. Bremner A, Feddema P, Leedman P, Brown S, Beilby J, Lim E, et al. Age-related changes in thyroid function: a longitudinal study of a community-based cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In cross-sectional studies, serum TSH concentrations increase with age. This has not been examined longitudinally, and it is uncertain whether the TSH increase reflects healthy aging or occult thyroid failure...
  3. Kawashima A, Yamazaki K, Hara T, Akama T, Yoshihara A, Sue M, et al. Demonstration of innate immune responses in the thyroid gland: potential to sense danger and a possible trigger for autoimmune reactions. Thyroid. 2013;23:477-87 pubmed publisher
  4. Song Q, Wang D, Lou Y, Li C, Fang C, He X, et al. Diagnostic significance of CK19, TG, Ki67 and galectin-3 expression for papillary thyroid carcinoma in the northeastern region of China. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:126 pubmed publisher
  5. Ruiz Llorente S, Carrillo Santa de Pau E, Sastre Perona A, Montero Conde C, Gomez Lopez G, Fagin J, et al. Genome-wide analysis of Pax8 binding provides new insights into thyroid functions. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:147 pubmed publisher
    ..of thyroid cells, we obtained transcriptional profiles of Pax8-silenced PCCl3 thyroid cells using whole genome expression arrays and integrated these signals with global cis-regulatory sequencing studies performed by ChIP-Seq analysis..
  6. Boomsma M, Bijl H, Christianen M, Beetz I, Chouvalova O, Steenbakkers R, et al. A prospective cohort study on radiation-induced hypothyroidism: development of an NTCP model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:e351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish a multivariate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model for radiation-induced hypothyroidism...
  7. Jo V, VanderLaan P, Marqusee E, Krane J. Repeatedly nondiagnostic thyroid fine-needle aspirations do not modify malignancy risk. Acta Cytol. 2011;55:539-43 pubmed publisher
    ..While repeat FNA is often diagnostic, little is known regarding the significance of repeatedly ND aspirates. Limited data suggest there is very low, if any, risk of malignancy for repeatedly ND FNAs...
  8. Vadiveloo T, Donnan P, Murphy M, Leese G. Age- and gender-specific TSH reference intervals in people with no obvious thyroid disease in Tayside, Scotland: the Thyroid Epidemiology, Audit, and Research Study (TEARS). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to examine the association of tested TSH with age, gender, and diabetes in a large population-based cohort without evidence of thyroid disease...
  9. Gier B, Butler P, Lai C, Kirakossian D, Denicola M, Yeh M. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor expression in the human thyroid gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to establish whether C cells in human medullary thyroid carcinoma, C cell hyperplasia, and normal human thyroid express the GLP-1 receptor...
  10. Weber G, Rabbiosi S, Zamproni I, Fugazzola L. Genetic defects of hydrogen peroxide generation in the thyroid gland. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013;36:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..DUOX and DUOXA constitute a redundant system in which DUOX1/DUOXA1 can at least partially replace the function of DUOX2/DUOXA2. Furthermore, increased nutritional iodide could ensure a better use of H2O2 provided by DUOX1...
  11. Schomburg L. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;8:160-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the known selenoproteins are expressed in the thyroid gland, including some with still unknown functions...
  12. Banaka I, Kaltsas G, Antoniou S, Kanakis G, Zilos A, Baltas C, et al. Prognostic value of vascularity index for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. JBR-BTR. 2011;94:185-90 pubmed
    ..To determine thyroid vascularity in healthy subjects and patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and assess its sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of AITD...
  13. Mete O, Asa S. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of follicular epithelial proliferations of the thyroid. Adv Anat Pathol. 2012;19:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this review contains comprehensive and up to date information that will be of value to pathologists who practice surgical pathology of thyroid...
  14. Boas M, Feldt Rasmussen U, Main K. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;355:240-8 pubmed publisher
  15. Imaizumi M, Sera N, Ueki I, Horie I, Ando T, Usa T, et al. Risk for progression to overt hypothyroidism in an elderly Japanese population with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2011;21:1177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We also sought associations of selected parameters with the development of overt hypothyroidism in the subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid groups...
  16. Li J, Hong F, Zeng J, Huang G. Functional interleukin-17 receptor A are present in the thyroid gland in intractable Graves disease. Cell Immunol. 2013;281:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes facilitate the IL-17-mediated upregulation of IL-6, CXCL10, and ICAM-1. The IL-17/IL-17R interaction could be a potential target for therapeutic interventions in intractable GD...
  17. Read M, Lewy G, Fong J, Sharma N, Seed R, Smith V, et al. Proto-oncogene PBF/PTTG1IP regulates thyroid cell growth and represses radioiodide treatment. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we created a murine transgenic model to target PBF expression to the thyroid gland (PBF-Tg mice) and found that these mice exhibited normal thyroid function, but a striking enlargement of the ..
  18. Drozdovitch V, Minenko V, Khrouch V, Leshcheva S, Gavrilin Y, Khrutchinsky A, et al. Thyroid dose estimates for a cohort of Belarusian children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Res. 2013;179:597-609 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. ..
  19. Chandra A, De N. Catechin induced modulation in the activities of thyroid hormone synthesizing enzymes leading to hypothyroidism. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;374:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological examinations of the thyroid gland revealed marked hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the thyroid follicles with depleted colloid content...
  20. Lavado Autric R, Calvo R, de Mena R, de Escobar G, Obregon M. Deiodinase activities in thyroids and tissues of iodine-deficient female rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that LID induces changes in deiodinase activities, especially in the thyroid, to counteract the low T(4) synthesis and secretion, contributing to maintain the local T(3) concentrations in the tissues with D2 activity...
  21. Waring A, Arnold A, Newman A, Buzkova P, Hirsch C, Cappola A. Longitudinal changes in thyroid function in the oldest old and survival: the cardiovascular health study all-stars study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Data on thyroid function in the oldest old are sparse, and existing studies show conflicting evidence on the relationship between thyroid function and mortality in this age group...
  22. Pearce E. Thyroid hormone and obesity. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2012;19:408-13 pubmed publisher
  23. Fortunato R, Braga W, Ortenzi V, Rodrigues D, Andrade B, Miranda Alves L, et al. Sexual dimorphism of thyroid reactive oxygen species production due to higher NADPH oxidase 4 expression in female thyroid glands. Thyroid. 2013;23:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..production necessary for thyroid hormonogenesis, but recently, the NOX4 has also been described in the thyroid gland. The prevalence of thyroid disease is higher in women, and the basis for this difference might involve a ..
  24. Drutel A, Archambeaud F, Caron P. Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;78:155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..selenium supplementation decreases anti-thyroid antibody levels and improves the ultrasound structure of the thyroid gland. Although clinical applications still need to be defined for Hashimoto's disease, they are very interesting ..
  25. He H, Kashat L, Kak I, Kunavisarut T, Gundelach R, Kim D, et al. An Ep-ICD based index is a marker of aggressiveness and poor prognosis in thyroid carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42893 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the clinical significance of Ep-ICD subcellular localization index (ESLI) in distinguishing aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) from non-aggressive cases...
  26. Chantawibul S, Anuwong A, Leelawat K. Validation of appropriate reference genes for gene expression studies in human thyroid gland using real-time RT-PCR. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95 Suppl 3:S36-40 pubmed
    ..However there has not been any study that compares the stability of these reference genes in human thyroid specimens. Therefore, the authors studied the stability values and the appropriate reference genes expressed in thyroid specimens...
  27. Albi E, Curcio F, Spelat R, Lazzarini R, Loreti E, Ferri I, et al. The thyroid lobes: the different twins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012;518:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The relation between structure/function of right lobe and its susceptibility to the higher risk of pathological modifications with respect the left lobe is discussed...
  28. Gandhi M, Nikiforov Y. Suitability of animal models for studying radiation-induced thyroid cancer in humans: evidence from nuclear architecture. Thyroid. 2011;21:1331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to test whether the proximity effects that are observed between loci involved in RET/PTC rearrangements in humans are conserved across different species...
  29. De Cristofaro T, Di Palma T, Fichera I, Lucci V, Parrillo L, De Felice M, et al. An essential role for Pax8 in the transcriptional regulation of cadherin-16 in thyroid cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:67-78 pubmed publisher
  30. Morris C, Aeschbach D, Scheer F. Circadian system, sleep and endocrinology. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:91-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanisms that cause the negative effects induced by circadian misalignment. Such research could aid the development of novel countermeasures for circadian misalignment...
  31. Vanderpump M. The epidemiology of thyroid disease. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thyroid disorders are prevalent and their manifestations are determined by the dietary iodine availability...
  32. Cochand Priollet B, Dahan H, Laloi Michelin M, Polivka M, Saada M, Herman P, et al. Immunocytochemistry with cytokeratin 19 and anti-human mesothelial cell antibody (HBME1) increases the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid fine-needle aspirations: preliminary report of 150 liquid-based fine-needle aspirations with histological control. Thyroid. 2011;21:1067-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of immunocytochemistry (ICC) of thyroid FNA to improve its sensitivity and specificity...
  33. Wirth E, Sheu S, Chiu Ugalde J, Sapin R, Klein M, Mossbrugger I, et al. Monocarboxylate transporter 8 deficiency: altered thyroid morphology and persistent high triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio after thyroidectomy. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..MCT8 contributes to hormone release from the thyroid gland.
  34. Zimmermann M. The role of iodine in human growth and development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011;22:645-52 pubmed publisher
    Iodine is an essential component of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for mammalian life...
  35. Vatine G, Zada D, Lerer Goldshtein T, Tovin A, Malkinson G, Yaniv K, et al. Zebrafish as a model for monocarboxyl transporter 8-deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that MCT8 is a crucial regulator during embryonic development and establishes the first vertebrate model for MCT8 deficiency that exhibits a neurological phenotype...
  36. Kot B, Ying M, Brook F, Kinoshita R, Cheng S. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thyroid gland and adjacent anatomic structures in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:1696-706 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the use of ultrasonography for thyroid gland assessment in healthy Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the thyroid gland and adjacent anatomic structures, and ..
  37. Rabbiosi S, Vigone M, Cortinovis F, Zamproni I, Fugazzola L, Persani L, et al. Congenital hypothyroidism with eutopic thyroid gland: analysis of clinical and biochemical features at diagnosis and after re-evaluation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    In recent years changes in screening strategies for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) led to an increased detection of mild forms of CH, associated with eutopic thyroid gland.
  38. Wildi Runge S, Stoppa Vaucher S, Lambert R, Turpin S, Van Vliet G, Deladoey J. A high prevalence of dual thyroid ectopy in congenital hypothyroidism: evidence for insufficient signaling gradients during embryonic thyroid migration or for the polyclonal nature of the thyroid gland?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E978-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, some cases have dual ectopy, with part of the tissue having partially migrated. We hypothesized that this occurs more frequently than previously reported...
  39. Gan E, Pearce S. Clinical review: The thyroid in mind: cognitive function and low thyrotropin in older people. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3438-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a detailed systematic review to assess the evidence available to support the association between these two conditions...
  40. Costa e Sousa R, Hollenberg A. Minireview: The neural regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This minireview discusses the neural regulation of the HPT axis, focusing on both TH-dependent and -independent pathways and their potential integration...
  41. Christophe Hobertus C, Lefort A, Libert F, Christophe D. Functional inactivation of thyroid transcription factor-1 in PCCl3 thyroid cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;358:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus extend the known roles of TTF-1 in thyroid development and in the expression of differentiated function in the adult organ to the control of epithelial morphology and of cell division in mature thyrocytes...
  42. Tomei S, Mazzanti C, Marchetti I, Rossi L, Zavaglia K, Lessi F, et al. c-KIT receptor expression is strictly associated with the biological behaviour of thyroid nodules. J Transl Med. 2012;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of molecular initial diagnostic tests for evaluating a thyroid nodule is needed in order to define optimal surgical approach for patients with uncertain diagnosis pre- and intra-operatively...
  43. Knox S, Jackson T, Frisbee S, Javins B, Ducatman A. Perfluorocarbon exposure, gender and thyroid function in the C8 Health Project. J Toxicol Sci. 2011;36:403-10 pubmed
    ..Results provide evidence for disruption of thyroid function related to these common chemicals and possible mechanisms are discussed...
  44. Krause K, Boisnard A, Ihling C, Ludgate M, Eszlinger M, Krohn K, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis to dissect differences in signal transduction in activating TSH receptor mutations in the thyroid. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to clarify whether the observed differences in Rab, PI3K and Epac signaling may contribute to differences in the phenotypic presentation, i.e. stimulation of function and growth of thyroid autonomy in vivo...
  45. Cali G, Gentile F, Mogavero S, Pallante P, Nitsch R, Ciancia G, et al. CDH16/Ksp-cadherin is expressed in the developing thyroid gland and is strongly down-regulated in thyroid carcinomas. Endocrinology. 2012;153:522-34 pubmed publisher
    ..was first described as a kidney-specific adhesion molecule and thereafter found expressed also in the thyroid gland. We show here that CDH16 fully colocalizes with CDH1/E-cadherin on the basolateral plasma membrane of mouse ..
  46. Arda K, Ciledag N, Aktas E, Aribas B, Kose K. Quantitative assessment of normal soft-tissue elasticity using shear-wave ultrasound elastography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197:532-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of various tissues and report it in kilopascals...
  47. Dom G, Tarabichi M, Unger K, Thomas G, Oczko Wojciechowska M, Bogdanova T, et al. A gene expression signature distinguishes normal tissues of sporadic and radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinomas. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:994-1000 pubmed publisher
  48. de Souza Dos Santos M, Gonçalves C, Vaisman M, Ferreira A, de Carvalho D. Impact of flavonoids on thyroid function. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:2495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present article, we review and synthesize the literature on the effects of flavonoids on thyroid and discuss the possible relevance of these effects for humans...
  49. Di Palma T, Conti A, De Cristofaro T, Scala S, Nitsch L, Zannini M. Identification of novel Pax8 targets in FRTL-5 thyroid cells by gene silencing and expression microarray analysis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25162 pubmed publisher
    The differentiation program of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs), by far the most abundant cell population of the thyroid gland, relies on the interplay between sequence-specific transcription factors and transcriptional coregulators with ..
  50. Hombach Klonisch S, Danescu A, Begum F, Amezaga M, Rhind S, Sharpe R, et al. Peri-conceptional changes in maternal exposure to sewage sludge chemicals disturbs fetal thyroid gland development in sheep. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;367:98-108 pubmed publisher
    ..and fT4 in exposed animals, however, were not different from controls suggesting compensatory changes in the thyroid gland to maintain homeostasis in exposed fetuses...
  51. Marečko I, Cvejic D, Tatic S, Dragutinović V, Paunovic I, Savin S. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its tissue inhibitor-2 in fetal and neoplastic thyroid tissue and their significance as diagnostic and prognostic markers in papillary carcinoma. Cancer Biomark. 2011;11:49-58 pubmed publisher
  52. Hommyo R, Suzuki S, Abolhassani N, Hamasaki H, Shijo M, Maeda N, et al. Expression of CRYM in different rat organs during development and its decreased expression in degenerating pyramidal tracts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuropathology. 2018;38:247-259 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression patterns of CRYM may reflect significance of its interactions with T3 or ketimines in these cells and organs. The results also indicate that CRYM may be used as a marker of axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. ..
  53. Falkowski B, Rogowicz Frontczak A, Grzelka A, Uruska A, Schlaffke J, Araszkiewicz A, et al. Higher free triiodothyronine concentration is associated with lower prevalence of microangiopathic complications and better metabolic control in adult euthyroid people with type 1 diabetes. Endocrine. 2018;60:458-465 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher FT3 concentration is related to the lower prevalence of microangiopathy and better metabolic control of the disease in adult euthyroid people with T1DM. ..
  54. Kunii Y, Uruno T, Mukasa K, Sekiya K, Iwaku K, Suzuki A, et al. Inhibitory effect of low-dose inorganic iodine on thyroidal radioactive iodine uptake in healthy Japanese adults. Endocr J. 2016;63:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The dose, duration or interval of iodine administration should be evaluated in iodine-sufficient regions in a future...
  55. Imaizumi M, Ohishi W, Nakashima E, Sera N, Neriishi K, Yamada M, et al. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2516-2524 pubmed publisher
    ..The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. ..