anterior pituitary gland

Summary

Summary: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.

Top Publications

  1. Zarate S, Zaldivar V, Jaita G, Magri L, Radl D, Pisera D, et al. Role of estrogens in anterior pituitary gland remodeling during the estrous cycle. Front Horm Res. 2010;38:25-31 pubmed publisher
    In this review, we analyze the action of estrogens leading to the remodeling of the anterior pituitary gland, especially during the estrous cycle...
  2. Garris B, Novikova L, Lau Y, Garris D. Hypophyseal lipoapoptosis: diabetes (db/db) mutation-associated cytolipidemia promotes pituitary cellular disruption and dysfunction. Pituitary. 2004;7:5-14 pubmed
  3. Porter T, Ghavam S, Muchow M, Bossis I, Ellestad L. Cloning of partial cDNAs for the chicken glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and characterization of mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary gland during chick embryonic development. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2007;33:226-39 pubmed
    ..Characterization of mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary gland during chick embryonic development by quantitative real time RT-PCR demonstrates decreased MR and ..
  4. Nolan L, Levy A. The effects of testosterone and oestrogen on gonadectomised and intact male rat anterior pituitary mitotic and apoptotic activity. J Endocrinol. 2006;188:387-96 pubmed
    ..Oestrogen, either exogenous or generated locally by aromatisation, stimulates anterior pituitary mitotic activity in a time-dependent manner...
  5. Ellestad L, Malkiewicz S, Guthrie H, Welch G, Porter T. Expression and regulation of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper in the developing anterior pituitary gland. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009;42:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that GILZ is upregulated by glucocorticoids in the embryonic pituitary gland and may regulate expression of several pituitary hormones...
  6. Filippa V, Mohamed F. ACTH cells of pituitary pars distalis of viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): immunohistochemical study in relation to season, sex, and growth. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2006;146:217-25 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the morphological variations observed between adult and immature male viscachas and between both sexes suggest that the steroid gonadal hormones might act on the development and activity of ACTH cells...
  7. Kikuchi M, Yatabe M, Fujiwara K, Takigami S, Sakamoto A, Soji T, et al. Distinctive localization of N- and E-cadherins in rat anterior pituitary gland. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006;288:1183-9 pubmed
    In the rat anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells aggregate preferably to form pseudofollicles, and each type of hormone-producing cell shows adhesive affinity with particular types of heterologous hormone-producing cells...
  8. Sorenson R, Stout L, Brelje T, Jetton T, Matschinsky F. Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of glucokinase in the gonadotropes and thyrotropes of the anterior pituitary gland of rat and monkey. J Histochem Cytochem. 2007;55:555-66 pubmed
  9. Luziga C, Kipanyula M, Mbassa G, Koichi M. Colloid in the anterior pituitary of helmet guinea fowl (Numida meleagris galeata): morphometric analysis and pattern of occurrence in relation to apoptosis. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:681-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of extremely large number of colloids in relation to apoptotic profiles in anterior pituitary of helmet guinea fowl is discussed...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Zaldivar V, Magri M, Zárate S, Jaita G, Eijo G, Radl D, et al. Estradiol increases the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;90:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The balance of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family is known to regulate cell survival and apoptosis...
  2. Filippa V, Mohamed F. Immunohistochemical study of somatotrophs in pituitary pars distalis of male viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) in relation to the gonadal activity. Cells Tissues Organs. 2006;184:188-97 pubmed
    ..The results obtained suggested that the variations of the morphometric parameters of somatotrophs are more related to the gonadal development and activity than to a direct effect of melatonin...
  3. Horiguchi K, Fujiwara K, Kouki T, Kikuchi M, Yashiro T. Immunohistochemistry of connexin 43 throughout anterior pituitary gland in a transgenic rat with green fluorescent protein-expressing folliculo-stellate cells. Anat Sci Int. 2008;83:256-60 pubmed publisher
    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland have been speculated to possess multifunctional properties...
  4. Pope C, McNeilly J, Coutts S, Millar M, Anderson R, McNeilly A. Gonadotrope and thyrotrope development in the human and mouse anterior pituitary gland. Dev Biol. 2006;297:172-81 pubmed
    ..The mechanism(s) responsible for the different molecular regulation of alpha-GSU gene expression in gonadotropes and thyrotropes in the developing human fetal pituitary now requires investigation...
  5. Nogami H, Hoshino R, Ogasawara K, Miyamoto S, Hisano S. Region-specific expression and hormonal regulation of the first exon variants of rat prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain and anterior pituitary gland. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:583-93 pubmed
    ..of the long-form was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and anterior pituitary gland, whereas the short form was detected only in the choroid plexus...
  6. Herman A, Tomaszewska Zaremba D. Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes. Anim Reprod Sci. 2010;120:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic structures where GnRH neurons are located as well as in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of anestrous ewes. We also determined the effect of LPS on luteinizing hormone (LH) release...
  7. Raccurt M, Smallwood S, Mertani H, Devost D, Abbaci K, Boutin J, et al. Cloning, expression and regulation of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFII and EAR-2) in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology. 2005;82:233-44 pubmed
  8. Claudius L, Yoshimi Y, Yoichiro H, Gabriel M, Koichi M. Phagocytotic removal of apoptotic endocrine cells by folliculostellate cells and its functional implications in clusterin accumulation in pituitary colloids in helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). Acta Histochem. 2006;108:69-80 pubmed
    ..Apoptotic endocrine cells are phagocytosed by FS cells and digested by their lysosomal enzymes. In FS cells, clusterin interacts and aggregates with by-products of digestion that subsequently become stored in colloid as a residual body...
  9. Devnath S, Inoue K. An insight to pituitary folliculo-stellate cells. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:687-91 pubmed publisher
    Folliculo-stellate cells (FS-cells) are star-shaped and follicle-forming cells in the anterior pituitary gland that were first identified by electron microscopy as non-endocrine agranular cells...
  10. Seilicovich A. Cell life and death in the anterior pituitary gland: role of oestrogens. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:758-64 pubmed publisher
    Apoptotic processes play an important role in the maintenance of cell numbers in the anterior pituitary gland during physiological endocrine events...
  11. Cabilla J, Díaz M, Machiavelli L, Poliandri A, Quinteros F, Lasaga M, et al. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4311-8 pubmed
    ..inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats...
  12. Candolfi M, Zaldivar V, Jaita G, Seilicovich A. Anterior pituitary cell renewal during the estrous cycle. Front Horm Res. 2006;35:9-21 pubmed
    The anterior pituitary gland undergoes a process of cell renewal during the estrous cycle...
  13. Blake C, Brown L, Duncan M, Hunsucker S, Helmke S. Estrogen regulation of the rat anterior pituitary gland proteome. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:800-7 pubmed
    Estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all six of the established anterior pituitary gland (AP) hormones, but little is known of the specifics of its regulation of the AP hormones, their isoforms, and nonhormonal AP proteins...
  14. Ishida M, Takahashi W, Itoh S, Shimodaira S, Maeda S, Arita J. Estrogen actions on lactotroph proliferation are independent of a paracrine interaction with other pituitary cell types: a study using lactotroph-enriched cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3131-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the antimitogenic and mitogenic actions of estrogen on lactotrophs do not require paracrine signals from other pituitary cell types and that estrogen directly influences lactotroph proliferation...
  15. Gao L, Ju G. Dual excitatory and inhibitory effects of stimulation of intrinsic innervation of the anterior pituitary on adrenocorticotropic hormone release in the rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:5-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that stimulation of the nerve fibres in the anterior pituitary has dual excitatory and inhibitory effects on ACTH secretion...
  16. Nolan L, Thomas C, Levy A. Permissive effects of thyroid hormones on rat anterior pituitary mitotic activity. J Endocrinol. 2004;180:35-43 pubmed
  17. Granger A, Ngô Muller V, Bleux C, Guigon C, Pincas H, Magre S, et al. The promoter of the rat gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene directs the expression of the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene in gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland as well as in multiple extrapituitary tissues. Endocrinology. 2004;145:983-93 pubmed
  18. Sato G, Shirasawa N, Sakuma E, Sato Y, Asai Y, Wada I, et al. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary XI: an immunohistochemical study of distributions of S-100 positive cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat. Tissue Cell. 2005;37:269-80 pubmed
    ..The distribution pattern of the folliculo-stellate cells and the capillaries showed good agreement and the spatial relationship between these two is detailed so as to better understand hypophyseal histophysiology...
  19. Filippa V, Penissi A, Mohamed F. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins in the pars distalis male viscacha pituitary. Effect of chronic melatonin treatment. Eur J Histochem. 2005;49:291-300 pubmed
    ..Moreover, melatonin acts differentially on the activity of the gonadotrope cells...
  20. Wells S, Murphy D. Transgenic studies on the regulation of the anterior pituitary gland function by the hypothalamus. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2003;24:11-26 pubmed
    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five different cell types secreting hormones whose functions include the regulation of post-natal growth (growth hormone, GH), lactation (prolactin, PRL), reproduction (luteinising hormone, LH, ..
  21. Marettová E, Maretta M. Immunohistochemical localization of S-100 protein in the pig pituitary gland. Anat Histol Embryol. 2004;33:344-7 pubmed
    ..The distribution, and morphologic characteristics of the FSc in the glandular lobes and the pituicytes in the neural lobe in the pig indicate different origin of both S-100 protein-positive cells...
  22. Carretero J, Bodego P, Rodriguez R, Rubio M, Blanco E, Burks D. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor in the anterior pituitary gland is influenced by age and sex. Neuropeptides. 2004;38:63-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, without excluding hypothalamic actions, our results suggest that opioids may exert their endocrine function by acting directly on pituitary cells...
  23. Pisera D, Candolfi M, Navarra S, Ferraris J, Zaldivar V, Jaita G, et al. Estrogens sensitize anterior pituitary gland to apoptosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E767-71 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the apoptotic response of the anterior pituitary gland to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cycling female rats, and the influence of estradiol in this response in ..
  24. Marsot Dupuch K, Smoker W, Grauer W. A rare expression of neural crest disorders: an intrasphenoidal development of the anterior pituitary gland. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:285-8 pubmed
    ..The abnormal migration of the pituitary gland was isolated without hormonal deficit, brain, or facial developmental anomalies...
  25. Hashizume T, Horiuchi M, Tate N, Nonaka S, Kojima M, Hosoda H, et al. Effects of ghrelin on growth hormone secretion from cultured adenohypophysial cells in cattle. Endocr J. 2003;50:289-95 pubmed
    ..05). These results show that ghrelin directly stimulates the release of GH from anterior pituitary cells, and that SS modifies ghrelin-stimulated GH release in cattle...
  26. Núñez L, Villalobos C, Senovilla L, Garcia Sancho J. Multifunctional cells of mouse anterior pituitary reveal a striking sexual dimorphism. J Physiol. 2003;549:835-43 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results reveal a striking sexual dimorphism, the female pituitary being much more plastic than the male pituitary...
  27. Nagashima A, Giacomini D, Castro C, Pereda M, Renner U, Stalla G, et al. Transcriptional regulation of interleukin-6 in pituitary folliculo-stellate TtT/GF cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;201:47-56 pubmed
    ..The regulatory elements involved in IL-6 transcription in TtT/GF FS cells contribute to understand the specificity of the anterior pituitary gland paracrine pathways.
  28. Wang Y, Yuan R, Sun Y, Lee T, Shah G. Antiproliferative action of calcitonin on lactotrophs of the rat anterior pituitary gland: evidence for the involvement of transforming growth factor beta 1 in calcitonin action. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2164-71 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that antiproliferative action of CT on lactotrophs may, at least in part, be mediated by CT-induced TGF-beta 1 expression...
  29. Denef C. Paracrine control of lactotrope proliferation and differentiation. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2003;14:188-95 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the classic hormone precursor pro-opiomelanocortin generates differentially glycosylated isoforms of its N-terminal fragment as paracrine controllers, which each induce distinct aspects of lactotrope differentiation and growth...
  30. Jaita G, Candolfi M, Zaldivar V, Zarate S, Ferrari L, Pisera D, et al. Estrogens up-regulate the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in lactotropes. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4737-44 pubmed
  31. Theogaraj E, John C, Christian H, Morris J, Smith S, Buckingham J. Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment produces molecular, functional, and morphological changes in the anterior pituitary gland of the adult male rat. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4804-13 pubmed
  32. Nagai Y, Nochi T, Watanabe K, Watanabe K, Aso H, Kitazawa H, et al. Localization of interleukin-18 and its receptor in somatotrophs of the bovine anterior pituitary gland. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;322:455-62 pubmed
    ..this hypothesis by investigating the intracellular localization of IL-18 and its receptor in bovine anterior pituitary gland. IL-18 mRNA and its protein were detected in the anterior pituitary gland by RT-PCR and Western blotting...
  33. Suzuki H, Takanashi J, Saeki N, Kohno Y. Temporal parenteral nutrition in children causing t1 shortening in the anterior pituitary gland and globus pallidus. Neuropediatrics. 2003;34:200-4 pubmed
    ..long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) with trace elements (TE) may exhibit T (1) shortening in the anterior pituitary gland and basal ganglia...
  34. Oomizu S, Chaturvedi K, Sarkar D. Folliculostellate cells determine the susceptibility of lactotropes to estradiol's mitogenic action. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1473-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that cell-cell interaction between FS cells and lactotropes regulates estradiol's mitogenic action on lactotropes and also determines lactotrope susceptibility to the steroid...
  35. Rebas E, Lachowicz Ochedalska A, Pawlikowski M. Angiotensin IV stimulates the activity of tyrosine kinases in rat anterior pituitary gland acting via AT1-like receptors?. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;55:107-11 pubmed
    ..The involvement of a non-classic AT1-like receptor is suggested...
  36. Shirasawa N, Mabuchi Y, Sakuma E, Horiuchi O, Yashiro T, Kikuchi M, et al. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland: X. Immunohistocytochemistry of S-100 and connexin 43 of folliculo-stellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004;278:462-73 pubmed
    Since Rinehart and Farquhar reported the presence of agranulated cells in the anterior pituitary gland in 1953, the functions of the folliculo-stellate cell remain to be clarified...
  37. Allaerts W, Vankelecom H. History and perspectives of pituitary folliculo-stellate cell research. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:1-12 pubmed
    ..New approaches for the study of this enigmatic cell group using immortalized cell lines and new markers for an hitherto unrecognized pituitary cell population, the so-called 'side population', are evaluated...
  38. Guner B, Ozacar A, Thomas J, Karlstrom R. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4435-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI. ..
  39. Salome N, Viltart O, Lesage J, Landgraf R, Vieau D, Laborie C. Altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenomedullary activities in rats bred for high anxiety: central and peripheral correlates. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006;31:724-35 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HABs can be considered as an useful model to study the etiology and pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and their neuroendocrine substrates. ..
  40. Kitamura E, Miki Y, Kawai M, Itoh H, Yura S, Mori N, et al. T1 signal intensity and height of the anterior pituitary in neonates: correlation with postnatal time. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008;29:1257-60 pubmed publisher
    ..A nonhyperintense anterior pituitary is a normal MR finding of preterm neonates when imaged near term. ..
  41. Mucha S, Melen Mucha G, Godlewski A, Stepien H. Inhibition of estrogen-induced pituitary tumor growth and angiogenesis in Fischer 344 rats by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:335-41 pubmed
    ..The ability of BB-94 to suppress established pituitary tumor growth suggests a possible application of MMPIs in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. ..
  42. Chen L, Lee S, Lin Y, Hsieh Y, Chen Y, Yang J, et al. Prostaglandin-D synthetase induces transcription of the LH beta subunit in the primary culture of chicken anterior pituitary cells via the PPAR signaling pathway. Theriogenology. 2010;73:367-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PGDS induced LHB transcription and subsequent translation via the PPAR signaling pathway. ..
  43. Kum S, Eren U, Sandikci M, Musal B. A histochemical investigation of different distribution of TSH cells in adenohypophsis of female and male rats. Anat Histol Embryol. 2006;35:408-11 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, castration reduced the number of TSH cells while ovariectomy had no effect in this respect. ..
  44. Kawakami Y, Adachi S, Yamauchi K, Ohta H. Thyroid hormone receptor beta is widely expressed in the brain and pituitary of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;150:386-94 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization studies revealed the presence of TRbetaB transcripts in the pars distalis of the pituitary. ..
  45. Davis J, McNeilly J, Norris A, Pope C, Wilding M, McDowell G, et al. Fetal gonadotrope cell origin of FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma - insight into human pituitary tumour pathogenesis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:648-54 pubmed
    ..Understanding fetal pituitary architecture and function may be more informative for new insights into pituitary tumour pathogenesis than classical theories of cancer biology that invoke unrestrained cell proliferation. ..
  46. Heinzlmann A, Kirilly E, Meltzer K, Szabó E, Baba A, Hashimoto H, et al. PACAP is transiently expressed in anterior pituitary gland of rats: in situ hybridization and cell immunoblot assay studies. Peptides. 2008;29:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The above-mentioned results support our hypothesis that the enhanced expression and secretion of PACAP in the pituitary gland may be involved in ceasing the LH surge. ..
  47. Okano Y, Satoh T, Horiguchi K, Toyoda M, Osaki A, Matsumoto S, et al. Nivolumab-induced hypophysitis in a patient with advanced malignant melanoma. Endocr J. 2016;63:905-912 pubmed
    ..A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed the mild enlargement of the anterior pituitary gland and thickening of the stalk with homogenous contrast...
  48. Zarate S, Jaita G, Zaldivar V, Radl D, Eijo G, Ferraris J, et al. Estrogens exert a rapid apoptotic action in anterior pituitary cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism could be involved in anterior pituitary cell turnover. ..
  49. Hanon E, Lincoln G, Fustin J, Dardente H, Masson Pévet M, Morgan P, et al. Ancestral TSH mechanism signals summer in a photoperiodic mammal. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..cycles depend on the pineal hormone melatonin, which modulates secretion of reproductive hormones by the anterior pituitary gland [1]...
  50. Gul A, Tran K, Jones C. Neurokinin B and serum albumin limit copper binding to mammalian gonadotropin releasing hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..triggers secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone from gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. GnRH is able to bind copper, and both in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the copper-..
  51. Marouf R, Mohr G, Assimakopoulos P, Glikstein R. [Apoplectic macroadenomas: the outcome of the residual pituitary gland]. Neurochirurgie. 2010;56:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the neurohypophysis is much rarer: one patient of 19 (5%). The implications of the ischemic or compressive damage on the normal pituitary gland are discussed. ..
  52. Kinoshita H, Hishida S, Ameno K, Ijiri I, Harbuz M. Differential regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary following repeated cyanamide with ethanol administration. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2005;62:875-8 pubmed
    ..05 respectively), but increased in AL following repeated CER. We speculate that this differential regulation of POMC mRNA expression may be partially involved in the preventive effects on alcohol intake in response to CER. ..
  53. Liu P, Iranmanesh A, Keenan D, Pincus S, Veldhuis J. A noninvasive measure of negative-feedback strength, approximate entropy, unmasks strong diurnal variations in the regularity of LH secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1409-15 pubmed
    ..These outcomes suggest that ApEn may have general utility in probing dynamic mechanisms mediating feedback in other endocrine systems. ..
  54. Cobellis G, Cacciola G, Chioccarelli T, Izzo G, Meccariello R, Pierantoni R, et al. Estrogen regulation of the male reproductive tract in the frog, Rana esculenta: a role in Fra-1 activation in peritubular myoid cells and in sperm release. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:838-46 pubmed
    ..Therefore, estrogens can be considered a new entry in the list of substances involved in spermiation...
  55. Ciechanowska M, Lapot M, Malewski T, Misztal T, Mateusiak K, Przekop F. Effect of stress on the expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the preoptic area-hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland in ewes during follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2007;67:1-12 pubmed
    ..preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, and GnRH-R mRNA in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland of follicular ewes subjected to short (3 h during one day) or prolonged (5 h daily during four ..
  56. Edouard T, Stafford D, Oliver I, Jesuran M, Bertozzi A, Cances C, et al. Isolated lymphocytic infiltration of pituitary stalk preceding the diagnosis of germinoma in 2 prepubertal children treated with growth hormone. Horm Res. 2009;72:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases underline the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis of germinoma in a patient with isolated PST...
  57. van der Eerden A, Twickler M, Sweep F, Beems T, Hendricks H, Hermus A, et al. Should anterior pituitary function be tested during follow-up of all patients presenting at the emergency department because of traumatic brain injury?. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..However, different study populations, study designs, and diagnostic procedures were used. No data are available on emergency-department-based cohorts of TBI patients...
  58. Parvizi N. Foetal and neonatal development of luteinising hormone and its regulatory systems in the pig. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2006;62:19-32 pubmed
    ..Likewise, there is no gonadal steroid feedback control of pituitary LH secretion up to the second week of neonatal age...
  59. Ellsworth B, Egashira N, Haller J, Butts D, Cocquet J, Clay C, et al. FOXL2 in the pituitary: molecular, genetic, and developmental analysis. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2796-805 pubmed
    ..These data place FOXL2 in the hierarchy of pituitary developmental control and suggest a role in regulation of Cga gene expression...
  60. Abrão M, Leite M, Carvalho L, Billerbeck A, Nishi M, Barbosa A, et al. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) due to a complete PROP1 deletion. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:294-300 pubmed
    ..PROP1 mutations are the most common cause of genetic combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the PROP1 gene in two siblings with CPHD...
  61. Blake C, Helmke S. Proteomics of the anterior pituitary gland as a model for studying the physiology of a heterogeneous organ. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:793-9 pubmed
    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) secretes six established hormones that collectively control hundreds of biological and behavioral functions...
  62. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  63. Pogoda H, von der Hardt S, Herzog W, Kramer C, Schwarz H, Hammerschmidt M. The proneural gene ascl1a is required for endocrine differentiation and cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis. Development. 2006;133:1079-89 pubmed
    ..Together, this suggests that Ascl1a might act downstream of diencephalic Fgf3 signaling to mediate some of the effects of Fgf3 on the developing adenohypophysis...
  64. Nakayama Y, Hattori N, Otani H, Inagaki C. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-C receptor stimulation increases prolactin (PRL) secretion in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:1705-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, PRL secretion from anterior pituitary cells appears to be enhanced via direct GABA-C receptor stimulation by GABA originating from the anterior pituitary cells besides well-known hypothalamic GABA...
  65. Ekici A, Eren B, Turkmen N, Comunoglu N, Fedakar R. Clusterin expression in non-neoplastic adenohypophyses and pituitary adenomas: cytoplasmic clusterin localization in adenohypophysis is related to aging. Endocr Pathol. 2008;19:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, immunohistochemical localization of clusterin in pituitary adenomas was not reported previously...
  66. Bingham N, Verma Kurvari S, Parada L, Parker K. Development of a steroidogenic factor 1/Cre transgenic mouse line. Genesis. 2006;44:419-24 pubmed
    ..This transgene provides a powerful tool to inactivate genes of interest in these tissues...
  67. Nolan L, Levy A. Prolonged oestrogen treatment does not correlate with a sustained increase in anterior pituitary mitotic index in ovariectomized Wistar rats. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:301-9 pubmed publisher
  68. Dacou Voutetakis C. The liaison of the young endocrine patient with adult endocrinologist. On occasion of a prismatic case. Hormones (Athens). 2008;7:203-4 pubmed
  69. Rothman M, Arciniegas D, Filley C, Wierman M. The neuroendocrine effects of traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2007;19:363-72 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the clinical spectrum of neuroendocrine deficits after TBI and their underlying mechanisms. Future studies of the effects of hormonal replacement on recovery are recommended...