parathyroid glands

Summary

Summary: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.

Top Publications

  1. Cunningham J, Locatelli F, Rodriguez M. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: pathogenesis, disease progression, and therapeutic options. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Future strategies may focus on the stimulation of apoptotic activity of hyperplastic parathyroid cells...
  2. Canalejo R, Canalejo A, Martinez Moreno J, Rodriguez Ortiz M, Estepa J, Mendoza F, et al. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats...
  3. Lu M, Bränström R, Berglund E, Höög A, Björklund P, Westin G, et al. Expression and association of TRPC subtypes with Orai1 and STIM1 in human parathyroid. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;44:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a ternary complex of TRPC1-Orai1-STIM1, supporting a physical interaction between these molecules in human parathyroid...
  4. Sheahan P, Mehanna R, Basheeth N, Murphy M. Is systematic identification of all four parathyroid glands necessary during total thyroidectomy?: a prospective study. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:2324-8 pubmed publisher
    Routine identification of all four parathyroid glands has been advocated as a means of reducing rates of postoperative hypocalcemia and inadvertent parathyroidectomy...
  5. Schneider R, Waldmann J, Ramaswamy A, Fernández E, Bartsch D, Schlosser K. Frequency of ectopic and supernumerary intrathymic parathyroid glands in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism: analysis of 461 patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy with bilateral cervical thymectomy. World J Surg. 2011;35:1260-5 pubmed publisher
    The frequency of intrathymic parathyroid glands (IPGs) in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) varies considerably between 14.8% and 45.3%...
  6. Galitzer H, Ben Dov I, Silver J, Naveh Many T. Parathyroid cell resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2010;77:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured possible factors that might contribute to the resistance of parathyroid glands to FGF23 in rats with the dietary adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease...
  7. Anastasiou O, Yavropoulou M, Papavramidis T, Tzouvara C, Triantafyllopoulou K, Papavramidis S, et al. Secretory capacity of the parathyroid glands after total thyroidectomy in normocalcemic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..transient or permanent, represents a common complication after total thyroidectomy, but data on the secretory capacity of the parathyroid glands in thyroidectomized patients without clinical or biochemical hypocalcemia are limited.
  8. Fancy T, Gallagher D, Hornig J. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2010;43:221-7, vii pubmed publisher
    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands.
  9. Qasaimeh G, Al Nemri S, Al Omari A. Incidental extirpation of the parathyroid glands at thyroid surgery: risk factors and post-operative hypocalcemia. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;268:1047-51 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of incidental extirpation of the parathyroid glands during thyroid operations, and to investigate possible risk factors and post-thyroidectomy complications using a descriptive ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Moffett J, Suliburk J. Parathyroid autotransplantation. Endocr Pract. 2011;17 Suppl 1:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize the indications and techniques for parathyroid autotransplantation and to explore other aspects of the field that warrant further research and discussion...
  2. Landry C, Grubbs E, Morris G, Turner N, Holsinger F, Lee J, et al. Robot assisted transaxillary surgery (RATS) for the removal of thyroid and parathyroid glands. Surgery. 2011;149:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..assisted transaxillary surgery (RATS) is a minimally invasive approach for the removal of the thyroid and/or parathyroid glands through the axilla...
  3. Caliseo C, Santos S, Nascimento C, Arap S, Brandão L, Montenegro F. [Functional results of parathyroid autotransplantation in one single pocket for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Col Bras Cir. 2011;38:85-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the operation and surgical time of autotransplanted parathyroid in a single site comparing it to the implant performed in five and twenty locations...
  4. Silver J, Naveh Many T. FGF23 and the parathyroid glands. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:2241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Klotho-FGFR1c is also expressed in the parathyroid glands. FGF23 acts on the receptor complex in the parathyroid glands to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene ..
  5. Barreira C, Cernea C, Brandão L, Custódio M, Caldini E, de Menezes Montenegro F. Effects of time on ultrastructural integrity of parathyroid tissue before cryopreservation. World J Surg. 2011;35:2440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluates the time that the human hyperplastic parathyroid gland tissue can wait before cryopreservation, based on parathyroid cell ultrastructural integrity...
  6. Yamamoto M, Ogata H, Mizobuchi M, Yoshida N, Kumata Maeta C, Koiwa F, et al. Number of enlarged parathyroid glands might be a predictor of cinacalcet response in advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012;16:292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated clinical factors influencing therapeutic response to cinacalcet for SHPT refractory to active vitamin D sterols...
  7. Ritter C, Haughey B, Armbrecht H, Brown A. Distribution and regulation of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1?-hydroxylase in human parathyroid glands. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;130:73-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid glands express the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 1?-hydroxylase (1?OHase)...
  8. Ismail M, Maza S, Swierzy M, Tsilimparis N, Rogalla P, Sandrock D, et al. Resection of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands with the da Vinci robotic system. Br J Surg. 2010;97:337-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thoracoscopic access is associated with reduced morbidity in mediastinal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of robot-assisted dissection for mediastinal ectopic parathyroid glands.
  9. Lappas D, Noussios G, Anagnostis P, Adamidou F, Chatzigeorgiou A, Skandalakis P. Location, number and morphology of parathyroid glands: results from a large anatomical series. Anat Sci Int. 2012;87:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, 3,796 parathyroid glands were resected and histologically verified. Parathyroid glands varied in number...
  10. Borot S, Lapierre V, Carnaille B, Goudet P, Penfornis A. Results of cryopreserved parathyroid autografts: a retrospective multicenter study. Surgery. 2010;147:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, French tissue banks are facing an accumulation of ungrafted samples. The aim of our work was to evaluate the implantation rate of cryopreserved parathyroid samples and the functionality of CPAT in a multicenter study...
  11. Komaba H, Fukagawa M. FGF23-parathyroid interaction: implications in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2010;77:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..resistance to FGF23 may be caused by decreased expression of Klotho-FGFR1 complex in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. This review summarizes recent insights into the role of FGF23 in mineral homeostasis and discusses the ..
  12. Paras C, Keller M, White L, Phay J, Mahadevan Jansen A. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:067012 pubmed publisher
    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies...
  13. Giusti L, Cetani F, Ciregia F, Da Valle Y, Donadio E, Giannaccini G, et al. A proteomic approach to study parathyroid glands. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional role of these proteins in the network of intracellular pathways is discussed...
  14. Lu M, Berglund E, Larsson C, Höög A, Farnebo L, Bränström R. Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibit hormone secretion in human parathyroid adenoma. J Endocrinol. 2011;208:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that calmodulin negatively contributes to the regulation of PTH secretion in parathyroid adenoma, at least partially via a CaMKII pathway...
  15. Komaba H, Nakanishi S, Fujimori A, Tanaka M, Shin J, Shibuya K, et al. Cinacalcet effectively reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and gland volume regardless of pretreatment gland size in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:2305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume...
  16. Tominaga Y, Matsuoka S, Uno N, Tsuzuki T, Hiramitsu T, Goto N, et al. Removal of autografted parathyroid tissue for recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients. World J Surg. 2010;34:1312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a serious problem after parathyroidectomy (PTx). We evaluated the frequency of graft-dependent recurrent HPT and the clinical outcomes after removal of the autograft...
  17. Vidal A, Sun Y, Bhattacharya S, Ahokas R, Gerling I, Weber K. Calcium paradox of aldosteronism and the role of the parathyroid glands. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H286-94 pubmed
    ..SHPT plays a permissive role in the proinflammatory vascular phenotype. ..
  18. Ramasamy I. Recent advances in physiological calcium homeostasis. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:237-73 pubmed
    ..The former are mainly the kidneys, skeleton, intestine and the parathyroid glands. The latter comprise, amongst others, the parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and calcitonin...
  19. Miller F. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2003;36:1-7, vii pubmed
    ..These critical structures include the recurrent laryngeal nerves, the superior laryngeal nerves, and the parathyroid glands. Successful thyroid surgery depends on the technical skill of the surgeon to identify and preserve these ..
  20. Giusti L, Costa B, Viacava P, Castagna M, Iacconi P, Ricci R, et al. Peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor in human parathyroid glands: up-regulation in adenoma. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27:826-31 pubmed
    In this study we report the presence of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) in human parathyroid glands and describe the effect of their benzodiazepine type ligands on parathyroid cell function...
  21. Okada Y, Imendra K, Miyazaki T, Hotokezaka H, Fujiyama R, Zeredo J, et al. Biophysical properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels in frog parathyroid cells and their modulation by cannabinoids. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:4747-56 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the Na+ currents in frog parathyroid cells can be modulated by cannabinoids via a G protein-dependent mechanism. ..
  22. Lu M, Forsberg L, Höög A, Juhlin C, Vukojevic V, Larsson C, et al. Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..1micromol/l). SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) appears to be a tumour-specific protein(s) in parathyroid tissues since its expression was restricted to pathological tissues. ..
  23. Mizobuchi M, Ogata H, Hatamura I, Saji F, Koiwa F, Kinugasa E, et al. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor accelerates apoptosis in hyperplastic parathyroid cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:11-6 pubmed
    ..Hyperplastic parathyroid glands were obtained from uremic rats (subtotal nephrectomy and high-phosphorus diet), and incubated in the media ..
  24. Silverberg S, Bilezikian J. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2:494-503 pubmed
  25. de Menezes Montenegro F, Custódio M, Arap S, Reis L, Sonohara S, Castro I, et al. Successful implant of long-term cryopreserved parathyroid glands after total parathyroidectomy. Head Neck. 2007;29:296-300 pubmed
    ..Patient 2 was a 44-year-old woman. After 30 months, her PTH was undetectable, and she underwent cryopreserved tissue implantation. These cases show that parathyroid tissue may remain viable even after long-term storage. ..
  26. Timm S, Otto C, Begrich D, Illert B, Hamelmann W, Ulrichs K, et al. Short-term immunosuppression after rat parathyroid allotransplantation. Microsurgery. 2003;23:503-7 pubmed
    ..Whether the combination of an additional graft pretreatment and immunosuppression has an impact on graft function will be further examined...
  27. Bhansali A, Masoodi S, Bhadada S, Mittal B, Behra A, Singh P. Ultrasonography in detection of single and multiple abnormal parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with radionuclide scintigraphy and surgery. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:340-5 pubmed
    ..Among the parathyroid imaging techniques, ultrasonography (USG) has the advantage of convenience, easy availability and low cost...
  28. Kawata T, Imanishi Y, Kobayashi K, Onoda N, Okuno S, Takemoto Y, et al. Direct in vitro evidence of the suppressive effect of cinacalcet HCl on parathyroid hormone secretion in human parathyroid cells with pathologically reduced calcium-sensing receptor levels. J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24:300-6 pubmed
    ..Data from this in vitro analysis support the clinical application of cinacalcet in PHPT and SHPT therapy. ..
  29. Canalejo A, Canalejo R, Rodriguez M, Martinez Moreno J, Felsenfeld A, Rodriguez M, et al. Development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia without uremia: role of dietary calcium and phosphate. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:1087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods. We evaluated the functional response of the parathyroid glands in normal rats to different physiological demands an HPD 0.6% Ca, 1.2% P) and LCD 0.2% Ca, 0...
  30. Uludag M, Isgor A, Yetkin G, Atay M, Kebudi A, Akgun I. Supernumerary ectopic parathyroid glands. Persistent hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized by preoperative single photon emission computed tomography and intraoperative gamma probe application. Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:144-9 pubmed
    Ectopic and/or supernumerary parathyroid glands are a major cause of persistent and recurrent Hyperparathyroidism (HPT)...
  31. Henley C, Davis J, Miller G, Shatzen E, Cattley R, Li X, et al. The calcimimetic AMG 641 abrogates parathyroid hyperplasia, bone and vascular calcification abnormalities in uremic rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;616:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that calcimimetics can reduce the development of vascular calcification, parathyroid hyperplasia and bone abnormalities associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism...
  32. Haber R, Kim C, Inabnet W. Ultrasonography for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with (99m)technetium sestamibi scintigraphy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;57:241-9 pubmed
    To determine the utility of ultrasonography for the preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism, and to compare this method with (99m)technetium sestamibi scintigraphy.
  33. Abboud B, Sleilaty G, Braidy C, Ghorra C, Abadjian G, Tohme C, et al. Enlarged parathyroid glands discovered in normocalcemic patients during thyroid surgery. Am J Surg. 2008;195:30-3 pubmed
    This is a retrospective study analyzing data of normocalcemic patients with enlarged parathyroid glands discovered during thyroid surgery and comparing it with data of patients operated on for proved primary hyperparathyroidism.
  34. Huan J, Olgaard K, Nielsen L, Lewin E. Parathyroid hormone 7-84 induces hypocalcemia and inhibits the parathyroid hormone 1-84 secretory response to hypocalcemia in rats with intact parathyroid glands. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:1923-30 pubmed
    ..calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), PTH type 1 receptor (PTHR1), and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) genes in rat parathyroid glands. PTH 7-84 induced a significant decrease in plasma Ca2+ in rats with intact parathyroid glands...
  35. D Amour P, Brossard J, Rousseau L, Nguyen Yamamoto L, Nassif E, Lazure C, et al. Structure of non-(1-84) PTH fragments secreted by parathyroid glands in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int. 2005;68:998-1007 pubmed
    ..We wanted to determine the N structure of non-(1-84) PTH fragments...
  36. Cozzolino M, Brancaccio D, Gallieni M, Galassi A, Slatopolsky E, Dusso A. Pathogenesis of parathyroid hyperplasia in renal failure. J Nephrol. 2005;18:5-8 pubmed
    ..In this review, we analyze the current understanding concerning the new insights into the molecular mechanisms of parathyroid hyperplasia and PTH secretion in renal failure regulated by calcium, phosphate and vitamin D...
  37. Smith J, Oates M. Radionuclide imaging of the parathyroid glands: patterns, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2004;24:1101-15 pubmed
    ..scintigraphy requires an understanding of (a) the embryologic, anatomic, and physiologic features of the parathyroid glands and (b) the properties of the two common imaging agents, technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin...
  38. Meola M, Petrucci I, Barsotti G. Long-term treatment with cinacalcet and conventional therapy reduces parathyroid hyperplasia in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24:982-9 pubmed publisher
    The effect of cinacalcet on the structural pattern of hyperplastic parathyroid glands was evaluated, using high-resolution colour Doppler (CD) sonography, in haemodialysis patients with severe, inadequately controlled, secondary ..
  39. Kaczmarek E, Lacka K, Majewski P, Trzeciak P, Gorna A, Jarmolowska Jurczyszyn D, et al. Selected markers of proliferation and apoptosis in the parathyroid lesions: a spatial visualization and quantification. J Mol Histol. 2008;39:509-17 pubmed publisher
  40. Ben Dov I, Galitzer H, Lavi Moshayoff V, Goetz R, Kuro O M, Mohammadi M, et al. The parathyroid is a target organ for FGF23 in rats. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:4003-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that FGF23 acts directly on the parathyroid through the MAPK pathway to decrease serum PTH. This bone-parathyroid endocrine axis adds a new dimension to the understanding of mineral homeostasis...
  41. Rodriguez M, Almaden Y, Cañadillas S, Canalejo A, Siendones E, Lopez I, et al. The calcimimetic R-568 increases vitamin D receptor expression in rat parathyroid glands. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F1390-5 pubmed
    ..In vitro studies of the effect of R-568 on VDR mRNA and protein were conducted in cultures of whole rat parathyroid glands and human hyperplastic parathyroid glands...
  42. Cabané P, Gac P, Amat J, Pineda P, Rossi R, Caviedes R, et al. Allotransplant of microencapsulated parathyroid tissue in severe postsurgical hypoparathyroidism: a case report. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:3879-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we show functionality of the graft for at least 20 months without requirement of endovenous calcium. We report this procedure as a therapeutical alternative in severe hypoparathyroidism...
  43. Chou F, Huang S, Chen S, Wang P, Huang P, Lu K. Treatment of osteoporosis with TheraCyte-encapsulated parathyroid cells: a study in a rat model. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17:936-41 pubmed
  44. Colloton M, Shatzen E, Miller G, Stehman Breen C, Wada M, Lacey D, et al. Cinacalcet HCl attenuates parathyroid hyperplasia in a rat model of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int. 2005;67:467-76 pubmed
    ..The present study explores the effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl on parathyroid hyperplasia, apoptosis, and PTH secretion in a rat model of secondary HPT...
  45. Khati N, Adamson T, Johnson K, Hill M. Ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Ultrasound Q. 2003;19:162-76 pubmed
    ..In patients in whom the studies do not agree or in whom they do not detect the adenoma, further evaluation with CT or more preferably MRI is indicated...
  46. Simonds W, Robbins C, Agarwal S, Hendy G, Carpten J, Marx S. Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism is rarely caused by germline mutation in HRPT2, the gene for the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:96-102 pubmed
    ..Even accounting for families with one of the three occult syndromes and false negative biochemical or DNA testing, these results indicate that an unexpectedly large fraction of FIHP has currently unrecognized causes...
  47. Kronenberg H. GCMB--another serendipitous gift from evolution to clinical investigators. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:6-7 pubmed
  48. Thomusch O, Machens A, Sekulla C, Ukkat J, Brauckhoff M, Dralle H. The impact of surgical technique on postoperative hypoparathyroidism in bilateral thyroid surgery: a multivariate analysis of 5846 consecutive patients. Surgery. 2003;133:180-5 pubmed
    ..Limited information exists about risk factors for postoperative hypoparathyroidism after bilateral thyroid surgery...
  49. Komaba H, Goto S, Fujii H, Hamada Y, Kobayashi A, Shibuya K, et al. Depressed expression of Klotho and FGF receptor 1 in hyperplastic parathyroid glands from uremic patients. Kidney Int. 2010;77:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parathyroid glands express both FGFR1 and Klotho, and FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone gene expression and hormone secretion ..
  50. Prommegger R, Wimmer G, Profanter C, Sauper T, Sieb M, Kovacs P, et al. Virtual neck exploration: a new method for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands. Ann Surg. 2009;250:761-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CT-MIBI-SPECT image fusion is superior to MIBI-SPECT and CT in detecting abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  51. Gensure R, Juppner H. Parathyroid hormone without parathyroid glands. Endocrinology. 2005;146:544-6 pubmed
  52. Palestro C, Tomas M, Tronco G. Radionuclide imaging of the parathyroid glands. Semin Nucl Med. 2005;35:266-76 pubmed
    The parathyroid glands, which usually are situated behind the thyroid gland, secrete parathyroid hormone, or PTH, which helps maintain calcium homeostasis. Primary hyperparathyroidism results from excess parathyroid hormone secretion...
  53. Basile C, Lomonte C, Vernaglione L, Casucci F, Chimienti D, Bruno A, et al. A high body mass index and female gender are associated with an increased risk of nodular hyperplasia of parathyroid glands in chronic uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:968-74 pubmed
    ..The present prospective study was designed in order to test the hypothesis that a higher body mass index (BMI) may predispose to a larger body burden of phosphate (P), influencing by that way the severity of sHPTH...
  54. Lomonte C, Vernaglione L, Chimienti D, Bruno A, Cocola S, Teutonico A, et al. Does vitamin D receptor and calcium receptor activation therapy play a role in the histopathologic alterations of parathyroid glands in refractory uremic hyperparathyroidism?. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:794-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was aimed to assess a possible association between histopathologic changes of parathyroid tissue and treatment modality...
  55. Alesina P, Moka D, Mahlstedt J, Walz M. Thoracoscopic removal of mediastinal hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands: personal experience and review of the literature. World J Surg. 2008;32:224-31 pubmed
    ..The presence of a mediastinal hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland is a rare condition that occurs in about 1% to 2% of cases. We present our experience with video-endoscopic parathyroidectomy and a review of the literature...
  56. Imura A, Tsuji Y, Murata M, Maeda R, Kubota K, Iwano A, et al. alpha-Klotho as a regulator of calcium homeostasis. Science. 2007;316:1615-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal fundamental roles of alpha-Kl in the regulation of calcium metabolism...
  57. Hubbard J, Sebag F, Maweja S, Henry J. Subtotal parathyroidectomy as an adequate treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Arch Surg. 2006;141:235-9 pubmed
    ..In view of our large experience in patients with secondary HPT for whom TP with autotransplantation did not simplify reoperations, SP remains our preferred treatment for patients with HPT and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...
  58. Phitayakorn R, McHenry C. Incidence and location of ectopic abnormal parathyroid glands. Am J Surg. 2006;191:418-23 pubmed
    Ectopic parathyroid glands are a cause for failed parathyroid exploration.
  59. Evenepoel P, Claes K, Kuypers D, Maes B, Bammens B, Vanrenterghem Y. Natural history of parathyroid function and calcium metabolism after kidney transplantation: a single-centre study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:1281-7 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the post-transplant natural history of parathyroid function and calcium metabolism in patients with a functional renal graft and to identify risk factors for persistent HPT...
  60. Taniguchi M, Tokumoto M, Matsuo D, Tsuruya K, Hirakata H, Iida M. Parathyroid growth and regression in experimental uremia. Kidney Int. 2006;69:464-70 pubmed
    ..In addition, VD(3) treatment could reverse PT hyperplasia and hypertrophy via restoration of these proteins...
  61. Liu Z, Yu S, Manley N. Gcm2 is required for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid precursor cells in the parathyroid/thymus primordia. Dev Biol. 2007;305:333-46 pubmed
    The parathyroid glands develop with the thymus from bilateral common primordia that develop from the 3rd pharyngeal pouch endoderm in mouse embryos at about E11, each of which separates into one parathyroid gland and one thymus lobe by ..
  62. DeLellis R, Mazzaglia P, Mangray S. Primary hyperparathyroidism: a current perspective. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, imaging studies and the development of the intraoperative assay for parathyroid hormone have transformed the diagnosis and management of patients with these disorders...
  63. Yokoyama K, Matsuba D, Adachi Akahane S, Takeyama H, Tabei I, Suzuki A, et al. Dihydropyridine- and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ entry in human parathyroid cells. Exp Physiol. 2009;94:847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This Ca(2+) entry system might provide a compensatory pathway for the negative feedback regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion, especially in hyperplastic conditions in which the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor is poorly expressed...
  64. Meir T, Levi R, Lieben L, Libutti S, Carmeliet G, Bouillon R, et al. Deletion of the vitamin D receptor specifically in the parathyroid demonstrates a limited role for the receptor in parathyroid physiology. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity of the parathyroid glands of the PT-VDR(-/-) mice to calcium was intact as measured by serum PTH levels after changes in serum calcium...
  65. Randone B, Costi R, Scatton O, Fulla Y, Bertagna X, Soubrane O, et al. Thoracoscopic removal of mediastinal parathyroid glands: a critical appraisal of an emerging technique. Ann Surg. 2010;251:717-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of thoracoscopic removal of mediastinal parathyroids...