posterior pituitary gland


Summary: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

Top Publications

  1. Fujiwara K, Adachi S, Usui K, Maruyama M, Matsumoto H, Ohtaki T, et al. Immunocytochemical localization of a galanin-like peptide (GALP) in pituicytes of the rat posterior pituitary gland. Neurosci Lett. 2002;317:65-8 pubmed
    ..Both studies clearly indicated that the GALP-ir cells in the PP are pituicytes...
  2. Klyachko V, Jackson M. Capacitance steps and fusion pores of small and large-dense-core vesicles in nerve terminals. Nature. 2002;418:89-92 pubmed
    ..Fusion pores seen during microvesicle kiss-and-run have a conductance of 19 pS, 11 times smaller than LDCV fusion pores. Thus, LDCVs and microvesicles use structurally different intermediates during exocytosis...
  3. Osorio M, Marui S, Jorge A, Latronico A, Lo L, Leite C, et al. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging and function in patients with growth hormone deficiency with and without mutations in GHRH-R, GH-1, or PROP-1 genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:5076-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that pituitary MRI and hormonal response to stimulation tests are useful in selection of patients and candidate genes to elucidate the etiological diagnosis of GHD...
  4. Saito J, Ozaki Y, Ohnishi H, Nakamura T, Ueta Y. Induction of galanin-like peptide gene expression in the rat posterior pituitary gland during endotoxin shock and adjuvant arthritis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;113:124-32 pubmed
    ..c. injection of heat-inactivated M. butyricum that induced adjuvant arthritis. These results suggested that inflammatory stresses may be a potent stimulant to induce the expression of the GALP gene in the PP...
  5. Maghnie M, Altobelli M, Di Iorgi N, Genovese E, Meloni G, Manca Bitti M, et al. Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus is associated with abnormal blood supply to the posterior pituitary gland caused by vascular impairment of the inferior hypophyseal artery system. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1891-6 pubmed
    ..representing a temporal reference point and occurring in normal subjects simultaneously to that of the posterior pituitary gland, was observed in all subjects after iv gadopentetate dimeglumine administration, with no substantial ..
  6. Hashizume T, Shida R, Suzuki S, Nonaka S, Yonezawa C, Yamashita T, et al. Salsolinol is present in the bovine posterior pituitary gland and stimulates the release of prolactin both in vivo and in vitro in ruminants. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2008;34:146-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this endogenous compound is a strong candidate for the factor having PRL-releasing activity that has been previously detected in extract of the bovine PP gland...
  7. Schonemann M, Ryan A, McEvilly R, O Connell S, Arias C, Kalla K, et al. Development and survival of the endocrine hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland requires the neuronal POU domain factor Brn-2. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3122-35 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, deletion of the Brn-2 genomic locus results in loss of endocrine hypothalamic nuclei and the posterior pituitary gland. Lack of Brn-2 does not affect initial hypothalamic developmental events, but instead results in a ..
  8. Sladek C, Somponpun S. Oestrogen receptor beta: role in neurohypophyseal neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:365-71 pubmed
    ..The challenge remains to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, and to understand its significance for maintenance of whole-body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis...
  9. Murray P, Hague C, Fafoula O, Patel L, Raabe A, Cusick C, et al. Associations with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency in patients with an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:597-602 pubmed publisher
    The presence of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (EPP) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with hypopituitarism with one or more hormone deficiencies...

More Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Di Iorgi N, Secco A, Napoli F, Calandra E, Rossi A, Maghnie M. Developmental abnormalities of the posterior pituitary gland. Endocr Dev. 2009;14:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The posterior pituitary gland is formed by the evagination of neural tissue from the floor of the third ventricle...
  2. Medina Martinez O, Amaya Manzanares F, Liu C, Mendoza M, Shah R, Zhang L, et al. Cell-autonomous requirement for rx function in the mammalian retina and posterior pituitary. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4513 pubmed publisher
  3. Takenoya F, Hori T, Kageyama H, Funahashi H, Takeuchi M, Kitamura Y, et al. Coexistence of salusin and vasopressin in the rat hypothalamo-hypophyseal system. Neurosci Lett. 2005;385:110-3 pubmed
    ..The functional significance of the coexistence of salusin with vasopressin is discussed, including the possibility that salusin participates in the regulation of blood pressure. ..
  4. Teshima T, Hara Y, Masuda H, Taoda T, Nezu Y, Harada Y, et al. Relationship between arginine vasopressin and high signal intensity in the pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted MR images in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:693-9 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the high SI in the PL in T1WIs in normal dogs was caused by AVP stored at the site, and examination of the SI in the PL using MRI is useful for diagnosis of abnormal pituitary glands. ..
  5. Hernández Lavado R, Cabanillas López M, Rodríguez Ortega P, Guzmán Carmona C, Rasero Hernández I. [Late onset hypopituitarism due to hypoplasia of the adenohypophysis with invisible stalk and ectopic neurohypophysis in a 67-year-old patient]. Endocrinol Nutr. 2009;56:270-2 pubmed publisher
  6. Morita S, Oohira A, Miyata S. Activity-dependent remodeling of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans extracellular matrix in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Neuroscience. 2010;166:1068-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the extracellular microenvironment of CSPGs is different between AVP and OXT magnocellular neurons and activity-dependent remodeling of CSPGs could be involved in the structural plasticity of the HNS. ..
  7. Lawson E. The effects of oxytocin on eating behaviour and metabolism in humans. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2017;13:700-709 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone that is secreted directly into the brain and enters the peripheral circulation through the posterior pituitary gland, regulates a range of physiologic processes, including eating behaviour and metabolism...
  8. Pierre K, Rougon G, Allard M, Bonhomme R, Gennarini G, Poulain D, et al. Regulated expression of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3 in adult hypothalamic magnocellular neurons. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5333-43 pubmed
    ..It follows, therefore, the regulated pathway of secretion in HNS neurons to be released by exocytosis at their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis, where it may intervene in activity-dependent structural axonal plasticity. ..
  9. Hirano T, Kumabe T, Murakami K, Watanabe M, Shirane R, Yoshimoto T. Metachronous neurohypophysical immature teratoma occurring 10 years after total resection of pineal mature teratoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2001;17:286-9 pubmed
    ..Patients with completely resected mature teratoma require extended follow-up, including periodic magnetic resonance imaging, because of the risk of such a metachronous germ cell tumor. ..
  10. Bojanowska E, Stempniak B. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide on neurohypophysial and cardiovascular functions under hypo- or normotensive hypovolaemia in the rat. J Endocrinol. 2002;172:303-10 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that tGLP-1 may affect the arterial blood pressure and the secretion of neurohypophysial hormones under pathological conditions brought about by blood volume depletion. ..
  11. Takei H, Goodman J, Tanaka S, Bhattacharjee M, Bahrami A, Powell S. Pituicytoma incidentally found at autopsy. Pathol Int. 2005;55:745-9 pubmed
    ..Distinction from other intrasellar tumors (granular cell tumor and pilocytic astrocytoma) is important. Because the immunohistochemical profiles of these tumors are similar, histological findings are crucial for distinction. ..
  12. Calvo B, Bilbao J, Urrutia I, Eizaguirre J, Gaztambide S, Castano L. Identification of a novel nonsense mutation and a missense substitution in the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene in two Spanish kindreds with familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83:995-7 pubmed
    ..This missense mutation, which replaces Ala with Thr, is frequent among FNDI patients and is thought to reduce the efficiency of cleavage by signal peptidases. ..
  13. Troadec J, Thirion S, Nicaise G, Lemos J, Dayanithi G. ATP-evoked increases in [Ca2+]i and peptide release from rat isolated neurohypophysial terminals via a P2X2 purinoceptor. J Physiol. 1998;511 ( Pt 1):89-103 pubmed
    ..7. We propose that ATP, co-released with neuropeptides, could act as a paracrine-autocrine messenger, stimulating, via Ca2+ entry through a P2X2 receptor, the secretion of AVP, in particular, from neurohypophysial nerve terminals. ..
  14. de Wied D. Behavioral pharmacology of neuropeptides related to melanocortins and the neurohypophyseal hormones. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;375:1-11 pubmed
  15. Padmanabhan V, Battaglia D, Brown M, Karsch F, Lee J, Pan W, et al. Neuroendocrine control of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion: II. Is follistatin-induced suppression of FSH secretion mediated via changes in activin availability and does it involve changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion?. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:1395-402 pubmed
    ..The slower clearance of total follistatin and the lack of follistatin effects on GnRH secretion suggest that changes in activin bioavailability dictate the level of pituitary FSH secretion and that this is a pituitary-specific effect. ..
  16. Jadhao A, Malz C. Localization of the neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) in the diencephalon and pituitary gland of the catfish, Synodontis multipunctatus: an immunocytochemical study. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;132:278-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the presence of bNOS positive cells in the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland supports a role of nitric oxide in osmoregulation. ..
  17. Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Zorludemir S, Lloyd R, Erdogan S, Slezak J. Immunoexpression of androgen receptor in the nontumorous pituitary and in adenomas. Endocr Pathol. 2008;19:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..No staining of thyroid-stimulating hormone adenomas was noted. The physiologic significance of our findings remains to be explored. The literature regarding AR expression in animal and human pituitaries is reviewed. ..
  18. Stricker E, Huang W, Sved A. Early osmoregulatory signals in the control of water intake and neurohypophyseal hormone secretion. Physiol Behav. 2002;76:415-21 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these and other findings suggest the importance of early signals, perhaps from hepatoportal osmoreceptors or Na(+) receptors, in the control of VP and OT secretion and water intake in rats. ..
  19. Saito J, Ozaki Y, Kawasaki M, Ohnishi H, Okimoto N, Nakamura T, et al. Galanin-like peptide gene expression in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary of the obese fa/fa rat. Peptides. 2004;25:967-74 pubmed
    ..Insulin treatment in hyperglycemic fa/fa rats partially reversed those changes. These results suggest that the GALP gene expression in fa/fa rats might be regulated in part by leptin-independent mechanisms. ..
  20. Sobrier M, Maghnie M, Vie Luton M, Secco A, Di Iorgi N, Lorini R, et al. Novel HESX1 mutations associated with a life-threatening neonatal phenotype, pituitary aplasia, but normally located posterior pituitary and no optic nerve abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4528-36 pubmed
  21. Bubl R, Hugo H, Hempelmann R, Barth H, Mehdorn H. Granular-cell tumour: a rare suprasellar mass. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:309-12 pubmed
    ..We present two women with extraordinarily large tumours, measuring 3.8 and 4.0 cm in diameter. In both cases the tough, vascular tumour could be removed only subtotally. ..
  22. Rosso L, Peteri Brünback B, Vouret Craviari V, Deroanne C, Troadec J, Thirion S, et al. RhoA inhibition is a key step in pituicyte stellation induced by A(1)-type adenosine receptor activation. Glia. 2002;38:351-62 pubmed
  23. Lee C, Liu C, Wei C, How S. Symptomatic granular cell tumor of the neurohypophysis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2004;103:58-62 pubmed
    ..The postoperative course was smooth and there were no sequelae during 30 months of regular follow-up. We believe surgery remains the treatment of choice and even partial removal of the tumor may benefit the patient. ..
  24. Bojanowska E, Stempniak B. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on neurohypophysial hormone secretion induced by acute hyperosmotic challenge. Neuropeptides. 2003;37:45-50 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide may affect the secretory activity of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system under acute osmotic challenge. ..
  25. Lohmeier T. Neurohypophysial hormones. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R715-7 pubmed
  26. Scheithauer B, Silva A, Parisi J, Kovacs K, Horvath E. Ganglioglioma of the neurohypophysis. Endocr Pathol. 2008;19:112-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the tumor are presented, cytogenetic considerations are discussed, and literature regarding neuronal lesions of the pituitary gland is reviewed. ..
  27. Satoh H, Iwata H, Furuhama K, Enomoto M. Pituicytoma: primary astrocytic tumor of the pars nervosa in aging Fischer 344 rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2000;28:836-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of morphologic characteristics and glial fibrillary acidic protein staining, this tumor is consistent with astrocytoma. ..
  28. Shen J, Larm J, Gundlach A. Galanin-like peptide mRNA in neural lobe of rat pituitary. Increased expression after osmotic stimulation suggests a role for galanin-like peptide in neuron-glial interactions and/or neurosecretion. Neuroendocrinology. 2001;73:2-11 pubmed
  29. Scantamburlo G, Ansseau M, Legros J. [Role of the neurohypophysis in psychological stress]. Encephale. 2001;27:245-59 pubmed
    ..Whether these modifications are only a consequence of the central disturbances or whether those peptides could participate in the pathogenesis of these affections remains to be elucidated. ..
  30. Antoine V, Moret C, Schmitt E, Klein M, Bracard S. [MRI imaging of the neural pituitary]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2008;69:181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Early MRI findings advocate for such a diagnosis. Finally, meticulous analysis of the neural pituitary imaging may avoid several pitfalls and help the analysis of adenopituitary abnormalities. ..
  31. González Sánchez V, Moreno Pérez Ó, Revert Marrahí P, Boix Carreño E. [Neurohypophyseal germinoma in a young woman]. Med Clin (Barc). 2008;130:798 pubmed
  32. Vidal S, Roman A, Moya L, Kovacs K. Expression of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase in the female rat pituitary. J Endocrinol. 2000;166:95-101 pubmed
    ..Apart from adenohypophyseal immunoreactive cells, 3 beta-HSD immunopositivity was also noted in endothelial cells of almost all pituitary capillaries located in the anterior and posterior lobes. ..
  33. Katan M, Morgenthaler N, Dixit K, Rutishauser J, Brabant G, Muller B, et al. Anterior and posterior pituitary function testing with simultaneous insulin tolerance test and a novel copeptin assay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2640-3 pubmed
    ..75 pm had an optimal diagnostic accuracy to detect diabetes insipidus. Copeptin measurement may be used to assess posterior together with anterior pituitary function during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. ..
  34. Gagliardi P, Bernasconi S, Repaske D. Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus associated with a missense mutation encoding Gly23-->Val in neurophysin II. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:3643-6 pubmed
    ..This mutation may be valuable for developing models of dominantly inherited neurodegeneration, as the early age of onset of symptoms suggests that this mutation may be particularly deleterious to the magnocellular neuron. ..
  35. Valiquette G. The neurohypophysis. Neurol Clin. 1987;5:291-331, vi-vii pubmed
    ..The role of OT in lactation and parturition is reviewed. Recent evidence suggesting that the fetus may, at least in part, be responsible for the initiation of labor is presented. ..
  36. Song Z, Hatton G. Taurine and the control of basal hormone release from rat neurohypophysis. Exp Neurol. 2003;183:330-7 pubmed
    ..Taurine-induced partial depolarization resulting in Na(+) channel inactivation is probably responsible for its previously observed inhibition of stimulated hormone release from neural lobe. ..
  37. Hashizume T, Sasaki T, Nonaka S, Hayashi T, Takisawa M, Horiuchi M, et al. Bovine posterior pituitary extract stimulates prolactin release from the anterior pituitary gland in vitro and in vivo in cattle. Reprod Domest Anim. 2005;40:184-9 pubmed
    ..The intra-hypothalamic infusion (arcuate nucleus) of 0.0625 eq./head of bPP extract strongly stimulated PRL release in calves (p < 0.05). The present results show that PP contains a physiologically potent PRF in cattle. ..
  38. Oiso Y. [Physiopathology and treatment of diseases of the posterior pituitary gland]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2007;96:2026-31 pubmed
  39. Seymour A, Scott V, Augustine R, Bouwer G, Campbell R, Brown C. Development of an excitatory kisspeptin projection to the oxytocin system in late pregnancy. J Physiol. 2017;595:825-838 pubmed publisher
    Oxytocin release from the posterior pituitary gland stimulates uterine contraction during birth but the central mechanisms that activate oxytocin neurones for birth are not well characterized...
  40. Zuccoli G, Ferrozzi F, Troiso A, Ubaldi A, Ghizzoni L. An unusual MR presentation of the neurohypophyseal "bright spot" in pituitary dwarfism. Clin Imaging. 2001;25:9-11 pubmed
    ..Abnormalities of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis are frequently associated with pituitary deficiency. We describe a previously unknown morphological presentation of the ectopic posterior neurohypophyseal "bright spot."..
  41. van den Hurk W, Bloemen M, Martens G. Expression of the gene encoding the beta-amyloid precursor protein APP in Xenopus laevis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2001;97:13-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Xenopus APP mRNA is ubiquitously expressed and alternatively spliced, and that the highly conserved Xenopus APP protein contains an Abeta peptide with amyloidogenic potency. ..
  42. Khegai I. [Interaction of the diabetes insipidus locus alleles with the renal 120 kDa protein-encoding gene in rat development]. Genetika. 2003;39:397-401 pubmed
    ..In the di/di rats dehydration had no effect on the kidney 120-kDa protein synthesis in all ages examined. These results point to the interaction between the di alleles and the 120-kDa protein-encoding gene in the course of development...
  43. Kadekaro M, Su G, Chu R, Lei Y, Li J, Fang L. Effects of nitric oxide on expressions of nitrosocysteine and calcium-activated potassium channels in the supraoptic nuclei and neural lobe of dehydrated rats. Neurosci Lett. 2007;411:117-22 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that NO signaling cascade may control the expression of BK channels through the regulation of nitrosocysteine in SON and neural lobe of rats during osmotic regulation. ..
  44. Lutz Bucher B, Monnier D, Koch B. Evidence for the presence of receptors for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the neurohypophysis that are positively coupled to cyclic AMP formation and neurohypophyseal hormone secretion. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;64:153-61 pubmed
  45. Boswell T, Li Q, Takeuchi S. Neurons expressing neuropeptide Y mRNA in the infundibular hypothalamus of Japanese quail are activated by fasting and co-express agouti-related protein mRNA. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;100:31-42 pubmed
    ..Double-label ISH revealed that the majority of NPY neurons in the IN co-express AGRP mRNA. Collectively, these data indicate that this cell type has been neuroanatomically and functionally conserved during vertebrate evolution...
  46. Marrero H, Lemos J. Loose-patch clamp currents from the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the rat. Pflugers Arch. 2003;446:702-13 pubmed
    ..The explant currents are similar to those previously characterized using conventional methods from somata and terminals. ..
  47. Chousalkar K, Roberts J. Ultrastructural study of infectious bronchitis virus infection in infundibulum and magnum of commercial laying hens. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:223-36 pubmed
    ..Loss of cilia in both the infundibulum and magnum pose a potential threat of secondary bacterial infection and also may affect fertility in breeder hens. ..
  48. Christensen J, Hansen E, Frederiksen C, Mølris M, Moesby L. Adrenaline influences the release of interleukin-6 from murine pituicytes: role of beta2-adrenoceptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999;378:143-8 pubmed
    ..Propranolol and ICI 118551 completely blocked the action of adrenaline, whereas atenolol was inactive. It is concluded that the stimulatory effect of adrenaline is mediated via beta2-adrenoceptors. ..
  49. Nomura M, Tachibana O, Yamashima T, Yamashita J, Suzuki M. MRI evaluation of the diaphragmal opening: using MRI parallel to the transsphenoidal surgical approach. J Clin Neurosci. 2002;9:175-7 pubmed
    ..On MRI parallel to the transsphenoidal surgical approach, the anatomy of the dia phragma sellae was well evaluated. ..
  50. Prieto I, Martinez J, Ramirez M, Arechaga G, Alba F, De Gasparo M, et al. Aminopeptidase activities after water deprivation in male and female rats. Regul Pept. 2001;101:189-94 pubmed
    ..In adrenals of dehydrated animals, the results would imply a high degree of metabolism of angiotensin III and vasopressin...
  51. Binder G, Nagel B, Ranke M, Mullis P. Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) type II: imaging of the pituitary gland by magnetic resonance reveals characteristic differences in comparison with severe IGHD of unknown origin. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;147:755-60 pubmed
    ..To determine the specific morphology of the pituitary gland in children with severe isolated GH deficiency due to GH-1 gene mutations (IGHD type II)...
  52. Yamamoto T, Ishii T, Yoshioka K, Yamagami K, Yamakita T, Miyamoto M, et al. Transient central diabetes insipidus in pregnancy with a peculiar change in signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Intern Med. 2003;42:513-6 pubmed
    ..We consider that an increase in cystine-aminopeptidase (CAP) activity is implicated in the pathogenesis...
  53. Turton J, Reynaud R, Mehta A, Torpiano J, Saveanu A, Woods K, et al. Novel mutations within the POU1F1 gene associated with variable combined pituitary hormone deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:4762-70 pubmed
    ..Mutations within the gene encoding the pituitary-specific transcription factor POU1F1 are associated with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Most of the affected individuals manifest GH, prolactin, and TSH deficiency...
  54. Jilg A, Moek J, Weaver D, Korf H, Stehle J, Von Gall C. Rhythms in clock proteins in the mouse pars tuberalis depend on MT1 melatonin receptor signalling. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:2845-54 pubmed
    ..The results show that melatonin, acting through the MT1, determines availability of the circadian proteins mPER1, mPER2 and mCRY1 and thus plays a crucial role in regulating rhythmicity in PT cells...
  55. Lafay Cousin L, Millar B, Mabbott D, Spiegler B, Drake J, Bartels U, et al. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:486-92 pubmed
    ..To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation...
  56. Katoh A, Fujihara H, Ohbuchi T, Onaka T, Young W, Dayanithi G, et al. Specific expression of an oxytocin-enhanced cyan fluorescent protein fusion transgene in the rat hypothalamus and posterior pituitary. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:275-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that our new transgenic rats are a valuable new tool to identify OXT-producing neurones and their terminals...
  57. Young W, Shepard E, DeVries A, Zimmer A, Lamarca M, Ginns E, et al. Targeted reduction of oxytocin expression provides insights into its physiological roles. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;449:231-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an absolute requirement for oxytocin for successful milk ejection, but not for mating, parturition and milk production, in mice. Furthermore, homozygous mutant mice show reduced aggression in some tests...
  58. Miyata S, Furuya K, Nakai S, Bun H, Kiyohara T. Morphological plasticity and rearrangement of cytoskeletons in pituicytes cultured from adult rat neurohypophysis. Neurosci Res. 1999;33:299-306 pubmed
  59. Durán Martínez M, Santonja C, Pavón de Paz I, Monereo Megias S. Lymphocytic hypophysitis: report of an unusual case of a rare disorder. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24:190-3 pubmed
    ..This case of lymphocytic hypophysitis was not related to pregnancy and involved the neurohypophysis. We discuss the features that can help to make a preoperative differential diagnosis...
  60. Frontczak Baniewicz M, Gajkowska B. Focal ischemia in the cerebral cortex has an effect on the neurohypophysis. II. Angiogenesis in the neurohypophysis is a consequence of the focal ischemia in the cerebral cortex. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2001;22:87-92 pubmed
    ..After photochemically induced platelet aggregation, we observed the morphological features of angiogenesis...
  61. Tomaszewska Zaremba D, Przekop F, Mateusiak K. The involvement of GABA(A) receptors in the control of GnRH and beta-endorphin release, and catecholaminergic activity in the ventromedial-infundibular region of hypothalamus in anestrous ewes. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;52:489-500 pubmed
    ..The decrease in extracellular beta-endorphin and dopamine concentration without evident changes in the GnRH level during GABA(A) receptor blockade may suggest that other neuronal systems are involved in this effect...
  62. Neville K, Pereira J, Andrews P, Walker J. Transient reduction in the posterior pituitary bright signal preceding water intoxication in a malnourished child. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2004;17:1245-9 pubmed
    ..The association of osmotically unregulated ADH secretion with undernutrition and stress suggests that particuar caution should be used when fluid intake in such children is not driven by thirst...
  63. Sivukhina E, Dolzhikov A, Morozov I, Jirikowski G, Grinevich V. Effects of chronic alcoholic disease on magnocellular and parvocellular hypothalamic neurons in men. Horm Metab Res. 2006;38:382-90 pubmed
  64. Peden A, Ritchie D, Uddin H, Dean A, Schiller K, Head M, et al. Abnormal prion protein in the pituitary in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1068-72 pubmed
  65. Psilopanagioti A, Papadaki H, Kranioti E, Alexandrides T, Varakis J. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in human pituitary gland and brain. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;89:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed at investigating the possible expression and distribution of adiponectin and its receptors in human pituitary gland, hypothalamus and different brain areas...
  66. Ortiz Miranda S, Dayanithi G, Velázquez Marrero C, Custer E, Treistman S, Lemos J. Differential modulation of N-type calcium channels by micro-opioid receptors in oxytocinergic versus vasopressinergic neurohypophysial terminals. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results help advance our understanding of the complex modulatory mechanisms utilized by MORs in regulating presynaptic neuropeptide release...
  67. Schultz C, Koppers D, Braak H, Braak E. Cytoskeletal alterations in the aged human neurohypophysis. Neurosci Lett. 1997;237:93-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the aged human neurohypophysis is revealed as a potential focus of abnormal cytoskeletal changes which may impair the neuroendocrine function of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system...
  68. Watt J, Paden C. Upregulation of the p75 low-affinity neurotrophin receptor by phagocytically active perivascular active cells in the rat neural lobe. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;303:81-91 pubmed
    ..Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which phagocytes may support compensatory responses to neuronal injury are discussed...
  69. Matsunaga W, Osawa S, Miyata S, Kiyohara T. Astrocytic Fos expression in the rat posterior pituitary following LPS administration. Brain Res. 2001;898:215-23 pubmed
  70. Kovacs K. Neurohypophyseal hormones in the integration of physiological responses to immune challenges. Prog Brain Res. 2002;139:127-46 pubmed
  71. Al Kahtane A, Chaiseha Y, El Halawani M. Dopaminergic regulation of avian prolactin gene transcription. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:185-96 pubmed
    ..In addition, these findings suggest that the DAergic system inhibits PRL release and synthesis by antagonizing VIP at the pituitary level via D(2) DA receptors...
  72. Jirikowski G, Herbert Z, Petrusz P, Sendemir E, Caldwell J. Co-expression of vasopressin and androgen-binding protein in the rat hypothalamus. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29:233-7 pubmed
    ..Intrahypothalamic expression of ABP may be among the mechanisms necessary for rapid actions of steroids on hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems...
  73. Wang Y, Liu Y, Liu J, You S, Ju G. Nogo-66 receptor at the gap junctions between pituicytes of the rat. Neuroreport. 2006;17:605-9 pubmed
    ..This study, together with our prior one, strongly suggests that the Nogo-66 receptor may play a role in regulating the function of the gap junctions...
  74. Bergson J, Garg V, Chang J. Ectopic posterior pituitary lobe and cortical dysplasia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:198-9; author reply 199 pubmed
  75. Ladjouze A, Soskin S, Garel C, Jullien M, Naud Saudreau C, Pinto G, et al. GH deficiency with central precocious puberty: a new rare disorder associated with a developmental defect of the hypothalamic-pituitary area. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;156:463-9 pubmed
    ..However, idiopathic GHD associated with CPP has been reported in only one isolated case...
  76. Imamura Y, Morita S, Nakatani Y, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen are critical for osmotic homeostasis by regulating vasopressin secretion. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that AVP secretion is critically regulated by tPA-dependent facilitation of AVP release from terminals and plasminogen-dependent increase of AVP permeability across microvessels possibly via laminin degradation...
  77. Jiang H, Weesner G, Malven P. cDNA sequence and expression of bovine prodynorphin. Gene. 1997;186:279-83 pubmed
  78. Pérez Delgado M, Carmona Calero E, Marrero Gordillo N, Perez Gonzalez H, Castañeyra Perdomo A. Effect of hypertension on the angiotensin II fibres arriving at the posterior lobe of the hypophysis of the rat. An immunohistochemical study. Histol Histopathol. 2000;15:73-7 pubmed publisher
  79. Lee M, Choi H, Sung Y, Lee J. High signal intensity of the posterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR images. Correlation with plasma vasopressin concentration to water deprivation. Acta Radiol. 2001;42:129-34 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of water deprivation on the signal intensity of the posterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR images and correlate the signal intensity with the plasma vasopressin concentration.
  80. Hussy N, Brès V, Rochette M, Duvoid A, Alonso G, Dayanithi G, et al. Osmoregulation of vasopressin secretion via activation of neurohypophysial nerve terminals glycine receptors by glial taurine. J Neurosci. 2001;21:7110-6 pubmed
    ..This elucidates the functional role of glial taurine in the neurohypophysis, reveals the expression of GlyRs on axon terminals, and further defines the role of glial cells in the regulation of neuroendocrine function...
  81. Figarella Branger D, Dufour H, Fernandez C, Bouvier Labit C, Grisoli F, Pellissier J. Pituicytomas, a mis-diagnosed benign tumor of the neurohypophysis: report of three cases. Acta Neuropathol. 2002;104:313-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that pituicytomas presumably arise from pituicytes at various stages of their differentiation...
  82. Najvirtova M, Greer S, Greer M, Baqi L, Benicky J, Strbak V. Cell volume induced hormone secretion: studies on signal transduction and specificity. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003;13:113-22 pubmed
    ..The effect of GdCl3, HgCl2, NDGA or indomethacin showed no inhibition of cell swelling induced secretion. In contrast to TRH, oxytocin release was not induced by isosmotic ethanol containing medium from the PVN or posterior pituitary...
  83. Chitturi S, Harris M, Thomsett M, Bowling F, McGown I, Cowley D, et al. Utility of AVP gene testing in familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;69:926-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing for AVP gene mutations may confirm a diagnosis of FNDI when a WDT is inconclusive and may also predict individuals who will later develop FNDI...
  84. Saland L, Cunningham L, Su C, Morales M, Gaddy J. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat pituitary gland. Brain Res Bull. 2000;52:109-13 pubmed
    ..The presence of GDNF in areas of the pituitary is discussed in the context of its possible function to support and maintain hypothalamic innervation, as well as a potential autocrine factor within endocrine cells...
  85. Guibbolini M, Pierson P, Lahlou B. Neurohypophysial hormone receptors and second messengers in trout hepatocytes. J Endocrinol. 2000;167:137-44 pubmed
    ..These results are taken as evidence for the presence in trout hepatocytes of neurohypophysial hormone receptors functionally close to the V(1a)-type linked to cAMP production and Ca(2+) mobilization...
  86. Loesch A, Burnstock G. Immunoreactivity to P2X(6) receptors in the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system: an ultrastructural study with extravidin and colloidal gold-silver labelling. Neuroscience. 2001;106:621-31 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the P2X(6) receptors at the neurohypophysial level may be implicated not only in hormone release from the axon terminals, but also in membrane recycling of the granular vesicles and microvesicles...
  87. Wang G, Dayanithi G, Custer E, Lemos J. Adenosine inhibition via A(1) receptor of N-type Ca(2+) current and peptide release from isolated neurohypophysial terminals of the rat. J Physiol. 2002;540:791-802 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that adenosine, acting via A(1) receptors, specifically blocks the terminal N-type Ca(2+) channel thus leading to inhibition of the release of both AVP and OT...
  88. Chihara K. [History of research on pituitary neoplasm and hypopituitarism]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;91:1166-71 pubmed
  89. Pivonello R, De Bellis A, Faggiano A, Di Salle F, Petretta M, Di Somma C, et al. Central diabetes insipidus and autoimmunity: relationship between the occurrence of antibodies to arginine vasopressin-secreting cells and clinical, immunological, and radiological features in a large cohort of patients with central diabetes insipidu. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1629-36 pubmed
    ..Conversely, autoimmunity probably represents an epiphenomenon in patients with nonidiopathic CDI...
  90. Nag S, Nourhaghighi N, Venugopalan R, Asa S, Stewart D. Angiopoietins are expressed in the normal rat pituitary gland. Endocr Pathol. 2005;16:67-73 pubmed
    ..This first report of angiopoietin localization in the rat pituitary gland opens a new line of investigation on angiogenesis in pituitary glands that will impact human endocrinology in the future...
  91. Polito A, Goldstein D, Sanchez L, Cool D, Morris M. Urinary oxytocin as a non-invasive biomarker for neurohypophyseal hormone secretion. Peptides. 2006;27:2877-84 pubmed
    ..Urinary OT and AVP, as well as other urinary peptides, may provide a viable biomarker for peptide secretion and may be useful in clinical studies...
  92. Murray P, Hague C, Fafoula O, Gleeson H, Patel L, Banerjee I, et al. Likelihood of persistent GH deficiency into late adolescence: relationship to the presence of an ectopic or normally sited posterior pituitary gland. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:215-9 pubmed publisher
    The presence of an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (EPP) in childhood is associated with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency...