pineal gland

Summary

Summary: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.

Top Publications

  1. Tovin A, Alon S, Ben Moshe Z, Mracek P, Vatine G, Foulkes N, et al. Systematic identification of rhythmic genes reveals camk1gb as a new element in the circadian clockwork. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003116 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and DNA microarrays to systematically identify clock-controlled genes in the zebrafish pineal gland. In addition to a comprehensive view of the expression pattern of known clock components within this master ..
  2. Coon S, Munson P, Cherukuri P, Sugden D, Rath M, Møller M, et al. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night...
  3. da Silveira Cruz Machado S, Carvalho Sousa C, Tamura E, Pinato L, Cecon E, Fernandes P, et al. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway. J Pineal Res. 2010;49:183-92 pubmed publisher
    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor ..
  4. Huang T, Ruoff P, Fjelldal P. Effect of continuous light on daily levels of plasma melatonin and cortisol and expression of clock genes in pineal gland, brain, and liver in atlantic salmon postsmolts. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1715-34 pubmed publisher
    ..and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (protein disulfide isomerase associated 3, PDIA3) genes in the pineal gland, brain, and liver of Atlantic salmon postsmolts reared under 12-h light:12-h dark (LD) regimes or under ..
  5. Bustos D, Bailey M, Sugden D, Carter D, Rath M, Møller M, et al. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;344:1-11 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases...
  6. Falcon J, Besseau L, Fuentes M, Sauzet S, Magnanou E, Boeuf G. Structural and functional evolution of the pineal melatonin system in vertebrates. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1163:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes anatomical, structural, and molecular aspects of the evolution of the melatonin-producing system in vertebrates...
  7. Toyama R, Chen X, Jhawar N, Aamar E, Epstein J, Reany N, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the zebrafish pineal gland. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1813-26 pubmed publisher
    The zebrafish pineal gland (epiphysis) is a site of melatonin production, contains photoreceptor cells, and functions as a circadian clock pace maker. Here, we have used microarray technology to study the zebrafish pineal transcriptome...
  8. Sun B, Wang D, Tang Y, Fan L, Lin X, Yu T, et al. The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009;27:655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume...
  9. Bach A, Muhlbauer E, Peschke E. Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2483-93 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Quillien A, Blanco Sanchez B, Halluin C, Moore J, Lawson N, Blader P, et al. BMP signaling orchestrates photoreceptor specification in the zebrafish pineal gland in collaboration with Notch. Development. 2011;138:2293-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The zebrafish pineal gland offers a simple system with which to address questions concerning the integration of signaling pathways during ..
  2. Gonzalez S, Moreno Delgado D, Moreno E, Pérez Capote K, Franco R, Mallol J, et al. Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D? receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001347 pubmed publisher
    The role of the pineal gland is to translate the rhythmic cycles of night and day encoded by the retina into hormonal signals that are transmitted to the rest of the neuronal system in the form of serotonin and melatonin synthesis and ..
  3. Smadja Storz S, Tovin A, Mracek P, Alon S, Foulkes N, Gothilf Y. Casein kinase 1? activity: a key element in the zebrafish circadian timing system. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54189 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the addition of the CK1?/? inhibitor disrupted rhythms of aanat2 mRNA expression in the pineal gland. The pineal gland is considered to act as a central clock organ in fish, delivering a rhythmic hormonal signal, ..
  4. Kim J, Kim H, Chang S, Kim J, Je J, Rhyu I. Growth patterns for acervuli in human pineal gland. Sci Rep. 2012;2:984 pubmed publisher
    Acervuli are calcified concretions in the pineal gland (PG)...
  5. Piesiewicz A, Kedzierska U, Podobas E, Adamska I, Zuzewicz K, Majewski P. Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29:1227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on ..
  6. Stehle J, Saade A, Rawashdeh O, Ackermann K, Jilg A, Sebesteny T, et al. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases. J Pineal Res. 2011;51:17-43 pubmed publisher
    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain...
  7. Maronde E, Saade A, Ackermann K, Goubran Botros H, Pagan C, Bux R, et al. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 2011;51:145-55 pubmed publisher
    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime...
  8. Kim J, Bailey M, Weller J, Sugden D, Rath M, Møller M, et al. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:128-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues,..
  9. Zieba D, Kirsz K, Molik E, Romanowicz K, Wojtowicz A. Effects of orexigenic peptides and leptin on melatonin secretion during different photoperiods in seasonal breeding ewes: an in vitro study. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2011;40:139-46 pubmed publisher
    The pineal gland (PG) acts as a neuroendocrine transducer of daily and seasonal time through the nocturnal release of melatonin...
  10. Nolte I, Lütkhoff A, Stuck B, Lemmer B, Schredl M, Findeisen P, et al. Pineal volume and circadian melatonin profile in healthy volunteers: an interdisciplinary approach. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:499-505 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate pineal parenchyma volume (PP) to circadian melatonin profiles and to determine the 24-hour melatonin per volume of pineal tissue (MLPV). Furthermore, we compared melatonin profiles of cystic and solid glands...
  11. Rath M, Rohde K, Klein D, Møller M. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:1100-12 pubmed publisher
    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin...
  12. Borjigin J, Zhang L, Calinescu A. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:13-9 pubmed publisher
    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions...
  13. Reiter R, Tan D, Fuentes Broto L. Melatonin: a multitasking molecule. Prog Brain Res. 2010;181:127-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms that control its synthesis within the pineal gland have been well characterized and the retinal and biological clock processes that modulate the circadian ..
  14. Yanez J, Busch J, Anadon R, Meissl H. Pineal projections in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): overlap with retinal and cerebellar projections. Neuroscience. 2009;164:1712-20 pubmed publisher
  15. Cecon E, Fernandes P, Pinato L, Ferreira Z, Markus R. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:52-67 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system...
  16. Sharma R, Duda T. ROS-GC subfamily membrane guanylate cyclase-linked transduction systems: taste, pineal gland and hippocampus. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;334:199-206 pubmed publisher
  17. Rohde K, Klein D, Møller M, Rath M. Rax : developmental and daily expression patterns in the rat pineal gland and retina. J Neurochem. 2011;118:999-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina...
  18. Rovsing L, Clokie S, Bustos D, Rohde K, Coon S, Litman T, et al. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome. J Neurochem. 2011;119:262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy ..
  19. Ho A, Chik C. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2010;112:321-31 pubmed publisher
    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the ..
  20. Wongchitrat P, Felder Schmittbuhl M, Govitrapong P, Phansuwan Pujito P, Simonneaux V. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..show a significant and sustained rhythm of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erb? gene expression for up to 48 h in cultured pineal gland with a pattern similar to that observed in vivo...
  21. Peliciari Garcia R, Marçal A, Silva J, Carmo Buonfiglio D, Amaral F, Afeche S, et al. Insulin temporal sensitivity and its signaling pathway in the rat pineal gland. Life Sci. 2010;87:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A second question raised was whether windows of sensitivity to insulin exist in the pineal gland due to insulin rhythmic secretion pattern.
  22. Velarde E, Cerdá Reverter J, Alonso Gómez A, Sánchez E, Isorna E, Delgado M. Melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in pineal, retina, liver, and gut of the goldfish (Carassius): mRNA expression pattern and regulation of daily rhythms by lighting conditions. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:1178-201 pubmed publisher
    ..melatonin is synthesized in nonphotosensitive organs of vertebrates in addition to the well-known sites of the pineal gland and retina...
  23. do Carmo Buonfiglio D, Peliciari Garcia R, do Amaral F, Peres R, Nogueira T, Afeche S, et al. Early-stage retinal melatonin synthesis impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic wistar rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the diurnal profile of retinal melatonin content and the regulation of its synthesis in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats...
  24. Ben Moshe Z, Alon S, Mracek P, Faigenbloom L, Tovin A, Vatine G, et al. The light-induced transcriptome of the zebrafish pineal gland reveals complex regulation of the circadian clockwork by light. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:3750-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the light-induced transcriptome in the zebrafish central clock organ, the pineal gland, was characterized by messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing (mRNA-seq) and microarray analyses, resulting in the ..
  25. Spiwoks Becker I, Wolloscheck T, Rickes O, Kelleher D, Rohleder N, Weyer V, et al. Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes...
  26. Wongchitrat P, Felder Schmittbuhl M, Phansuwan Pujito P, Pevet P, Simonneaux V. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes...
  27. Catala A. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:95-9 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity...
  28. Clokie S, Lau P, Kim H, Coon S, Klein D. MicroRNAs in the pineal gland: miR-483 regulates melatonin synthesis by targeting arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25312-24 pubmed
    ..were profiled for the first time, and their importance was evaluated by focusing on the main function of the pineal gland, melatonin synthesis...
  29. Vatine G, Vallone D, Appelbaum L, Mracek P, Ben Moshe Z, Lahiri K, et al. Light directs zebrafish period2 expression via conserved D and E boxes. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000223 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the general understanding of the mechanism whereby the clock is entrained by light and how the regulation of clock gene expression by light has evolved in vertebrates...
  30. Gómez Corvera A, Cerrillo I, Molinero P, Naranjo M, Lardone P, Sanchez Hidalgo M, et al. Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains. J Pineal Res. 2009;47:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..For the pineal gland, both the wild type and the mutant isoforms were present in all mice strains although in different proportions...
  31. Klein D, Bailey M, Carter D, Kim J, Shi Q, Ho A, et al. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:170-83 pubmed publisher
    ..cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response...
  32. Kawano Yamashita E, Koyanagi M, Shichida Y, Oishi T, Tamotsu S, Terakita A. ?-arrestin functionally regulates the non-bleaching pigment parapinopsin in lamprey pineal. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16402 pubmed publisher
    ..Such changes would have followed the evolution of vertebrate visual pigments, which generate unstable photoproducts that independently decay by chromophore dissociation...
  33. Ikegami K, Katou Y, Higashi K, Yoshimura T. Localization of circadian clock protein BMAL1 in the photoperiodic signal transduction machinery in Japanese quail. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Among vertebrates, birds have multiple circadian pacemakers in the eye, the pineal gland, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms...
  34. Spessert R, Gupta B, Rohleder N, Gerhold S, Engel L. Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland. Neuroscience. 2006;143:607-13 pubmed
    ..MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats...
  35. Baltaci A, Mogulkoc R. Pinealectomy and melatonin administration in rats: their effects on plasma leptin levels and relationship with zinc. Acta Biol Hung. 2007;58:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, long-term administration of melatonin to rats leads to an increase in both leptin and zinc concentrations. ..
  36. Pierpaoli W, Bulian D. The pineal aging and death program: life prolongation in pre-aging pinealectomized mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1057:133-44 pubmed
    ..It tracks, like a "clock," the ontogenetic phases of our life program. Transplantation of a very old pineal gland into the thymus or under the kidney capsule of a young mouse produces acceleration of aging and early death...
  37. Hernesniemi J, Romani R, Albayrak B, Lehto H, Dashti R, Ramsey C, et al. Microsurgical management of pineal region lesions: personal experience with 119 patients. Surg Neurol. 2008;70:576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering risk vs benefit, we therefore believe that the surgical treatment can be offered in most cases as the first treatment option for pineal tumors. ..
  38. Fevre Montange M, Champier J, Szathmari A, Wierinckx A, Mottolese C, Guyotat J, et al. Microarray analysis reveals differential gene expression patterns in tumors of the pineal region. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:675-84 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the usefulness of gene expression profiling for classify tumors of the pineal region and identify genes with potential use as diagnostic markers. ..
  39. Fernandes P, Cecon E, Markus R, Ferreira Z. Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing. J Pineal Res. 2006;41:344-50 pubmed
    ..However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available...
  40. Mano H, Fukada Y. A median third eye: pineal gland retraces evolution of vertebrate photoreceptive organs. Photochem Photobiol. 2007;83:11-8 pubmed
    In many vertebrates, the pineal gland serves as a photoreceptive neuroendocrine organ...
  41. Muñoz E, Bailey M, Rath M, Shi Q, Morin F, Coon S, et al. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2007;102:887-99 pubmed
    ..We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions...
  42. Duvernoy H, Risold P. The circumventricular organs: an atlas of comparative anatomy and vascularization. Brain Res Rev. 2007;56:119-47 pubmed
    ..the cavity of the third ventricle (neurohypophysis, vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, pineal gland and subcommissural organ) and of the fourth ventricle (area postrema)...
  43. Schmitz S, Platzek I, Kunz D, Mahlberg R, Wolf K, Heidenreich J. Computed tomography of the human pineal gland for study of the sleep-wake rhythm: reproducibility of a semi-quantitative approach. Acta Radiol. 2006;47:865-71 pubmed
    ..Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified ..
  44. Gilheeney S, Saad A, Chi S, Turner C, Ullrich N, Goumnerova L, et al. Outcome of pediatric pineoblastoma after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol. 2008;89:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Pineoblastomas are a category of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs) occurring in the pineal gland; some studies support the impression that patients with pineoblastomas have a worse prognosis than those with other ..
  45. Man P, Carter D. Pineal gland expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 is restricted to a population of glia that are distinct from nestin-immunoreactive cells. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:69-75 pubmed
    Egr-1 is a plasticity-related transcription factor that has been implicated in circadian regulation of the pineal gland. In the present study we have investigated the cellular expression pattern of Egr-1 in the adult rat pineal...
  46. Rath M, Bailey M, Kim J, Ho A, Gaildrat P, Coon S, et al. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling. Endocrinology. 2009;150:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat...
  47. Majewski P, Adamska I, Pawlak J, Baranska A, Skwarło Sońta K. Seasonality of pineal gland activity and immune functions in chickens. J Pineal Res. 2005;39:66-72 pubmed
    ..These two aspects of the immune response were correlated with the diurnal rhythm of pineal gland function, measured by the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT), a key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis...
  48. Inoue T, Terada K, Furukawa A, Koike C, Tamaki Y, Araie M, et al. Cloning and characterization of mr-s, a novel SAM domain protein, predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:15 pubmed
    ..of a novel SAM domain-containing protein, which is predominantly expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland and is designated mouse mr-s (major retinal SAM domain protein)...
  49. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford D. Role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of pineal parenchymal tumors. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:44-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and safe alternative to the surgical resection of pineocytomas as well as part of multimodal therapy for more aggressive pineal parenchymal tumors...
  50. Rath M, Muñoz E, Ganguly S, Morin F, Shi Q, Klein D, et al. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2006;97:556-66 pubmed
    ..this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages...
  51. Carrera M, Ramírez Expósito M, Valenzuela M, Dueñas B, Garcia M, Mayas M, et al. Renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in the pineal gland of rats with breast cancer induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea. Cancer Invest. 2006;24:149-53 pubmed
    ..These peptides are formed via the activity of several aminopeptidases. Our aim is to know their role in the regulation of pineal RAS and breast cancer...
  52. Schomerus C, Korf H. Mechanisms regulating melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal organ. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1057:372-83 pubmed
    ..This diversity has emerged in the course of evolution and reflects the high adaptive plasticity of the melatonin-generating pineal organ...
  53. Al Hussaini M, Sultan I, Abuirmileh N, Jaradat I, Qaddoumi I. Pineal gland tumors: experience from the SEER database. J Neurooncol. 2009;94:351-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Pineal gland tumors are rare and account for less than 1% of all primary brain tumor diagnoses. They are more commonly seen in pediatric patients than in adults...
  54. Regodon S, Roncero V. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation). Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:1093-103 pubmed publisher
    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques...
  55. Mukda S, Chetsawang B, Govitrapong P, Schmidt P, Hay Schmidt A, Møller M. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:2743-51 pubmed
    ..tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present ..
  56. Mahlberg R, Walther S, Kalus P, Bohner G, Haedel S, Reischies F, et al. Pineal calcification in Alzheimer's disease: an in vivo study using computed tomography. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29:203-9 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the relative reduction in melatonin production capability in the individual, as indicated by DOC, refers to the circadian properties of melatonin...
  57. Nagy A, Csernus V. Cry1 expression in the chicken pineal gland: effects of changes in the light/dark conditions. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;152:144-7 pubmed
    ..It was shown earlier, that Cry1 mRNA content of the avian pineal gland was increased after a 4h exposure to light during subjective night; however, a 30min exposure was ineffective...
  58. Maronde E, Stehle J. The mammalian pineal gland: known facts, unknown facets. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2007;18:142-9 pubmed
    In the mammalian pineal gland, information on environmental lighting conditions that is neuronally encoded by the retina is converted into nocturnally elevated synthesis of the hormone melatonin...
  59. Shimizu F, Fukada Y. Circadian phosphorylation of ATF-2, a potential activator of Period2 gene transcription in the chick pineal gland. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1834-42 pubmed
    ..and activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) bind to the promoter region of the Period2 gene in the chick pineal gland. In transient transfection assays, a reporter construct containing 0...
  60. Pierce L, Noche R, Ponomareva O, Chang C, Liang J. Novel functions for Period 3 and Exo-rhodopsin in rhythmic transcription and melatonin biosynthesis within the zebrafish pineal organ. Brain Res. 2008;1223:11-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies novel roles for Exorh and Per3, and gives insight into potential interactions between the sensory and circadian systems within the pineal...
  61. Chowdhury I, Sengupta A, Maitra S. Melatonin: fifty years of scientific journey from the discovery in bovine pineal gland to delineation of functions in human. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2008;45:289-304 pubmed
    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was first purified and characterized from the bovine pineal gland extract by Aron Lerner and co-workers in 1958...
  62. Ziv L, Gothilf Y. Circadian time-keeping during early stages of development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4146-51 pubmed
    The zebrafish pineal gland is a photoreceptive organ containing an intrinsic central circadian oscillator, which drives daily rhythms of gene expression and the melatonin hormonal signal...
  63. Torii M, Kojima D, Okano T, Nakamura A, Terakita A, Shichida Y, et al. Two isoforms of chicken melanopsins show blue light sensitivity. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5327-31 pubmed
    ..Here we found the expression of two kinds of melanopsin genes in the chicken pineal gland and identified the presence of five isoforms derived from these two genes...
  64. Konturek S, Konturek P, Brzozowski T, Bubenik G. Role of melatonin in upper gastrointestinal tract. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58 Suppl 6:23-52 pubmed
    ..Melatonin in GIT was shown to be generated in about 500 times larger amounts than it is produced in pineal gland. The production of melatonin by pineal gland shows circadian rhythm with high night-time peak, especially at ..
  65. De Girolami U, Fevre Montange M, Seilhean D, Jouvet A. Pathology of tumors of the pineal region. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008;164:882-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our experience over the past 30 years, a working classification is proposed and recent advances in the neuropathology of these lesions are discussed...
  66. Afeche S, Barbosa R, Scialfa J, Terra I, Cassola A, Cipolla Neto J. Effects of the blockade of high voltage-activated calcium channels on in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis. Cell Biochem Funct. 2006;24:499-505 pubmed
    The presence of high voltage-activated calcium channels in the rat pineal gland is well known. However, their role in pineal metabolism is not completely understood and is even controversial...
  67. Alon S, Eisenberg E, Jacob Hirsch J, Rechavi G, Vatine G, Toyama R, et al. A new cis-acting regulatory element driving gene expression in the zebrafish pineal gland. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:559-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Ab initio motif detection algorithms have been extensively used in search of regulatory elements. Yet, their success in providing experimentally validated regulatory elements in vertebrates has been limited...
  68. Couto Moraes R, Palermo Neto J, Markus R. The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1153:193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway...
  69. Peres M. Melatonin, the pineal gland and their implications for headache disorders. Cephalalgia. 2005;25:403-11 pubmed
    ..Melatonin plays an important role in headache disorders, offering new avenues for studying their pathophysiology and treatment...