zona reticularis


Summary: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.

Top Publications

  1. Wang W, Wang L, Endoh A, Hummelke G, Hawks C, Hornsby P. Identification of alpha-enolase as a nuclear DNA-binding protein in the zona fasciculata but not the zona reticularis of the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol. 2005;184:85-94 pubmed
    In order to establish whether there are differences in DNA-binding proteins between zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) cells of the human adrenal cortex, we prepared nuclear extracts from separated ZF and ZR cells...
  2. Staton B, Mixon R, Dharia S, Brissie R, Parker C. Is reduced cell size the mechanism for shrinkage of the adrenal zona reticularis in aging?. Endocr Res. 2004;30:529-34 pubmed
    ..analyses on adrenocortical morphology have revealed an age-associated reduction in the thickness of the zona reticularis (ZR), the cortical zone responsible for the majority of DHEA/DHEA sulfate production in the adult human, but ..
  3. Ghayee H, Rege J, Watumull L, Nwariaku F, Carrick K, Rainey W, et al. Clinical, biochemical, and molecular characterization of macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia of the zona reticularis: a new syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:E243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 29-yr-old man with massive macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia without hypercortisolemia but rather markedly elevated and nonsuppressible production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS)...
  4. Nguyen A, Mapes S, Corbin C, Conley A. Morphological adrenarche in rhesus macaques: development of the zona reticularis is concurrent with fetal zone regression in the early neonatal period. J Endocrinol. 2008;199:367-78 pubmed publisher
    Human adrenarche is associated with the establishment of a functional zona reticularis (ZR) and increasing secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in sulfated form (DS)...
  5. Wang W, Yang L, Suwa T, Casson P, Hornsby P. Differentially expressed genes in zona reticularis cells of the human adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;173:127-34 pubmed
    The zona reticularis (ZR) cell in the human adrenal cortex is responsible for the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone, but its biology, origin, and putative decrease in number during aging are poorly understood...
  6. McIlmoil S, Call G, Barney M, Strickland J, Judd A. Interleukin-6 inhibits adrenal androgen release from bovine adrenal zona reticularis cells by inhibiting the expression of steroidogenic proteins. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2015;53:108-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effects of IL-6 on adrenal androgen release were investigated. The zona reticularis (ZR) was generally isolated from bovine adrenal glands by dissection...
  7. Ziolkowska A, Belloni A, Nussdorfer G, Nowak M, Malendowicz L. Endocrine disruptors and rat adrenocortical function: studies on freshly dispersed and cultured cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1165-8 pubmed
  8. Sterzl I, Hill M, Starka L, Velikova M, Kanceva R, Jemelková J, et al. Patients with IgA nephropathy have altered levels of immunomodulatory C19 steroids. Glucocorticoid therapy with addition of adrenal androgens may be the choice. Physiol Res. 2017;66:S433-S442 pubmed
    ..and patients with other ADs exhibited lack of adrenal androgens due to attenuated activity of adrenal zona reticularis (ZR)...
  9. Davis K, Prentice N, Gay V, Murray S. Gap junction proteins and cell-cell communication in the three functional zones of the adrenal gland. J Endocrinol. 2002;173:13-21 pubmed
    ..communication was most pronounced in the inner glucocorticoid/androgen-producing regions (zona fasciculata/zona reticularis), but was virtually absent in the outer mainly mineralocorticoid-producing region (zona glomerulosa)...

More Information


  1. Uçar A, Öner N, Özek G, Çetinçakmak M, Abuhandan M, Yıldırım A, et al. Evaluation of the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and adrenal androgen secretion dynamics in a large cohort of patients aged 6-18 years with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, with an emphasis on the impact of cardiac iron load. Endocrine. 2016;53:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..is well established; however, the prevalence of adrenocortical hypofunction (ACH) in the zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex is unknown...
  2. Milosević V, Stevanović D, Nesić D, Sosić Jurjević B, Ajdzanović V, Starcević V, et al. Central effects of ghrelin on the adrenal cortex: a morphological and hormonal study. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2010;29:194-202 pubmed
    ..Clarifying of the ghrelin precise role in the multiple networks affecting the stress hormone release, besides its well known energy and metabolic unbalance effects, remains a very important research goal. ..
  3. Chang L, Wun W, Lin Y, Wang P. Effects of S-petasin on cyclic AMP production and enzyme activity of P450scc in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;489:29-37 pubmed
  4. Pope J, Benghuzzi H, England B, Cason Z. Morphometric analysis of the adrenal compartments exposed to sustained delivery of androgens. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2001;37:155-60 pubmed
    ..However, further investigations are needed, especially longer duration of treatment, to fully hypothesize the exact mechanisms of these hormones on the adrenal glands. ..
  5. Mitani F, Mukai K, Miyamoto H, Suematsu M, Ishimura Y. Development of functional zonation in the rat adrenal cortex. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3342-53 pubmed
    ..e. the zona glomerulosa (zG), the zona fasciculata (zF), and the zona reticularis (zR), as well as markers for the medulla, and further examined the distribution and behavior of DNA-..
  6. Naville D, Lebrethon M, Kermabon A, Rouer E, Benarous R, Saez J. Characterization and regulation of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (binding and mRNA) in human adrenal fasciculata-reticularis cells. FEBS Lett. 1993;321:184-8 pubmed
    ..In these cells A-II negatively regulated AT1 receptor mRNA, and this effect was also mediated through the AT1 receptor subtype. ..
  7. Vaňková M, Hill M, Velíková M, Včelák J, Vacínová G, Dvořáková K, et al. Preliminary evidence of altered steroidogenesis in women with Alzheimer's disease: Have the patients "OLDER" adrenal zona reticularis?. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;158:157-177 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggested relationships between AD status in women based on the age of subjects and levels of 10 steroids measured by GC-MS. ..
  8. Barszcz K, Przespolewska H, Olbrych K, Czopowicz M, Klećkowska Nawrot J, Goździewska Harłajczuk K, et al. The morphology of the adrenal gland in the European bison (Bison bonasus). BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:161 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous apoptotic cells were observed among regular cells in the zona reticularis. There were vacuoles in the cells of both zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, which formed a foamy ..
  9. Rege J, Rainey W. The steroid metabolome of adrenarche. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland...
  10. Actor J, Indrigo J, Beachdel C, Olsen M, Wells A, Hunter R, et al. Mycobacterial glycolipid cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate causes a decrease in serum cortisol during the granulomatous response. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2002;10:270-82 pubmed
    ..a high degree of vacuolization in the medullary region and activation of cells in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. The A/J mice were dysregulated with respect to cytokine responses thought to be necessary during granuloma ..
  11. Pignatelli D, Xiao F, Gouveia A, Ferreira J, Vinson G. Adrenarche in the rat. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:301-8 pubmed
    ..A relative increase in zona reticularis, and peaks of circulating cortisol, androstenedione, and 17-OH-progesterone were observed around postnatal ..
  12. Pelletier G, Luu The V, Li S, Labrie F. Localization of type 7 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in mouse tissues. In situ hybridization studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;93:49-57 pubmed
  13. Min L, Takemori H, Nonaka Y, Katoh Y, Doi J, Horike N, et al. Characterization of the adrenal-specific antigen IZA (inner zone antigen) and its role in the steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;215:143-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the available evidence suggests that IZA may have an important role in the functions of the adrenal zona fasciculata and reticularis. ..
  14. Szkodziak P, Czuczwar P, Woźniak S, Szkodziak F, Paszkowski T. Use of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device for menorrhagia treatment during adjuvant therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma with mitotane. Ginekol Pol. 2017;88:576-577 pubmed publisher
    ..This activity is selective, progressive and affects only the zona reticularis and fasciculata of the adrenal cortex...
  15. Tuma J, Kolinko Y, Jelinkova D, Hilber P, Cendelin J. Impaired spatial performance in cerebellar-deficient Lurcher mice is not associated with their abnormal stress response. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2017;140:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex as well as the adrenal medulla were larger in Lurcher mice, reflecting high stress ..
  16. Blinova S, Ten S, Islamov S. [Adrenal cortex response to prolonged administration of low doses of magnesium chlorate in rats]. Morfologiia. 2002;121:27-30 pubmed
    ..Magnesium chlorate treatment results in the disturbances of hormonal synthesis in adrenocorticocytes. Compensatory-adaptive capacities of zona fasciculata were found to be greater than those in zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis.
  17. Gleicher N, Kushnir V, Weghofer A, Barad D. The importance of adrenal hypoandrogenism in infertile women with low functional ovarian reserve: a case study of associated adrenal insufficiency. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2016;14:23 pubmed publisher
    ..DHEAS) is exclusively produced by adrenals and, therefore, reflects adrenal androgen production in the zona reticularis. We here determined in a case study of infertile women with LFOR the presence of adrenal hypoandrogenism, its ..
  18. Ogawa K, Harada K, Endo Y, Sagawa S, Inoue M. Heterogeneous levels of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes in rat adrenal glands. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:24-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed that the rank order for intensity of immunolabelling for complex IV was zona reticularis > zona fasciculata > adrenal medulla, whereas for complex V ? and ? subunits, it was zona fasciculata &..
  19. Casson P, Buster J, Callas P, Hornsby P. Human chorionic gonadotropin does not alter patterns of adrenal androgen secretion in primary human adrenal reticularis and fasciculata cell culture. Menopause. 2007;14:316-9 pubmed
    ..luteinizing hormone analog, would thus augment adrenal androgen secretion from primary human adrenocortical zona reticularis and zona fasciculata cell cultures...
  20. Nishimoto K, Tomlins S, Kuick R, Cani A, Giordano T, Hovelson D, et al. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E4591-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone...
  21. Mazzocchi G, Rebuffat P, Ziolkowska A, Rossi G, Malendowicz L, Nussdorfer G. G protein receptors 7 and 8 are expressed in human adrenocortical cells, and their endogenous ligands neuropeptides B and w enhance cortisol secretion by activating adenylate cyclase- and phospholipase C-dependent signaling cascades. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3466-71 pubmed
  22. Holien J, Parker M, Conley A, Corbin C, Rodgers R, Martin L. A Homodimer Model Can Resolve the Conundrum as to How Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase and Cytochrome b5 Compete for the Same Binding Site on Cytochrome P450c17. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18:515-521 pubmed publisher
    ..cortisol in the zona fascicula of the adrenal cortex, and the synthesis of androgen precursors in the adrenal zona reticularis and the gonads...
  23. Raha D, Nehar S, Paswan B, Rebuffat P, Neri G, Naskar R, et al. IGF-I enhances cortisol secretion from guinea-pig adrenal gland: in vivo and in vitro study. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:91-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IGF-I stimulates glucocorticoid secretion from guinea-pig adrenocortical cells, acting via selective receptors coupled to both the adenylate cyclase/PKA- and PLC/PKC-dependent signaling cascades. ..
  24. Quinn T, Ratnayake U, Dickinson H, Castillo Melendez M, Walker D. The feto-placental unit, and potential roles of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in prenatal and postnatal brain development: A re-examination using the spiny mouse. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;160:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-natally, increased immuno-expression of P450c17 and Cytb5 expression in the zona reticularis of the adrenal gland and a significant increase in the synthesis and secretion of DHEA in plasma from 8 to 20 ..
  25. Baquedano M, Perez Garrido N, Goñi J, Saraco N, Aliberti P, Berensztein E, et al. DNA methylation is not involved in specific down-regulation of HSD3B2, NR4A1 and RARB genes in androgen-secreting cells of human adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;441:46-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In all HAT, similar RARB mRNA was found including microdissected zona reticularis (ZR) and zona fasciculata, but HSD3B2 and NR4A1 mRNAs were lower in ZR (p < 0.05)...
  26. Baccaro R, Mendonça P, Torres T, Lotfi C. Immunohistochemical Jun/Fos protein localization and DNA synthesis in rat adrenal cortex after treatment with ACTH or FGF2. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;328:7-18 pubmed
    ..Induction of c-Jun and c-Fos in the zona fasciculata and of FosB in the zona reticularis suggests that, after ACTH stimulation, these proteins are the main AP-1 components in these zones...
  27. Almeida H, Matos L, Neves D. Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression in aging in adrenal zona reticularis after dexamethasone administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1119:190-5 pubmed
    ..In the zona reticularis, there was evidence of the activation of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 proteins...
  28. Paust H, Loeper S, Else T, Bamberger A, Papadopoulos G, Pankoke D, et al. Expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in the human adrenal cortex. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:6-10 pubmed
    ..In contrast, GR was strongly expressed in the adrenal cortex with the zona reticularis showing the most intense staining...
  29. Yamazaki T, Kawasaki H, Takamasa A, Yoshitomi T, Kominami S. Ca2+ signal stimulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenesis in bovine adrenal fasciculata-reticularis cells. Life Sci. 2006;78:2923-30 pubmed
    ..Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and protein kinase C can therefore be concluded not to be involved in StAR protein expression in bovine cells...
  30. Tokar S, Koval L, Iavors ka O, Luk ianets O. [Ultrastructural characteristics of lipid droplets in rat adrenocortical cells from zona fasciculata-reticularis]. Fiziol Zh. 2004;50:107-13 pubmed
    ..The lipid droplets" ability to form morphological contacts with smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nuclear and cellular membranes is also discussed...
  31. Hornsby P. Adrenarche: a cell biological perspective. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:113-9 pubmed publisher
    Adrenarche is a cell biological and endocrinological puzzle. The differentiation of the zona reticularis in childhood in humans requires special techniques for study because it is confined to humans and possibly a small number of other ..
  32. Lightly E, Walker S, Bird I, Williams B. Subclassification of beta-adrenoceptors responsible for steroidogenesis in primary cultures of bovine adrenocortical zona fasciculata/reticularis cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1990;99:709-12 pubmed
    ..4. We conclude that beta 1-adrenoceptors are responsible for mediating catecholamine-stimulated hydrocortisone secretion from primary cultures of bovine zona fasciculata/reticularis cells...
  33. Voutetakis A, Livadas S, Sertedaki A, Maniati Christidi M, Dacou Voutetakis C. Insufficient adrenarche in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by a PROP-1 gene defect. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001;14:1107-11 pubmed
    ..2) The PROP-1 gene is also expressed in the adrenal cortex and, when defective, the zona reticularis does not function appropriately. Regardless of the interpretation
  34. Pattison J, Abbott D, Saltzman W, Nguyen A, Henderson G, Jing H, et al. Male marmoset monkeys express an adrenal fetal zone at birth, but not a zona reticularis in adulthood. Endocrinology. 2005;146:365-74 pubmed
    ..Adult male humans and rhesus monkeys produce C19 steroids in abundance from the adrenal zona reticularis (ZR)...
  35. Mapes S, Tarantal A, Parker C, Moran F, Bahr J, Pyter L, et al. Adrenocortical cytochrome b5 expression during fetal development of the rhesus macaque. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1451-8 pubmed
    ..between these regions involved a narrow band of cells beneath the TZ that may represent the developing zona reticularis. Thus, the induction of b5 in the FZ and of P450c17 in the TZ of the fetal adrenal late in gestation ..
  36. Janossy A, Saez J, Li J. Carbachol induces homologous steroidogenic refractoriness of bovine fasciculata-reticularis cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;172:147-55 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis showed that carbachol pretreatment did not change the gene expression of P450scc, P450cl7, 3betaHSD and StAR mRNAs. These results suggest that carbachol induces homologous steroidogenic refractoriness of ZFR cells...
  37. Jiang Q, Voigt J, Colby H. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a guinea pig cytochrome P4502D (CYP2D16): high level expression in adrenal microsomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;209:1149-56 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CYP2D16 may account, at least in part, for the high rates of xenobiotic metabolism in the guinea pig adrenal...
  38. Chang L, Kau M, Wun W, Ho L, Wang P. Effects of fasting on corticosterone production by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in ovariectomized rats. J Investig Med. 2002;50:86-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate the function and mechanism of fasting on the production of corticosterone in vitro by zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells from ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
  39. Keklikoglu N. Comparison of c-Fos immunoreactivity in pancreatic beta cells and cells with neural crest, endoderm and mesoderm origin in rats. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27:445-8 pubmed
  40. Pattison J, Mapes S, Pryce C, Conley A, Bird I. Marmosets express a fetal zone at birth but no ZR in adulthood. Endocr Res. 2002;28:675 pubmed
  41. Wang S, Pu H, Kan S, Tseng C, Lo M, Wang P. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1123-30 pubmed
  42. Auchus R, Rainey W. Adrenarche - physiology, biochemistry and human disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004;60:288-96 pubmed
    ..refers to the onset of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S) production from the adrenal zona reticularis that can be detected at around 6 years of age...
  43. da Silva B, Lopes Costa P, Dos Santos A, Pires C, Borges C, Gontijo J. Evaluation of Ki-67 antigen expression in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex of female rats in persistent estrus. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:705-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to evaluate the proliferative activity in the zona reticularis cells of the adrenal cortex of female rats in persistent estrus, a model developed to mimic PCOS.
  44. Shimokawa I, Higami Y, Horiuchi S, Iwasaki M, Ikeda T. Advanced glycosylation end products in adrenal lipofuscin. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998;53:B49-51 pubmed
    ..were detected in cortical neurons, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and adrenal cells in the inner part of the zona reticularis. However, none of the antibodies visualized lipofuscin in these areas...
  45. Yuan B, Tchao R, Voigt J, Colby H. Maturational changes in CYP2D16 expression and xenobiotic metabolism in adrenal glands from male and female guinea pigs. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29:194-9 pubmed
    CYP2D16 is expressed at high levels in the zona reticularis (ZR) of guinea pig adrenal glands and contributes to adrenal metabolism of xenobiotics...
  46. Yu P, Chao H, Wang S, Wang P. Effects of evodiamine and rutaecarpine on the secretion of corticosterone by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in male rats. J Cell Biochem. 2009;108:469-75 pubmed publisher
  47. Rebuffat P, Aragona F, Tortorella C, Malendowicz L, Nussdorfer G. Signaling pathways involved in the A and B receptor-mediated cortisol secretagogue effect of endothelins in the human adrenal cortex. Int J Mol Med. 2001;7:301-5 pubmed
  48. Trut L, Prasolova L, Kharlamova A, Plyusnina I. Directional left-sided asymmetry of adrenals in experimentally domesticated animals. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002;133:506-9 pubmed
    ..In aggressive animals enlargement of the left adrenal cortex was associated with widening of the zona reticularis, while in domesticated animals with enlargement of the zona fasciculata.
  49. Chang L, Alfred Wun W, Wang P. Effects and mechanisms of nonylphenol on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Toxicol Sci. 2010;118:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NP acts directly on rat ZFR cells to stimulate corticosterone release and that the stimulation mechanism of NP mediates through post-cAMP corticosterone manufacture enzymes, i.e., P450scc and 11?-hydroxylase...
  50. Lindhe O, Granberg L, Brandt I. Target cells for cytochrome p450-catalysed irreversible binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in rodent adrenal glands. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76:460-6 pubmed
    ..Pronounced binding was observed in clusters of cells (focal binding), localized predominantly in zona reticularis of rat...
  51. Mendonça P, Lotfi C. The proliferative effect of synthetic N-POMC(1-28) peptides in rat adrenal cortex: a possible role for cyclin E. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, cyclin E appears to be involved in the N-POMC- and ACTH-stimulated proliferation in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex...
  52. Kushida Y, Kumagai S, Gotoh K, Fujii M, Touma M, Hosono M. T cells affect thymic involution during puberty by inducing regression of the adrenal reticularis. J Physiol Sci. 2012;62:173-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of the zona fasciculata, which produces GC, increased and plateaued by the weaning period; however, the zona reticularis (ZR), which produces dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that has anti-GC actions, started to decline just before ..
  53. Gesi M, Fornai F, Lenzi P, Natale G, Soldani P, Paparelli A. Time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex ultrastructure and corticosterone levels after noise exposure in male rats. Eur J Morphol. 2001;39:129-35 pubmed
    ..The significance of these changes, in relation to phenomena like sensitization to repetitive stress, are discussed. Furthermore, the present data suggest that chronic loud noise exposure might potentially lead to endocrine dysfunctions...
  54. Conley A, Stanczyk F, Morrison J, Borowicz P, Benirschke K, Gee N, et al. Modulation of higher-primate adrenal androgen secretion with estrogen-alone or estrogen-plus-progesterone intervention. Menopause. 2013;20:322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanisms for this shift in adrenal steroid production in middle-aged women are not known. This study aims to determine whether hormone therapy (HT) for 1 year can modulate adrenal androgen production...
  55. Mazzocchi G, Malendowicz L, Neri G, Andreis P, Ziolkowska A, Gottardo L, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and PACAP receptor expression and function in the rat adrenal gland. Int J Mol Med. 2002;9:233-43 pubmed
  56. Vänttinen T, Liu J, Kuulasmaa T, Kivinen P, Voutilainen R. Expression of activin/inhibin signaling components in the human adrenal gland and the effects of activins and inhibins on adrenocortical steroidogenesis and apoptosis. J Endocrinol. 2003;178:479-89 pubmed
    ..betaglycan were expressed throughout the adrenal cortex, whereas Smad4 expression was seen mainly in the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata as evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
  57. Auchus R. Overview of dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis. Semin Reprod Med. 2004;22:281-8 pubmed
    ..These characteristics are illustrated by the fetal adrenal cortex and the zona reticularis, which are dedicated to the synthesis of DHEA and DHEA-sulfate.
  58. Malendowicz L, Spinazzi R, Tortorella C, Nussdorfer G, Ziolkowska A, Rucinski M. Effects of leptin and leptin fragments on corticosterone secretion and growth of cultured rat adrenocortical cells. Int J Mol Med. 2004;14:873-7 pubmed
  59. Charalampopoulos I, Dermitzaki E, Vardouli L, Tsatsanis C, Stournaras C, Margioris A, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and allopregnanolone directly stimulate catecholamine production via induction of tyrosine hydroxylase and secretion by affecting actin polymerization. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3309-18 pubmed
    Adrenal cortical cells of zona reticularis produce the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), its sulfate ester dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and allopregnanolone (ALLO)...
  60. Kelly S, McKenna T, Young L. Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol. 2005;186:33-42 pubmed
    ..Orphan nuclear receptor-coregulatory protein interactions may have consequences for the regulation of key steroidogenic enzymes in the human adrenal cortex...
  61. Dharia S, Parker C. Adrenal androgens and aging. Semin Reprod Med. 2004;22:361-8 pubmed
    ..Production of DHEA and DHEAS has been localized to the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal cortex and can be modulated by intra-adrenal or extra-adrenal modulators...
  62. Ziolkowska A, Carraro G, Rebuffat P, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer G, Rucinski M, et al. Beacon[47-73] inhibits glucocorticoid secretion and growth of cultured rat and human adrenocortical cells. Int J Mol Med. 2004;14:457-61 pubmed
  63. Almeida H, Matos L, Ferreira J, Neves D. Age-related effects of dexamethasone administration in adrenal zona reticularis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1067:354-60 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that aged adrenocortical cells are less susceptible to the lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), possibly as a result of their decreased functional ability...
  64. Chang L, Wun A, Hung C, Hsia S, Chiang W, Wang P. Effects of crude adlay hull acetone extract on corticosterone release from rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2006;374:141-52 pubmed
    ..e. 3beta-HSD, 21-hydroxylase, 11beta-hydroxylase, and inhibition of StAR protein expression...
  65. Malendowicz L, Neri G, Markowska A, Hochol A, Nussdorfer G, Majchrzak M. Effects of leptin and leptin fragments on steroid secretion of freshly dispersed rat adrenocortical cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;87:265-8 pubmed
  66. Brochu M, LeHoux J, Picard S. Effects of gestation on enzymes controlling aldosterone synthesis in the rat adrenal. Endocrinology. 1997;138:2354-8 pubmed
    ..We clearly demonstrated that elevated plasma aldosterone levels during pregnancy are associated with augmented activity and messenger RNA levels of P450aldo in the zona glomerulosa...
  67. Dang W, Wang S, Tian S, Chen B, Sun F, Li W, et al. [Effects of infrasound on activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate in mice]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2007;25:91-5 pubmed
    ..To explore the biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation in mice...
  68. Kashirina N. The morphological and functional basis of the new conception about the suprarenal cortex regeneration. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39:951-4 pubmed
    ..This cell type gradually differentiates into the typical cortical cells of zona reticularis. Stem cortical cells were found in suprarenal cortex...
  69. Torres T, Lotfi C. Distribution of cells expressing Jun and Fos proteins and synthesizing DNA in the adrenal cortex of hypophysectomized rats: regulation by ACTH and FGF2. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:443-55 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of c-Jun/JunD and c-Fos/FosB, but not of JunB, in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis implied that, after ACTH stimulation, these proteins were the principal AP-1 components in these zones...
  70. Woods A, Judd A. Interleukin-4 increases cortisol release and decreases adrenal androgen release from bovine adrenal cells. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2008;34:372-82 pubmed
    ..IL-4 exposure had no affect on adrenal androgen release from bovine zona reticularis cells, but IL-4 inhibited the ACTH-stimulated release of adrenal androgens from these cells...
  71. Takeda Y, Miyamori I, Iki K, Yoneda T, Takeda R. Biosynthetic pathway of 19-noraldosterone in isolated rat glomerulosa cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;49:69-71 pubmed
    ..These three mineralocorticoids were not detected in FCs. The results demonstrate that 19-noraldo is synthesized in GCs and then undergoes further metabolism...
  72. Belanger B, Caron S, Boudou P, Fiet J, Belanger A. Adrenal steroidogenesis in the guinea pig: effects of androgens. Steroids. 1992;57:76-81 pubmed
    In humans, the onset of adrenache has been found to occur with the appearance of the zona reticularis, the inner zone of the adrenal cortex...
  73. Wolkersdörfer G, Lohmann T, Marx C, Schroder S, Pfeiffer R, Stahl H, et al. Lymphocytes stimulate dehydroepiandrosterone production through direct cellular contact with adrenal zona reticularis cells: a novel mechanism of immune-endocrine interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:4220-7 pubmed
    ..glands for the presence of T lymphocytes and contact between these cells and steroid-secreting cells of the zona reticularis. Indeed, T lymphocytes expressing CD4 and CD8 antigens were present within human adrenal zona reticularis by ..
  74. Tufan F, Uslu B, Cekrezi B, Uysal M, Alpay N, Turkmen K, et al. Assessment of adrenal functions in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was not evaluated extensively in patients with ADPKD. We aimed to evaluate this axis in these patients...
  75. Buzueva I, Filjushina E, Shmerling M, Markel A, Jakobson G. Structure of zona reticularis of adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;146:655-7 pubmed
    The structure of zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats was studied during the early, middle, and late periods of postnatal ontogeny...
  76. Nakamura Y, Hornsby P, Casson P, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Xing Y, et al. Type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) contributes to testosterone production in the adrenal reticularis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The human adrenal gland produces small amounts of testosterone that are increased under pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms through which the adrenal gland produces testosterone are poorly defined...
  77. Lezmi S, Bencsik A, Monks E, Petit T, Baron T. First case of feline spongiform encephalopathy in a captive cheetah born in France: PrP(sc) analysis in various tissues revealed unexpected targeting of kidney and adrenal gland. Histochem Cell Biol. 2003;119:415-22 pubmed
    ..The sympathetic innervation of these two organs was visualised and compared to the distribution of PrP(sc) deposits. Our results suggest the possibility that the infectious agent is spread by both haematogenous and nervous pathways...
  78. Chang L, Wun W, Wang P. Mechanisms of inhibition of dehydroepiandrosterone upon corticosterone release from rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:359-68 pubmed
  79. Chang L, Wun W, Ho L, Wang P. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on corticosterone release in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;368:487-95 pubmed
  80. Hershkovitz L, Beuschlein F, Klammer S, Krup M, Weinstein Y. Adrenal 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the mouse catabolizes progesterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone and is restricted to the X-zone. Endocrinology. 2007;148:976-88 pubmed
    ..However, 20alpha-HSD expression and enzymatic activity in all experimental paradigms is closely correlated with the presence of the X-zone. These findings provide the basis for 20alpha-HSD as a reliable marker of the murine X-zone...
  81. Mattos G, Lotfi C. Differences between the growth regulatory pathways in primary rat adrenal cells and mouse tumor cell line. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:31-42 pubmed
  82. Enríquez de Salamanca A, García R. Response of rat fasciculata-reticularis cells in primary culture to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:1077-86 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that LPS exerts a direct action on fasciculata-reticularis cells and a model of the mechanism of LPS action is proposed...