adrenal glands


Summary: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.

Top Publications

  1. Wilson C, McLaughlin L, Nair A, Ebenezer P, Dange R, Francis J. Inflammation and oxidative stress are elevated in the brain, blood, and adrenal glands during the progression of post-traumatic stress disorder in a predator exposure animal model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76146 pubmed publisher
    ..oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines to determine if oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, adrenal glands, and systemic circulation were upregulated in response to constant stress...
  2. Watanabe H, Kanematsu M, Goshima S, Kondo H, Kawada H, Noda Y, et al. Adrenal-to-liver SUV ratio is the best parameter for differentiation of adrenal metastases from adenomas using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Ann Nucl Med. 2013;27:648-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the best standardized uptake value (SUV) index for differentiation of adrenal metastases from adrenocortical adenomas using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT)...
  3. Füchsl A, Uschold Schmidt N, Reber S. Chronic psychosocial stress in male mice causes an up-regulation of scavenger receptor class B type 1 protein in the adrenal glands. Stress. 2013;16:461-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Krzyzanowski A, Karwasik Kajszczarek K, Dymanowska Dyjak I, Kondracka A, Kwasniewska A. [Ultrasound evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume. The role of fetal adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of preterm labor]. Ginekol Pol. 2014;85:49-53 pubmed
    ..It has been also suggested that size and mass of fetal adrenal glands may be associated with the risk of preterm labor Several authors have shown that the evaluation of fetal ..
  5. Boland G. Adrenal imaging. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Imagers should be familiar with these techniques to expedite treatment, especially in cancer patients and so prevent unnecessary biopsies, costs, and anxiety...
  6. Torres Farfan C, Mendez N, Abarzua Catalan L, Vilches N, Valenzuela G, Seron Ferre M. A circadian clock entrained by melatonin is ticking in the rat fetal adrenal. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the rat, the fetal adrenal is a strong peripheral clock potentially amenable to regulation by maternal melatonin...
  7. Eloubeidi M, Black K, Tamhane A, Eltoum I, Bryant A, Cerfolio R. A large single-center experience of EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenal glands: diagnostic utility and impact on patient management. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;71:745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..EUS-guided FNA of the left and right adrenals has been described, but data are very limited...
  8. Noguchi T, Ikeda M, Ohmiya Y, Nakajima Y. A dual-color luciferase assay system reveals circadian resetting of cultured fibroblasts by co-cultured adrenal glands. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37093 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal glands can synchronize circadian rhythms in other tissues...
  9. Cuthbertson B, Sprung C, Annane D, Chevret S, Garfield M, Goodman S, et al. The effects of etomidate on adrenal responsiveness and mortality in patients with septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1868-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend clinicians demonstrate extreme caution in the use of etomidate in critically ill patients with septic shock. ..

More Information


  1. Uschold Schmidt N, Nyuyki K, Füchsl A, Neumann I, Reber S. Chronic psychosocial stress results in sensitization of the HPA axis to acute heterotypic stressors despite a reduction of adrenal in vitro ACTH responsiveness. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:1676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..and pharmacological doses of ACTH revealed an attenuated responsiveness of both the left and right adrenal glands following CSC, despite mRNA and/or protein expression of melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), Mc2r accessory ..
  2. Hirsch A, Hahn D, Kempna P, Hofer G, Mullis P, Nuoffer J, et al. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase on steroid hormone biosynthesis in adrenal NCI-H295R cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30956 pubmed publisher
    ..But AMPK activation can enhance androgen production through a specific increase in CYP17A1-17,20 lyase activity...
  3. Okada H, Iwamaru Y, Fukuda S, Yokoyama T, Mohri S. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:290-300 pubmed publisher
    ..optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle...
  4. Pawlak K, Prasad M, Thomas J, Whittal R, Bose H. Inner mitochondrial translocase Tim50 interacts with 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 to regulate adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, Tim50 regulates 3?HSD2 expression and activity, representing a new role for translocases in steroidogenesis...
  5. Seron Ferre M, Méndez N, Abarzua Catalan L, Vilches N, Valenzuela F, Reynolds H, et al. Circadian rhythms in the fetus. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Following birth, it will allow for postnatal integration of the scattered fetal circadian clocks into an adult-like circadian system commanded by the SCN...
  6. Son G, Chung S, Kim K. The adrenal peripheral clock: glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011;32:451-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will therefore focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the circadian regulation of adrenal GC and its functional relevance...
  7. Kalsbeek A, van der Spek R, Lei J, Endert E, Buijs R, Fliers E. Circadian rhythms in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;349:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The HPA-axis thus still is an excellent model for studying the transmission of circadian information in the body...
  8. Boland G. Adrenal imaging: from Addison to algorithms. Radiol Clin North Am. 2011;49:511-28, vii pubmed publisher
    Despite their small size, pathologic condition of the adrenal glands is often far from insignificant...
  9. Campino C, Valenzuela F, Torres Farfan C, Reynolds H, Abarzua Catalan L, Arteaga E, et al. Melatonin exerts direct inhibitory actions on ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Melatonin inhibited these ACTH effects. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, direct inhibitory effects of melatonin upon several ACTH responses in the human adrenal gland...
  10. Wang J, Zhao H, Mao Ying Q, Cao X, Wang Y, Wu G. Electroacupuncture downregulates TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after surgical trauma stress without adrenal glands involvement. Brain Res Bull. 2009;80:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..EA inhibits TLR2/4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines to produce an anti-inflammatory effect in a surgical trauma stress model, without adrenal gland involvement...
  11. Fowden A, Forhead A. Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E94-102 pubmed publisher
    In adults, the adrenal glands are essential for the metabolic response to stress, but little is known about their role in fetal metabolism...
  12. Carter R, Paterson J, Tworowska U, Stenvers D, Mullins J, Seckl J, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities in response to deletion of 11beta-HSD1 is strain-dependent. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009;21:879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar variations in plasticity may underpin inter-individual differences in vulnerability to disorders associated with HPA axis dysregulation. They also indicate that 11beta-HSD1 inhibition does not inevitably activate the HPA axis...
  13. Johnson P, Horton K, Fishman E. Adrenal mass imaging with multidetector CT: pathologic conditions, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2009;29:1333-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a number of nonadrenal pathologic conditions have been reported to mimic adrenal masses at CT...
  14. Miller W, Auchus R. The molecular biology, biochemistry, and physiology of human steroidogenesis and its disorders. Endocr Rev. 2011;32:81-151 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding steroidogenesis is of fundamental importance to understanding disorders of sexual differentiation, reproduction, fertility, hypertension, obesity, and physiological homeostasis...
  15. Bibeau K, Battista M, Houde V, Brochu M. Fetal adrenal gland alterations in a rat model of adverse intrauterine environment. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R899-911 pubmed publisher evaluate the expression of proteins and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis and catecholamine synthesis in adrenal glands from IUGR fetuses...
  16. Lalli E. Adrenocortical development and cancer: focus on SF-1. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;44:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I discuss recent data in the literature showing the implication of SF-1 and the importance of its dosage not only during development but also for adrenal cortex tumorigenesis in humans and mice...
  17. Kolditz M, Halank M, Schulte Hubbert B, Hoffken G. Adrenal function is related to prognosis in moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Adrenal function is related to the prognosis of CAP. The diagnostic accuracy of serum cortisol equals that of the PSI score. Serum cortisol should be evaluated within clinical prediction scores on larger studies...
  18. Li P, Sun F, Cao H, Ma Q, Pan C, Ma J, et al. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:1208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been ..
  19. Costa M, Domenice S, Latronico A, Martin R, Nishi M, Lucon A, et al. Analysis of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) expression in human adrenocortical hyperplasia. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009;53:326-31 pubmed
    ..GIPR and LHCGR overexpression were not identified in the studied cases, thus suggesting that this molecular mechanism is not involved in adrenocortical hyperplasia in our patients. ..
  20. Kempna P, Korner M, Waser B, Hofer G, Nuoffer J, Reubi J, et al. Neuropeptide Y modulates steroid production of human adrenal H295R cells through Y1 receptors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;314:101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At mRNA level, NPY decreased HSD3B2 and CYP21A2 expression. However NPY revealed no effect on cell proliferation. Our data show that NPY can directly regulate human adrenal cortisol production...
  21. Cailotto C, Lei J, van der Vliet J, Van Heijningen C, Van Eden C, Kalsbeek A, et al. Effects of nocturnal light on (clock) gene expression in peripheral organs: a role for the autonomic innervation of the liver. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5650 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system as a possible output pathway of the SCN to modify the activity of the liver after light exposure...
  22. Moffitt H, McPhail G, Woodman B, Hobbs C, Bates G. Formation of polyglutamine inclusions in a wide range of non-CNS tissues in the HdhQ150 knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8025 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to establish the extent to which peripheral pathology causes the peripheral symptoms of HD from the perspective of a mechanistic understanding and future treatment options. ..
  23. Slattery D, Uschold N, Magoni M, Bar J, Popoli M, Neumann I, et al. Behavioural consequences of two chronic psychosocial stress paradigms: anxiety without depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:702-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both models are unique for uncovering the molecular underpinnings of anxiety-related behaviour without conflicting depression-based alterations...
  24. Kanczkowski W, Zacharowski K, Bornstein S. Role of toll-like receptors and inflammation in adrenal gland insufficiency. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2010;17:180-3 pubmed publisher
    ..TLRs are implicated in adrenal cell turnover and steroidogenesis during inflammation. Therefore, TLRs play a crucial role in the activation of adrenal inflammation mediating adrenal gland dysfunction during septicemia...
  25. Pappa T, Vemmos K, Saltiki K, Mantzou E, Stamatelopoulos K, Alevizaki M. Severity and outcome of acute stroke in women: relation to adrenal sex steroid levels. Metabolism. 2012;61:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Well-designed prospective studies will further clarify their role in cerebrovascular disease...
  26. Campbell J, Kiraly M, Atkinson D, D souza A, Vranic M, Riddell M. Regular exercise prevents the development of hyperglucocorticoidemia via adaptations in the brain and adrenal glands in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R168-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the gradual elevations in glucocorticoid levels associated with the development of insulin resistance in male ZDF rats can be prevented with regular exercise, likely because of adaptations that occur primarily in the adrenal glands.
  27. Shridas P, Bailey W, Boyanovsky B, Oslund R, Gelb M, Webb N. Group X secretory phospholipase A2 regulates the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse adrenal glands. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20031-9 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (StAR), the rate-limiting protein in corticosteroid production, was approximately 2-fold higher in adrenal glands of GX KO mice compared with WT mice, whereas StAR expression was suppressed in Y1 cells overexpressing GX sPLA(..
  28. Chung S, Son G, Kim K. Adrenal peripheral oscillator in generating the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1220:71-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the important role of the adrenal peripheral clockwork in the circadian regulation of GC and its physiological relevance in the circadian timing system...
  29. Mattos G, Jacysyn J, Amarante Mendes G, Lotfi C. Comparative effect of FGF2, synthetic peptides 1-28 N-POMC and ACTH on proliferation in rat adrenal cell primary cultures. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;345:343-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Further elucidation of 1-28 POMC signal transduction is of interest, and primary cultures of adrenal cells were found to be useful for examining the trophic activity of this peptide...
  30. De Miguel V, Redal M, Viale M, Kahan M, Glerean M, Beskow A, et al. Aberrant expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands of a patient with Cushing's syndrome and ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Medicina (B Aires). 2010;70:254-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of glucagon receptors in adrenal glands from an AIMAH patient...
  31. Wang T, Satoh F, Morimoto R, Nakamura Y, Sasano H, Auchus R, et al. Gene expression profiles in aldosterone-producing adenomas and adjacent adrenal glands. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:613-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective This study was designed to compare the transcript profiles between aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and their adjacent adrenal gland (AAG) from the same adrenal...
  32. de Jong M, Beishuizen A, van Schijndel R, Girbes A, Groeneveld A. Risk factors and outcome of changes in adrenal response to ACTH in the course of critical illness. J Intensive Care Med. 2012;27:37-44 pubmed publisher
  33. Kiessling S, Eichele G, Oster H. Adrenal glucocorticoids have a key role in circadian resynchronization in a mouse model of jet lag. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This key role of adrenal glucocorticoid phasing for resetting of the circadian system provides what we believe to be a novel mechanism-based approach for possible therapies for jet lag and jet lag-associated diseases...
  34. Ito R, Sato I, Tsujita T, Yokoyama A, Sugawara A. A ubiquitin-proteasome inhibitor bortezomib suppresses the expression of CYP11B2, a key enzyme of aldosterone synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;489:21-28 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP11B2 expression in the adrenal glands is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and plays an important role in the maintenance of ..
  35. Tamura R, Nemoto T, Maruta T, Onizuka S, Yanagita T, Wada A, et al. Up-regulation of NaV1.7 sodium channels expression by tumor necrosis factor-? in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Anesth Analg. 2014;118:318-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TNF-? up-regulated the protein expression of the TTX-S NaV1.7 channel in adrenal chromaffin cells. Our findings may contribute to understanding the peripheral nociceptive mechanism of TNF-?. ..
  36. Hoffman M, Turan O, Parker C, Wapner R, Wing D, Haas D, et al. Ultrasound Measurement of the Fetal Adrenal Gland as a Predictor of Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;127:726-34 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Fetal adrenal size, as measured by ultrasonography between 22 0/7 and 30 6/7 weeks of gestation, is not predictive of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic nulliparous women. ..
  37. de Kloet E. Lifetime achievement from a brain-adrenal perspective: on the CRF-urocortin-glucocorticoid balance. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013;54:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation between the CRF/CRF-1 and Ucn/CRF-2 receptor systems is being uncovered, leading inexorably to the question: how do the CRF/Ucn and glucocorticoid systems interact in multiple brain sites to maintain homeostasis and health? ..
  38. Papierska L, Cwikła J, Rabijewski M, Glinicki P, Otto M, Kasperlik Załuska A. Bilateral adrenal incidentaloma with subclinical hypercortisolemia: indications for surgery. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2014;124:387-94 pubmed
    ..Although subclinical hypercortisolemia resolved after surgery in all patients with bilateral adrenal tumors, only patients with poorly controlled diabetes and hypertension and a rapid increase in body mass benefited from the surgery. ..
  39. Shan T, Ma J, Ma Q, Guo K, Guo J, Li X, et al. ?2-AR-HIF-1?: a novel regulatory axis for stress-induced pancreatic tumor growth and angiogenesis. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:1023-34 pubmed
    ..This study may have a therapeutic or preventive potential for the patients with pancreatic cancer who are especially prone to psychosocial stress challenges. ..
  40. Correa R, Zilbermint M, Berthon A, Espiard S, Batsis M, Papadakis G, et al. The ARMC5 gene shows extensive genetic variance in primary macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015;173:435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..type of Cushing's syndrome (CS) that results in increased cortisol production and bilateral enlargement of the adrenal glands. Recent work showed that the disease may be caused by germline and somatic mutations in the ARMC5 gene, a ..
  41. Estevez Boullosa P, Martínez Turnes A, Carracedo Iglesias R, Rodríguez Prada J. Jejunal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2017;109:147-148 pubmed
    ..The most common sites of metastasis involve lung, lymph nodes, liver, bone and adrenal glands.
  42. Schallier D, Rappe B, Carprieaux M, Vandenbroucke F. Ureteral Metastasis: Uncommon Manifestation in Prostate Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2015;35:6317-20 pubmed
    ..for castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer involving bone, intra-abdominal lymph nodes, bilateral adrenal glands, and a small distal ureteral lesion with left hydronephrosis considered in remission, with a luteinizing ..
  43. Kruchinina A, Gengin M. [Effect of reboxetine on activity of carboxypeptidase E in the nerve tissue of rats]. Biomed Khim. 2015;61:657-60 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of a single dose of reboxetine on the activity of carboxypeptidase E in various brain regions and the adrenal glands of rats...
  44. Harikai N, Yamada M. Characteristics of glucocorticoid synthesis-related factors in the adrenals of obese Zucker rats (short communication). Acta Physiol Hung. 2012;99:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..factors in the adrenals were increased in obese Zucker rats. The decrease of Akt phosphorylation in the adrenals might induce these increases in obese Zucker rats.adrenals might induce these increases in obese Zucker rats. ..
  45. Brindley R, Bauer M, Blakely R, Currie K. An interplay between the serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT receptors controls stimulus-secretion coupling in sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells. Neuropharmacology. 2016;110:438-448 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Adrenal glands from wild-type mice contained 5-HT at ≈ 750 fold lower abundance than adrenaline, and in SERT(-/-) mice ..
  46. El Ochi M, El Hammoumi M, Biyi A, Allaoui M, Kabiri E, Albouzidi A, et al. Pulmonary tumor diagnosed as an undifferentiated sarcoma with epithelioid features: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2016;10:274 pubmed
    ..A positron emission tomography scan showed involvement of his pleura, left colon, adrenal glands, left thigh muscle, and leptomeninges...
  47. Ceolotto G, Antonelli G, Maiolino G, Cesari M, Rossitto G, Bisogni V, et al. Androstenedione and 17-?-Hydroxyprogesterone Are Better Indicators of Adrenal Vein Sampling Selectivity Than Cortisol. Hypertension. 2017;70:342-346 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, replacing cortisol measurement with these steroids, and particularly androstenedione, can improve the diagnostic yield of AVS. ..
  48. Siegeler K, Wistuba J, Damm O, von Engelhardt N, Sachser N, Kaiser S. Early social instability affects plasma testosterone during adolescence but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life. Physiol Behav. 2013;120:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, early social instability affects plasma testosterone development during adolescence in a significant way but does not alter reproductive capacity or measures of stress later in life. ..
  49. Hoffman Sage Y, Lee L, Thomas A, Benson C, Shipp T. Fetal adrenal gland volume and preterm birth: a prospective third-trimester screening evaluation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016;29:1552-5 pubmed publisher
    ..32?cm(3)/kg versus 0.53?cm(3)/kg, p?=?0.06. We found fetal adrenal glands significantly smaller for those delivering preterm...
  50. Giubellino A, Sourbier C, Lee M, Scroggins B, Bullova P, Landau M, et al. Targeting heat shock protein 90 for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56083 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of Hsp70 in plasma from the xenograft studies served as a proximal biomarker of drug treatment. Our study suggests that targeting Hsp90 may benefit patients with advanced pheochromocytoma...
  51. Couldrey C, Wells D. DNA methylation at a bovine alpha satellite I repeat CpG site during development following fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55153 pubmed publisher
    ..Until protocols ensure the epigenetic signature of a differentiated somatic cell is reset to a state resembling totipotency, the efficiency of SCNT is likely to remain low. ..
  52. Qin B, Hu H, Cao B, Zhu Z. Effects of continuous infusion of etomidate at various dose rates on adrenal function in dogs. BMC Anesthesiol. 2016;16:2 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased with time and continuous infusion of etomidate; there were no significant changes in adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, HR, MAP, and BIS in any group. ..
  53. Goldman S, Nunes T, Melo H, Dalavia C, Szejnfeld D, Kater C, et al. Glutamine/glutamate metabolism studied with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging for the characterization of adrenal nodules and masses. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:835385 pubmed publisher
  54. Pershin S, Bobkova A, Derevnina N, Sidorov V. Immunorehabilitating effect of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields in immunocompromised animals. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013;155:221-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal profile of the organism during microwave exposure can stimulate the processes of transcription and mitotic activity of lymphoid cells. ..
  55. Michels A, Michels N. Addison disease: early detection and treatment principles. Am Fam Physician. 2014;89:563-8 pubmed
    ..illness, invasive surgical procedures), stress-dose glucocorticoids are required because destruction of the adrenal glands prevents an adequate physiologic response...
  56. Zhang Z, Meng H, Hou Z, Ma J, Feng L, Lin X, et al. Fetal adrenal gland in the second half of gestation: morphometrical assessment with 3.0T post-mortem MRI. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75511 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to assess the normal fetal adrenal gland length (AL), width (AW), height (AH), surface area (AS) and volume (AV) in the second half of gestation with 3.0T post-mortem MRI...
  57. Vilela L, Almeida M. Diagnosis and management of primary aldosteronism. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2017;61:305-312 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we address the most relevant issues regarding PA screening, case confirmation, subtype classification, and treatment...
  58. Sohn S, Park H, Lee S, Kim J, Jung B, Kim H, et al. Different diagnostic cut-off values of urinary fractionated metanephrines according to sex for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in Korean subjects. Endocr J. 2012;59:831-8 pubmed
    ..However, diagnostic cut-off values were higher in male subjects than in female subjects. Therefore, different cut-off values may be needed according to sex to diagnose pheochromocytoma in Koreans...
  59. Lopez Garcia C, Ramos Molina B, Lambertos A, López Contreras A, Cremades A, Peñafiel R. Antizyme inhibitor 2 hypomorphic mice. New patterns of expression in pancreas and adrenal glands suggest a role in secretory processes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69188 pubmed publisher mainly expressed in testis and brain, and showed for the first time that AZIN2 is also expressed in the adrenal glands and pancreas...
  60. Guerin C, Pattou F, Brunaud L, Lifante J, Mirallie E, Haissaguerre M, et al. Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Characterization of Adrenal Masses in Noncancer Patients: A Prospective Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2465-2472 pubmed publisher
    ..Few prospective studies have evaluated the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the characterization of adrenal masses...
  61. Ran B, Tuergan A, Shao Y, Jiang T, Li H, Wang Y, et al. Alveolar echinococcosis of the adrenal gland: brief review of two cases. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125:1656-7 pubmed
    ..Its pathogenesis is poorly understood. This paper describes its clinical and radiological aspects and discusses its proper management...
  62. Kline G, Holmes D. Adrenal venous sampling for primary aldosteronism: laboratory medicine best practice. J Clin Pathol. 2017;70:911-916 pubmed publisher
  63. Kirberger R, Tordiffe A. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland findings in healthy semi-captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Zoo Biol. 2016;35:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Zoo Biol. 35:260-268, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  64. Ito Y, Takeda R, Takeda Y. Subclinical primary aldosteronism. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26:485-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The long-term follow-up studies of normotensive primary aldosteronism patients who receive neither adrenal surgery nor treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists might help to solve these problems...
  65. Nagel C, Trenk L, Aurich C, Ille N, Pichler M, Drillich M, et al. Sympathoadrenal balance and physiological stress response in cattle at spontaneous and PGF2α-induced calving. Theriogenology. 2016;85:979-985 pubmed publisher
    ..05) were higher in SPON versus PG cows. Based on physiological stress parameters, calving is perceived as stressful but expulsion of the calf is associated with a transiently increased vagal tone which may enhance uterine contractility. ..
  66. Méndez N, Abarzua Catalan L, Vilches N, Galdames H, Spichiger C, Richter H, et al. Timed maternal melatonin treatment reverses circadian disruption of the fetal adrenal clock imposed by exposure to constant light. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42713 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, low levels and lack of a circadian rhythm of fetal corticosterone may be responsible of fetal growth restriction; potentially inducing long term effects in the offspring, possibility that warrants further research...
  67. Drelon C, Berthon A, Ragazzon B, Tissier F, Bandiera R, Sahut Barnola I, et al. Analysis of the role of Igf2 in adrenal tumour development in transgenic mouse models. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44171 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these experiments suggest that the growth factor IGF2 is a mild contributor to malignant adrenocortical tumourigenesis...
  68. Zamora González E, Santerre A, Palomera Ávalos V, Morales Villagran A. A chronic combinatory stress model that activates the HPA axis and avoids habituation in BALB/C mice. J Neurosci Methods. 2013;213:70-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The simple and economic stress model presented here affected the HPA axis but not the ANS of BALB/c mice and is useful for the study of metabolic stress-related gastric pathology and stress hormone secretion in mice...
  69. Dong A, Zuo C, Wang Y. FDG PET/CT imaging of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the adrenal gland. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:e407-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient underwent left adrenalectomy and nephrectomy. Histopathology revealed typical adrenal SCC with neoplastic thrombosis of the left renal vein. This case suggests that FDG PET/CT is useful for staging of extrapulmonary SCC. ..
  70. Samal B, Ait Ali D, Bunn S, Mustafa T, Eiden L. Discrete signal transduction pathway utilization by a neuropeptide (PACAP) and a cytokine (TNF-alpha) first messenger in chromaffin cells, inferred from coupled transcriptome-promoter analysis of regulated gene cohorts. Peptides. 2013;45:48-60 pubmed publisher
  71. Richards J, Cheng K, All S, Skopis G, Jeffers L, Lynch I, et al. A role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the regulation of aldosterone levels and renal Na+ retention. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F1697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that Per1 regulates aldosterone levels and that Per1 plays an integral role in the regulation of Na(+) retention. ..
  72. Vouillarmet J, Buron F, Houzard C, Carlier M, Chauvet C, Brunet M, et al. The first simultaneous kidney-adrenal gland-pancreas transplantation: outcome at 1 year. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:1905-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Transplantation of the adrenal gland en bloc with the left kidney appears to be a good therapeutic option in patients with adrenal insufficiency awaiting kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation...