adrenal cortex

Summary

Summary: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.

Top Publications

  1. Aritomi S, Wagatsuma H, Numata T, Uriu Y, Nogi Y, Mitsui A, et al. Expression of N-type calcium channels in human adrenocortical cells and their contribution to corticosteroid synthesis. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:193-201 pubmed publisher
  2. Lambert Langlais S, Val P, Guyot S, Ragazzon B, Sahut Barnola I, De Haze A, et al. A transgenic mouse line with specific Cre recombinase expression in the adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;300:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve adrenal cortex specific recombination in vivo, we used a 0...
  3. Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S. Cross-talk between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex in stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..by the concomitant release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Therefore, the activity of these two embryologically different endocrine organs that are united under one ..
  4. Oliveira M, Monteiro M, Ribeiro A, Pignatelli D, Aguas A. Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex. Noise Health. 2009;11:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant ..
  5. Ching S, Vilain E. Targeted disruption of Sonic Hedgehog in the mouse adrenal leads to adrenocortical hypoplasia. Genesis. 2009;47:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Shh and its downstream effectors Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 are expressed in the adrenal cortex throughout development, and that Shh is required for normal adrenal organogenesis...
  6. Dunn J, Chu Y, Qin H, Zupekan T. Transplantation of adrenal cortical progenitor cells enriched by Nile red. J Surg Res. 2009;156:317-24 pubmed publisher
    The adrenal cortex may contain progenitor cells useful for tissue regeneration. Currently there are no established methods to isolate these cells.
  7. Hlavacova N, Bakos J, Jezova D. Eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts anxiolytic effects accompanied by changes in stress hormone release. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusions, chronic treatment with eplerenone (1) exerts anxiolytic effects and (2) influences corticosterone, oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations in a manner consistent with the anxiolytic outcome...
  8. King P, Paul A, Laufer E. Shh signaling regulates adrenocortical development and identifies progenitors of steroidogenic lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21185-90 pubmed publisher
    The adrenal cortex is a critical steroidogenic endocrine tissue, generated at least in part from the coelomic epithelium of the urogenital ridge...
  9. Enyeart J, Liu H, Enyeart J. cAMP analogs and their metabolites enhance TREK-1 mRNA and K+ current expression in adrenocortical cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise significant questions regarding the specificity of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP analogs as cAMP mimetics...
  10. Huang C, Miyagawa S, Matsumaru D, Parker K, Yao H. Progenitor cell expansion and organ size of mouse adrenal is regulated by sonic hedgehog. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only provide the genetic evidence to support that the adrenal capsule contributes to the growth of adrenocortex in both fetal and adult life but also identify a novel role of Shh in this process...

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Aritomi S, Wagatsuma H, Numata T, Uriu Y, Nogi Y, Mitsui A, et al. Expression of N-type calcium channels in human adrenocortical cells and their contribution to corticosteroid synthesis. Hypertens Res. 2011;34:193-201 pubmed publisher
  2. Lambert Langlais S, Val P, Guyot S, Ragazzon B, Sahut Barnola I, De Haze A, et al. A transgenic mouse line with specific Cre recombinase expression in the adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;300:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..To achieve adrenal cortex specific recombination in vivo, we used a 0...
  3. Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S. Cross-talk between adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex in stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1148:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..by the concomitant release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Therefore, the activity of these two embryologically different endocrine organs that are united under one ..
  4. Oliveira M, Monteiro M, Ribeiro A, Pignatelli D, Aguas A. Chronic exposure of rats to occupational textile noise causes cytological changes in adrenal cortex. Noise Health. 2009;11:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Noise exposure induced time-dependent changes in adrenal cortex, with decrease of zona fasciculata (ZF) and increase of zona reticularis volumes, together with a significant ..
  5. Ching S, Vilain E. Targeted disruption of Sonic Hedgehog in the mouse adrenal leads to adrenocortical hypoplasia. Genesis. 2009;47:628-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Shh and its downstream effectors Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3 are expressed in the adrenal cortex throughout development, and that Shh is required for normal adrenal organogenesis...
  6. Dunn J, Chu Y, Qin H, Zupekan T. Transplantation of adrenal cortical progenitor cells enriched by Nile red. J Surg Res. 2009;156:317-24 pubmed publisher
    The adrenal cortex may contain progenitor cells useful for tissue regeneration. Currently there are no established methods to isolate these cells.
  7. Hlavacova N, Bakos J, Jezova D. Eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, exerts anxiolytic effects accompanied by changes in stress hormone release. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusions, chronic treatment with eplerenone (1) exerts anxiolytic effects and (2) influences corticosterone, oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations in a manner consistent with the anxiolytic outcome...
  8. King P, Paul A, Laufer E. Shh signaling regulates adrenocortical development and identifies progenitors of steroidogenic lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21185-90 pubmed publisher
    The adrenal cortex is a critical steroidogenic endocrine tissue, generated at least in part from the coelomic epithelium of the urogenital ridge...
  9. Enyeart J, Liu H, Enyeart J. cAMP analogs and their metabolites enhance TREK-1 mRNA and K+ current expression in adrenocortical cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:469-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise significant questions regarding the specificity of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP analogs as cAMP mimetics...
  10. Huang C, Miyagawa S, Matsumaru D, Parker K, Yao H. Progenitor cell expansion and organ size of mouse adrenal is regulated by sonic hedgehog. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results not only provide the genetic evidence to support that the adrenal capsule contributes to the growth of adrenocortex in both fetal and adult life but also identify a novel role of Shh in this process...
  11. Looyenga B, Wiater E, Vale W, Hammer G. Inhibin-A antagonizes TGFbeta2 signaling by down-regulating cell surface expression of the TGFbeta coreceptor betaglycan. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:608-20 pubmed publisher
    ..that LH signaling specifically up-regulates expression of TGFbeta2 in the subcapsular region of the adrenal cortex, which coincides with regions of aberrant Smad3 activation in Inha-/- adrenal glands...
  12. Powers J, Mazilu J, Lin S, McCabe E. The effects of hyperglycemia on adrenal cortex function and steroidogenesis in the zebrafish. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;101:421-2 pubmed publisher
    ..By inducing hyperglycemia in a zebrafish animal model, we show a direct correlation between glucose and cortisol levels...
  13. Ishimoto H, Jaffe R. Development and function of the human fetal adrenal cortex: a key component in the feto-placental unit. Endocr Rev. 2011;32:317-55 pubmed publisher
    Continuous efforts have been devoted to unraveling the biophysiology and development of the human fetal adrenal cortex, which is structurally and functionally unique from other species...
  14. Guasti L, Paul A, Laufer E, King P. Localization of Sonic hedgehog secreting and receiving cells in the developing and adult rat adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336:117-22 pubmed publisher
    Sonic hedgehog signaling was recently demonstrated to play an important role in murine adrenal cortex development...
  15. Almeida M, Stratakis C. How does cAMP/protein kinase A signaling lead to tumors in the adrenal cortex and other tissues?. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336:162-8 pubmed publisher
    The overwhelming majority of benign lesions of the adrenal cortex leading to Cushing syndrome are linked to one or another abnormality of the cAMP signaling pathway...
  16. Xing Y, Cohen A, Rothblat G, Sankaranarayanan S, Weibel G, Royer L, et al. Aldosterone production in human adrenocortical cells is stimulated by high-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) through increased expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Endocrinology. 2011;152:751-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the two subfractions of HDL, HDL2 was more potent than HDL3 in stimulating aldosterone and CYP11B2. Further studies are needed to identify the active components of HDL, which regulate aldosterone production...
  17. Krill K, Gurdziel K, Heaton J, Simon D, Hammer G. Dicer deficiency reveals microRNAs predicted to control gene expression in the developing adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:754-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a conditional knockout model, we generated mice lacking Dicer in the adrenal cortex. These Dicer-knockout (KO) mice exhibited perinatal mortality and failure of the adrenal cortex during late ..
  18. Chang S, Mullins J, Morley S, West J. Transition from organogenesis to stem cell maintenance in the mouse adrenal cortex. Organogenesis. 2011;7:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..5 and P21, including the period during which stripes emerge. Ki67-positive, proliferative cells in the adrenal cortex were mainly localized to the outer cell layers between E18.5 and P3...
  19. Ota T, Fustin J, Yamada H, Doi M, Okamura H. Circadian clock signals in the adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:30-7 pubmed publisher
    Circadian secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex is required to maintain whole body homeostasis and to adequately respond to or anticipate environmental changes...
  20. Briassoulis G, Damjanovic S, Xekouki P, Lefebvre H, Stratakis C. The glucocorticoid receptor and its expression in the anterior pituitary and the adrenal cortex: a source of variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function; implications for pituitary and adrenal tumors. Endocr Pract. 2011;17:941-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in anterior pituitary and adrenocortical cells and tumors derived from these tissues as well as factors that may influence its expression...
  21. Zupekan T, Dunn J. Adrenocortical cell transplantation reverses a murine model of adrenal failure. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Although adrenal insufficiency can be managed with steroid replacement, transplantation of adrenocortical cells may represent a more definitive therapy...
  22. Suda N, Shibata H, Kurihara I, Ikeda Y, Kobayashi S, Yokota K, et al. Coactivation of SF-1-mediated transcription of steroidogenic enzymes by Ubc9 and PIAS1. Endocrinology. 2011;152:2266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors of activated STAT1 (PIAS1), in SF-1-mediated transcription of steroidogenic enzyme genes in the adrenal cortex. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that both Ubc9 and PIAS1 interacted with SF-1...
  23. Florea A, Craciun C. Abnormal mitochondrial cristae were experimentally generated by high doses of Apis mellifera venom in the rat adrenal cortex. Micron. 2011;42:434-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Apis mellifera venom (AmV) was tested for its ability to cause ultrastructural changes in mitochondria of rat adrenal cortex in vivo...
  24. Sahut Barnola I, De Joussineau C, Val P, Lambert Langlais S, Damon C, Lefrançois Martinez A, et al. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000980 pubmed publisher
    ..R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO). AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity...
  25. Liao W, Heo G, Dodder N, Pikuleva I, Turko I. Optimizing the conditions of a multiple reaction monitoring assay for membrane proteins: quantification of cytochrome P450 11A1 and adrenodoxin reductase in bovine adrenal cortex and retina. Anal Chem. 2010;82:5760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the CYP11A1 and AdR quantified in this work ranged from 110 pmol to 10 fmol per milligram of tissue protein...
  26. Clerc R, Stauffer A, Weibel F, Hainaut E, Perez A, Hoflack J, et al. Mechanisms underlying off-target effects of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib involve L-type calcium channels. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1676-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased mortality observed with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor torcetrapib is partly due to increased aldosterone production and blood pressure. The mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated...
  27. Boulkroun S, Samson Couterie B, Dzib J, Lefebvre H, Louiset E, Amar L, et al. Adrenal cortex remodeling and functional zona glomerulosa hyperplasia in primary aldosteronism. Hypertension. 2010;56:885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In peritumoral tissue, large remodeling of the adrenal cortex was observed with increased nodulation and decreased vascularization that were not correlated with CYP11B2 ..
  28. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Wirth M, Ehrhart Bornstein M, Bornstein S. Differential expression and action of Toll-like receptors in human adrenocortical cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;300:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Toll-like receptors expression and function is a novel feature of the adrenal stress system contributing to adrenal tissue homeostasis, regeneration and tumorigenesis...
  29. Tsai L, Beavo J. The roles of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) in steroidogenesis. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011;11:670-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to cAMP-dependent pathways, cGMP signaling also can promote steroidogenesis, and PDE5 modulates this process. Finally, PDE mutations may lead to several human diseases characterized by abnormal steroid levels...
  30. Boulkroun S, Samson Couterie B, Golib Dzib J, Amar L, Plouin P, Sibony M, et al. Aldosterone-producing adenoma formation in the adrenal cortex involves expression of stem/progenitor cell markers. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4753-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, Wnt/?-catenin signaling was activated in the majority of APA as well as in the entire peritumoral adrenal cortex; however, no mutation was identified in the CTNNB1 gene that could account for ?-catenin activation...
  31. Iannaccone S, Zhou Y, Walterhouse D, Taborn G, Landini G, Iannaccone P. Three dimensional visualization and fractal analysis of mosaic patches in rat chimeras: cell assortment in liver, adrenal cortex and cornea. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31609 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, understanding algorithmic growth is likely to be essential in achieving organ regeneration in vivo or in vitro from stem cell populations...
  32. Tortorella C, Guidolin D, Petrelli L, De Toni R, Milanesi O, Ruga E, et al. Prolonged zidovudine administration induces a moderate increase in the growth and steroidogenic capacity of the rat adrenal cortex. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:799-804 pubmed
    ..Hence, we studied in vivo and in vitro, the effects of AZT on the rat adrenal cortex. The prolonged AZT administration (100 mg/kg per day for 4 months) did not cause overt qualitative ..
  33. Shen W, Zaidi S, Patel S, Cortez Y, Ueno M, Azhar R, et al. Ablation of vimentin results in defective steroidogenesis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3249-57 pubmed publisher
  34. Kim A, Barlaskar F, Heaton J, Else T, Kelly V, Krill K, et al. In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells. Endocr Rev. 2009;30:241-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to other organ systems, it is widely believed that these rare cells of the adrenal cortex remain relatively undifferentiated and quiescent until needed to replenish the organ, at which time they ..
  35. Chu Y, Ho W, Dunn J. Basic fibroblast growth factor delivery enhances adrenal cortical cellular regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15:2093-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the increased number of cells that expressed adrenal cortical genes, the delivery of bFGF enhanced adrenal cortical cellular regeneration, possibly through an angiogenic response...
  36. Morohashi K, Zubair M. The fetal and adult adrenal cortex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;336:193-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our transgenic studies have identified the tissue-specific enhancers for the fetal adrenal cortex, ventromedial hypothalamus, and pituitary in Ad4BP/Sf-1 gene...
  37. Husebye E, Allolio B, Arlt W, Badenhoop K, Bensing S, Betterle C, et al. Consensus statement on the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency. J Intern Med. 2014;275:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases of PAI are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Consequently, patients with PAI are at higher risk of developing other autoimmune diseases...
  38. Fernandez Ranvier G, Weng J, Yeh R, Khanafshar E, Suh I, Barker C, et al. Identification of biomarkers of adrenocortical carcinoma using genomewide gene expression profiling. Arch Surg. 2008;143:841-6; discussion 846 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 37 genes that are dysregulated in adrenocortical carcinoma, and several of the differentially expressed genes have excellent diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. ..
  39. Sun B, Huang Q, Liu S, Chen M, Hawks C, Wang L, et al. Progressive loss of malignant behavior in telomerase-negative tumorigenic adrenocortical cells and restoration of tumorigenicity by human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6144-51 pubmed
  40. Zubair M, Parker K, Morohashi K. Developmental links between the fetal and adult zones of the adrenal cortex revealed by lineage tracing. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7030-40 pubmed publisher
    The nuclear receptor Ad4BP/SF-1 is essential for development of the adrenal cortex and the gonads, which derive from a common adrenogonadal primordium...
  41. Kim A, Reuter A, Zubair M, Else T, Serecky K, Bingham N, et al. Targeted disruption of beta-catenin in Sf1-expressing cells impairs development and maintenance of the adrenal cortex. Development. 2008;135:2593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of beta-catenin in the adrenal cortex, we used two Sf1/Cre transgenes to inactivate conditional beta-catenin alleles...
  42. Kelly S, McKenna T, Young L. Coregulatory protein-orphan nuclear receptor interactions in the human adrenal cortex. J Endocrinol. 2005;186:33-42 pubmed
    ..presence of secretagogues, SF-1 and nur77 may differentially interact with coregulatory proteins in the human adrenal cortex. Both coregulatory proteins, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC-1) and silencing mediator for retinoid and ..
  43. Slater E, Diehl S, Langer P, Samans B, Ramaswamy A, Zielke A, et al. Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154:587-98 pubmed
    ..The comparative analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene-expression patterns of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors allows us to identify new tumor-suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes underlying adrenocortical tumorigenesis...
  44. Lefrançois Martinez A, Bertherat J, Val P, Tournaire C, Gallo Payet N, Hyndman D, et al. Decreased expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated aldose reductase (AKR1B1) is associated with malignancy in human sporadic adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:3010-9 pubmed
    ..tumors and compared the results with the expression of steroidogenic genes (StAR and CYP11A) and regulators of adrenal cortex development [steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and dosage-sensitive sex reversal-adrenal hypoplasia congenita ..
  45. Belloni A, Malendowicz L, Rucinski M, Guidolin D, Nussdorfer G. Galanin stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through the activation of galanin receptor subtype 1 coupled to the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:859-64 pubmed
    ..chain reaction detected the expression of GAL-R1 (but not GAL-R2 and GAL-R3) in the inner zones of the human adrenal cortex. The galanin concentration dependently enhanced basal, but not ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol from ..
  46. Lu L, Suzuki T, Yoshikawa Y, Murakami O, Miki Y, Moriya T, et al. Nur-related factor 1 and nerve growth factor-induced clone B in human adrenal cortex and its disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4113-8 pubmed
    ..to development in the zona fasciculata, reaching a level similar to that in the zona glomerulosa in adult adrenal cortex. In adrenocortical neoplasms (n = 44), Nurr1 immunoreactivity was higher in aldosteronoma than in Cushing's ..
  47. Mitsushima D, Masuda J, Kimura F. Sex differences in the stress-induced release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and corticosterone from the adrenal cortex in rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;78:234-40 pubmed
    ..in stress-induced acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus and corticosterone (CS) release from the adrenal cortex, an in vivo microdialysis study was performed in intact male (n = 6) and cycling female (diestrus 1, n = 5; ..
  48. Beery E, Middel P, Bahn A, Willenberg H, Hagos Y, Koepsell H, et al. Molecular evidence of organic ion transporters in the rat adrenal cortex with adrenocorticotropin-regulated zonal expression. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4519-26 pubmed
    ..The zonated distribution of transporters furthermore suggest that oatp1-3 and OCT2 may be important for the endocrine function of rat adrenocortical cells...
  49. Vakharia K, Hinson J. Lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates cortisol secretion by human adrenal cells by a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1398-402 pubmed
  50. Lepique A, Moraes M, Rocha K, Eichler C, Hajj G, Schwindt T, et al. c-Myc protein is stabilized by fibroblast growth factor 2 and destabilized by ACTH to control cell cycle in mouse Y1 adrenocortical cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2004;33:623-38 pubmed
    ACTH is the hormone known to control adrenal cortex function and maintenance in the intact animal but, in culture, it inhibits proliferation of adrenocortical cells from different mammalian species, a puzzle that has remained unsolved for ..
  51. Dunn J, Chu Y, Lam M, Wu B, Atkinson J, McCabe E. Adrenal cortical cell transplantation. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1856-8 pubmed
    The adrenal cortex is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axis that coordinates the stress response and maintains homeostasis...
  52. Patak P, Willenberg H, Bornstein S. Vitamin C is an important cofactor for both adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla. Endocr Res. 2004;30:871-5 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, both the adrenal cortex and the medulla accumulate such high levels of ascorbate...
  53. Mohn C, Fernandez Solari J, De Laurentiis A, Prestifilippo J, de la Cal C, Funk R, et al. The rapid release of corticosterone from the adrenal induced by ACTH is mediated by nitric oxide acting by prostaglandin E2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:6213-8 pubmed
    The adrenal cortex is a major stress organ in mammals that reacts rapidly to a multitude of external and internal stressors...
  54. Rucinski M, Andreis P, Ziolkowska A, Nussdorfer G, Malendowicz L. Differential expression and function of beacon in the rat adrenal cortex and medulla. Int J Mol Med. 2005;16:35-40 pubmed
    ..has been recently provided that beacon is also expressed in the endocrine glands of normal rats, including adrenal cortex, of which it appears to regulate secretory activity...
  55. Moncek F, Aguilera G, Jezova D. Insufficient activation of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary hormones during stress in rats subjected to repeated immune challenge. J Neuroimmunol. 2003;142:86-92 pubmed
    ..These alterations may contribute to the development of cardiovascular complications during chronic inflammatory states...
  56. Bourdeau I, Lacroix A, Schürch W, Caron P, Antakly T, Stratakis C. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: paradoxical responses of cortisol secretion to dexamethasone occur in vitro and are associated with increased expression of the glucocorticoid receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3931-7 pubmed
  57. Winnay J, Hammer G. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-mediated signaling cascades coordinate a cyclic pattern of steroidogenic factor 1-dependent transcriptional activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:147-66 pubmed
    ..Within the adrenal cortex, ACTH-dependent transcriptional responses, including transcriptional activation of several key steroidogenic ..
  58. Gut P, Huber K, Lohr J, Brühl B, Oberle S, Treier M, et al. Lack of an adrenal cortex in Sf1 mutant mice is compatible with the generation and differentiation of chromaffin cells. Development. 2005;132:4611-9 pubmed
    ..Alternative cues from the adrenal cortex that may promote chromaffin cell determination and differentiation have not been identified...
  59. Zhao Y, Yang Z, Phelan J, Wheeler D, Lin S, McCabe E. Zebrafish dax1 is required for development of the interrenal organ, the adrenal cortex equivalent. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2630-40 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that dax1 is the mammalian DAX1 ortholog, functions downstream of ff1b in the regulatory cascades, and is required for normal development and function of the zebrafish interrenal organ...
  60. Gummow B, Scheys J, Cancelli V, Hammer G. Reciprocal regulation of a glucocorticoid receptor-steroidogenic factor-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2711-23 pubmed
    ..Glucocorticoid products of the adrenal cortex provide negative feedback to the production of hypothalamic CRH and pituitary ACTH...
  61. Looyenga B, Hammer G. Origin and identity of adrenocortical tumors in inhibin knockout mice: implications for cellular plasticity in the adrenal cortex. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2848-63 pubmed
    ..induced in wild-type adrenals after gonadectomy or upon chronic gonadotropin stimulation, suggesting that the adrenal cortex normally contains a population of pluripotent cells that can be driven toward an adrenal or gonadal identity ..
  62. Tanaka S, Kuwahara S, Nishijima K, Ohno T, Matsuzawa A. Genetic association of mutation at agouti locus with adrenal x zone morphology in BALB/c mice. Exp Anim. 2006;55:343-7 pubmed
    ..However, the zona reticularis seemed to have no association with this locus...
  63. Sugawara T, Sakuragi N, Minakami H. CREM confers cAMP responsiveness in human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in NCI-H295R cells rather than SF-1/Ad4BP. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:327-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that inhibition of the function of SF-1/Ad4BP does not reduce the cAMP induction of StAR promoter activity and protein level. CREM is needed to confer cAMP responsiveness in human StAR protein expression...
  64. Goncharova N, Oganyan T, Smelkova S. Effect of aging on stress reactivity of the adrenal cortex in laboratory primates. Dependence on the time of day. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;141:368-71 pubmed
    ..The reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system during immobilization at 15.00 was lower in old animals, while at 9.00 there were no age-specific differences or the reactivity was higher in old animals...
  65. Lichtenauer U, Duchniewicz M, Kolanczyk M, Hoeflich A, Hahner S, Else T, et al. Pre-B-cell transcription factor 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 synergistically regulate adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:693-704 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies provide evidence for a role of Pbx1 in the maintenance of a functional adrenal cortex mediated by synergistic actions of Pbx1 and Sf-1 in the transcriptional regulation of the critical effector of ..
  66. Pereira C, Mapuskar K, Vaman Rao C. A two-generation chronic mixture toxicity study of Clophen A60 and diethyl phthalate on histology of adrenal cortex and thyroid of rats. Acta Histochem. 2007;109:29-36 pubmed
    ..In the zona fasciculata region of the adrenal cortex of treated rats of both generations, vacuolations and degeneration were seen in samples from male animals and ..
  67. Grion N, Repetto E, Pomeraniec Y, Calejman C, Astort F, Sanchez R, et al. Induction of nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase activities by endotoxin in the rat adrenal cortex: involvement of both signaling systems in the modulation of ACTH-dependent steroid production. J Endocrinol. 2007;194:11-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that adrenal NOS and HO can be induced by a non-lethal dose of endotoxin supporting a modulatory role for these activities in the adrenal response to immune challenges...
  68. Rebuffat P, Macchi C, Malendowicz L, Nussdorfer G. Up-regulation of adrenomedullin gene expression in the regenerating rat adrenal cortex. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:551-5 pubmed
  69. Cooray S, Almiro Do Vale I, Leung K, Webb T, Chapple J, Egertová M, et al. The melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein exists as a homodimer and is essential for the function of the melanocortin 2 receptor in the mouse y1 cell line. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1935-41 pubmed
    ..1-kDa protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectroscopy suggests that MRAP exists as a homodimer that is resistant to dissociation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and reducing agents...
  70. Janes M, Chu K, Clark A, King P. Mechanisms of adrenocorticotropin-induced activation of extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the human H295R adrenal cell line. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1898-905 pubmed publisher
  71. Zolle I, Berger M, Hammerschmidt F, Hahner S, Schirbel A, Peric Simov B. New selective inhibitors of steroid 11beta-hydroxylation in the adrenal cortex. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of potent etomidate analogues. J Med Chem. 2008;51:2244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Incubation of selected analogues with human adrenocortical NCI-h295 cells demonstrated a high correlation with the inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion...