endocrine glands


Summary: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.

Top Publications

  1. Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Neri G, Trejter M, Zemleduch T, Tyczewska M, et al. Expression of neuromedins S and U and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:255-9 pubmed
    ..The marked differences in the level of expression of NMU, NMS and their receptors in the hypothalamus and endocrine glands of the rat suggest that in this species such neuromedins may play different roles in the functional ..
  2. Lin J, Gu S. In vitro and in vivo stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the prothoracicotropic hormone in prothoracic gland cells and its developmental regulation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:622-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that development-specific changes in ERK phosphorylation may play a role in PTTH stimulation of ecdysteroidogenesis...
  3. Hochol A, Belloni A, Rucinski M, Ziolkowska A, Di Liddo R, Nussdorfer G, et al. Expression of neuropeptides B and W and their receptors in endocrine glands of the rat. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1101-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings allow us to suggest that NPB and NPW play a role in the autocrine-paracrine functional regulation of the endocrine system in the rat...
  4. Nakatsuji T, Lee C, Watson R. Crustacean molt-inhibiting hormone: structure, function, and cellular mode of action. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;152:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The PDE isotype (PDE1) present in Y-organs of C. sapidus is calcium/calmodulin dependent. Thus, calcium may regulate ecdysteroidogenesis through activation of glandular PDE...
  5. Gu S, Lin J, Lin P, Chen C. Insulin stimulates ecdysteroidogenesis by prothoracic glands in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that in silkworm prothoracic glands, in addition to the PTTH and an autocrine factor, ecdysteroidogenesis is also stimulated by insulin during development...
  6. Rubio Gozalbo M, Panis B, Zimmermann L, Spaapen L, Menheere P. The endocrine system in treated patients with classical galactosemia. Mol Genet Metab. 2006;89:316-22 pubmed
    ..Hypoglycosylation in galactosemia is diet dependent and could worsen when galactose intake increases either because of poor compliance or diet liberalization...
  7. Gerendai I, Tóth I, Boldogkoi Z, Halász B. Recent findings on the organization of central nervous system structures involved in the innervation of endocrine glands and other organs; observations obtained by the transneuronal viral double-labeling technique. Endocrine. 2009;36:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..innervating exclusively a given organ; (2) left-sided predominance in the supraspinal innervation of the endocrine glands (adrenal, ovary) studied, so far; (3) viral co-infection of neurons, i.e...
  8. Marchal E, Vandersmissen H, Badisco L, Van de Velde S, Verlinden H, Iga M, et al. Control of ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of insects: a review. Peptides. 2010;31:506-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The complex secretory pattern of ecdysteroids as observed in vivo is the result of the delicate balance and interplay between these ecdysiotropic and ecdysiostatic factors...
  9. Sobotnik J, Sillam Dussès D, Weyda F, Dejean A, Roisin Y, Hanus R, et al. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites. Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed...

More Information


  1. Mirth C, Truman J, Riddiford L. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1796-807 pubmed
    ..We present evidence that in Drosophila, a component of the ring gland, the prothoracic gland (PG), assesses growth to determine when critical weight has been achieved...
  2. Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos G. Endocrinology of the stress response. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:259-84 pubmed
  3. Gibbens Y, Warren J, Gilbert L, O Connor M. Neuroendocrine regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis requires TGFbeta/Activin signaling. Development. 2011;138:2693-703 pubmed publisher
    ..As steroid hormone production in C. elegans and mammals is also influenced by TGF?/Activin signaling, this family of secreted factors may play a general role in regulating developmental transitions across phyla...
  4. Habib K, Gold P, Chrousos G. Neuroendocrinology of stress. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001;30:695-728; vii-viii pubmed
    ..Moreover, the promise of nonpeptide CRH type-1 receptor antagonists to directly target the stress system in the brain is highlighted...
  5. Sigurdson C, Spraker T, Miller M, Oesch B, Hoover E. PrP(CWD) in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2327-34 pubmed
  6. Scippo M, Argiris C, Van de Weerdt C, Muller M, Willemsen P, Martial J, et al. Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004;378:664-9 pubmed
    ..We propose to use binding assays using recombinant human steroid receptors as screening tools for the detection of endocrine disruptors in various samples...
  7. Smith W, Priester J, Morais J. PTTH-stimulated ecdysone secretion is dependent upon tyrosine phosphorylation in the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:1317-25 pubmed
    ..These findings point to an important role for a Src-family tyrosine kinase at a very early step in the PTTH signaling pathway, prior to the activation of adenylyl cyclase...
  8. Goi T, Fujioka M, Satoh Y, Tabata S, Koneri K, Nagano H, et al. Angiogenesis and tumor proliferation/metastasis of human colorectal cancer cell line SW620 transfected with endocrine glands-derived-vascular endothelial growth factor, as a new angiogenic factor. Cancer Res. 2004;64:1906-10 pubmed
    b>Endocrine glands-derived-vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) was recently cloned as a new angiogenic factor that selectively acts on the endothelium of endocrine gland cells...
  9. Niwa R, Matsuda T, Yoshiyama T, Namiki T, Mita K, Fujimoto Y, et al. CYP306A1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, is essential for ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the prothoracic glands of Bombyx and Drosophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:35942-9 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that CYP306A1 functions as a carbon 25 hydroxylase and has an essential role in ecdysteroid biosynthesis during insect development...
  10. Martinez R, Honegger J, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M. Endocrine findings in patients with optico-hypothalamic gliomas. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2003;111:162-7 pubmed
    ..Visual impairment and hydrocephalus are the most frequent findings at presentation. However, only limited data are available about endocrine disturbances in these lesions...
  11. Katoh R. Angiogenesis in endocrine glands: special reference to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:181-5 pubmed
    ..factors are produced and secreted by normal endocrine cells and are increased in pathological states of endocrine glands, including inflammation, hyperplasia, and neoplasia...
  12. Hnasko R, McFarland M, Ben Jonathan N. Distribution and characterization of plasmalemma vesicle protein-1 in rat endocrine glands. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:649-61 pubmed
    ..Since endocrine glands are enriched with fenestrated endothelium, we examined the distribution of PV-1 mRNA and protein in endocrine ..
  13. Gurevich P, Ben Hur H, Moldavsky M, Szvalb S, Shperling I, Zusman I. An immunohistochemical study of the secretory immune system in human fetal endocrine glands and their precursors. Early Pregnancy. 2001;5:191-200 pubmed
    ..They are the major mechanism of endocrine cell defense during the early prenatal period when the common immune system is still structurally and functionally incompetent...
  14. Rybczynski R, Bell S, Gilbert L. Activation of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by the insect prothoracicotropic hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;184:1-11 pubmed
    ..PTTH-stimulated ERK activity may be important for both rapid regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis and for longer-term changes in the size and function of prothoracic gland cells...
  15. Niemczyk S. [Endocrinological disorders in advanced age]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2004;112 Spec No:161-9 pubmed
    Endocrinological disorders of endocrine glands functions in advanced age are presented. Special attention was paid to the diagnostic procedures as well as hormonal replacement therapy of these disorders
  16. Keely S. Missing link identified: GpBAR1 is a neuronal bile acid receptor. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:711-7 pubmed publisher
    ..provides novel and exciting insights into how bile acids exert their actions in the intestine. This Editorial Viewpoint aims to further consider the potential physiological and pathophysiological implications of their findings. ..
  17. Kovacs M, Schally A, Varga J, Zarandi M. Endocrine and antineoplastic actions of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15:314-21 pubmed
    ..Antiproliferative action of GHRH antagonists on these cancers indicates that the direct inhibitory effects of GHRH antagonists are mediated by tumoral GHRH receptors. ..
  18. Allera A, Lo S, King I, Steglich F, Klingmuller D. Impact of androgenic/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes. Toxicology. 2004;205:75-85 pubmed
    ..The aim of this report and subsequent investigations is to improve human health risk assessment for AAC and other ED. ..
  19. Lunenfeld B. Endocrinology of the aging male. Minerva Ginecol. 2006;58:153-70 pubmed
    ..Interventions such as hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing the preventable and delaying the inevitable. ..
  20. Colborn T. Commentary: setting aside tradition when dealing with endocrine disruptors. ILAR J. 2004;45:394-400 pubmed
  21. Zhang X, Ho S. Epigenetics meets endocrinology. J Mol Endocrinol. 2011;46:R11-32 pubmed
  22. Bardosi S, Bardosi A, Nagy Z, Reglodi D. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;60:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its ..
  23. Rodríguez E, Medesani D, Fingerman M. Endocrine disruption in crustaceans due to pollutants: a review. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:661-71 pubmed
    ..The ecological relevance of EDCs on crustaceans is discussed, mainly in relation to the identification of useful biomarkers and sentinel species. New experimental approaches are also proposed. ..
  24. Sierksma A, van den Hove D, Steinbusch H, Prickaerts J. Major depression, cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease: is there a link?. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;626:72-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Obtaining more knowledge on their interactive role in the relation between MD and AD may eventually aid in the development of more effective treatment strategies. ..
  25. Ng K, Martin T. New functions for old hormones: bone as an endocrine organ. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;310:1-2 pubmed publisher
  26. Han D, Patel N, Douglas Watson R. Regulation of protein synthesis in Y-organs of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus): involvement of cyclic AMP. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2006;305:328-34 pubmed
    ..sapidus Y-organs. We are currently investigating the link of protein synthesis to ecdysteroid production, and the possibility of cross-talk between cAMP and other cellular signaling pathways in Y-organs. ..
  27. Rahman S, Marcu S, Shapiro C, Brown T, Casper R. Spectral modulation attenuates molecular, endocrine, and neurobehavioral disruption induced by nocturnal light exposure. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The current data suggest that spectral modulation may provide an effective method of regulating the effects of light on physiological processes. ..
  28. Phatsara C, Jonas E, Yammuen art S, Buschbell H, Tesfaye D, Ponsuksili S, et al. Physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems shown in gene analysis in pigs. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;132:161-7 pubmed
    ..Using the SAS system for mixed model, a highly significant association of Gh, and Igf1 to AH50 and CH50 (p < or = 0.01) was detected, while Prlr and Ghrh had a highly significant association (p < or = 0.01) with CH50 only. ..
  29. Mahajan S, Singh S, Shah P, Gupta N, Kochupillai N. Effect of maternal malnutrition and anemia on the endocrine regulation of fetal growth. Endocr Res. 2004;30:189-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, these novel observations are relevant to the context of the ongoing scientific debate on Barker's hypothesis. ..
  30. Pérez Hedo M, Goodman W, Schafellner C, Martini A, Sehnal F, Eizaguirre M. Control of larval-pupal-adult molt in the moth Sesamia nonagrioides by juvenile hormone and ecdysteroids. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of the ecdysteroid agonist RH 2485 (methoxyfenozide) to headless pupae also elicits molting: newly secreted cuticle is in some cases thin and indifferent, in other cases it bears distinct pupal or adult features. ..
  31. Butler D, Brown J. Stanniectomy attenuates the renin-angiotensin response to hypovolemic hypotension in freshwater eels (Anguilla rostrata) but not blood pressure recovery. J Comp Physiol B. 2007;177:143-51 pubmed
    ..Stanniectomy increased plasma Ca and K(+) and decreased plasma Mg, Na(+), Cl(-) and osmolality which confirms some earlier observations in eels and other freshwater teleosts. ..
  32. Lee H, Tsai S. Endocrine targets of hypoxia-inducible factors. J Endocrinol. 2017;234:R53-R65 pubmed publisher
    Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations...
  33. Gu S. Autocrine activation of ecdysteroidogenesis in the prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:538-49 pubmed
  34. Inudo M, Ishibashi H, Matsumura N, Matsuoka M, Mori T, Taniyama S, et al. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Comp Med. 2004;54:673-80 pubmed
    ..Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in vivo tests designed to determine activity of test compounds added to the diet. ..
  35. Leventhal J, Braverman I. Skin manifestations of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. Semin Oncol. 2016;43:335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the salient cutaneous features of these tumors that arise in the classic endocrine glands, lung and gastrointestinal tract either as individual neoplasms or as part of a syndrome.
  36. Hashizume K, Suzuki S, Inagaki T, Miyamoto T, Hiramatsu K, Komatsu A, et al. [Anti-aging in endocrinological aspect]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2008;45:145-8 pubmed
  37. Helle K, Corti A, Metz Boutigue M, Tota B. The endocrine role for chromogranin A: a prohormone for peptides with regulatory properties. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:2863-86 pubmed
  38. Perna A, De Luca A, Adelfi L, Pasquale T, Varriale B, Esposito T. Effects of different extracts of curcumin on TPC1 papillary thyroid cancer cell line. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:63 pubmed publisher
    The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body...
  39. Swerdloff R, Wang C. Androgens and the ageing male. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;18:349-62 pubmed
    ..Treatment options for older men include injectable, transdermal and transbuccal testosterone preparations. ..
  40. Zubidat A, Ben Shlomo R, Haim A. Thermoregulatory and endocrine responses to light pulses in short-day acclimated social voles (Microtus socialis). Chronobiol Int. 2007;24:269-88 pubmed
    ..One important finding of this study is that NLP may act as a stressor and correspondingly impose a major threat to the physiological homeostasis of M. socialis, such that over-winter survival might be compromised. ..
  41. Soga J. Early-stage carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract: an analysis of 1914 reported cases. Cancer. 2005;103:1587-95 pubmed
    ..These points should be taken into consideration when treating patients with GI carcinoids, particularly in the early stage, and even with the depth of invasion confined to the submucosa. ..
  42. Fernández Tresguerres Hernández J. [Inaugural discourse]. An R Acad Nac Med (Madr). 2008;125:17-8 pubmed
  43. Grill J, Puget S, De Carli E, Amoroso L, Taylor M, Brauner R, et al. [Childhood cerebral tumors: morbidity and follow-up into adulthood]. Neurochirurgie. 2008;54:623-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The consequences of their disease and its treatment overlap greatly. The complications and long-term follow-up are detailed based on the specialists involved. ..
  44. Uysal A, Alkan G, Kurtoglu A, Erol O, Kurtoglu E. Diminished ovarian reserve in women with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia major: Is iron gonadotoxic?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2017;216:69-73 pubmed publisher
    Iron accumulation in the endocrine glands has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of decreased reproductive capacity in patients with beta-thalassemia major (?-TM)...
  45. Teramae H, Fujimoto W, Seino S, Iwanaga T. Cellular expression of Noc2, a Rab effector protein, in endocrine and exocrine tissues in the mouse. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;127:1-11 pubmed
    ..The cellular and subcellular localizations of Noc2 should yield key information on its functional significance as well as account for the phenotype in Noc2-deficient mice. ..
  46. Crivellato E, Nico B, Bertelli E, Nussdorfer G, Ribatti D. Dense-core granules in neuroendocrine cells and neurons release their secretory constituents by piecemeal degranulation (review). Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1037-46 pubmed
  47. Matsunaga M, Isowa T, Kimura K, Miyakoshi M, Kanayama N, Murakami H, et al. Associations among central nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions are elicited by looking at a favorite person. Brain Behav Immun. 2008;22:408-17 pubmed
  48. Ryzhavskii B, Baranova S, Matveeva E. Effect of experimental litter reduction in female rats on parameters of brain and endocrine gland development in the progeny. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:376-80 pubmed
    ..the relationship between parameters of brain development, elevated plus-maze behavior, and the status of the endocrine glands in the progeny of 4.5-5- and 8-9-month-old females after litter reduction by removal of one uterine tube...
  49. Wira C, Patel M, Ghosh M, Mukura L, Fahey J. Innate immunity in the human female reproductive tract: endocrine regulation of endogenous antimicrobial protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65:196-211 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this review is to examine the spectrum of antimicrobials in the FRT and the ways in which they are regulated to provide protection against pathogens that compromise reproductive health and threaten the lives of women...
  50. McKeever K. The endocrine system and the challenge of exercise. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2002;18:321-53, vii pubmed
  51. Hutley L, Prins J. Fat as an endocrine organ: relationship to the metabolic syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2005;330:280-9 pubmed
  52. Verma Y, Rana S. Endocrinal toxicity of industrial solvents--a mini review. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:537-49 pubmed
    ..An attempt has been made to offer a historical and general information on solvent toxicity in endocrine glands. Possible mechanisms, in brief, have also been discussed...
  53. Gasco V, Beccuti G, Marotta F, Benso A, Granata R, Broglio F, et al. Endocrine and metabolic actions of ghrelin. Endocr Dev. 2010;17:86-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, the products of the GRLN gene, i.e. acylated and nonacylated GRLN, as well as obestatin, play a major role in regulating peripheral metabolism and it is not by chance that their secretion is mostly under metabolic regulation...
  54. Jing X, Zhang J, Luo Y, Zong S, Liu P, Jia J. Identification and field evaluation of the female sex pheromone of the sand Salix carpenterworm, Holcocerus arenicola Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Z Naturforsch C. 2010;65:403-11 pubmed
    ..4:0.25 ratio at 825 microg/trap dosage can be effectively used to monitor the H. arenicola population level and catch the males within the desert regions in China...
  55. Choi K, Kim S, Kim C, Kim S. Effects of activated carbon types and service life on removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals: amitrol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol-A. Chemosphere. 2005;58:1535-45 pubmed
    ..The adsorption parameters for nonylphenol and bisphenol-A provided by this study could be valuable when GAC adsorption was considered to handle an accidental spill of nonylphenol and bisphenol-A...
  56. McDonald E, Krishnamurthy M, Goodyer C, Wang R. The emerging role of SOX transcription factors in pancreatic endocrine cell development and function. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Interrelationships between the SOX family and other pancreatic transcription factors specific to endocrine lineages will also be discussed in light of islet cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes...
  57. Broadhurst M, Lee R, Hawkins S, Wheeler T. The p100 EBNA-2 coactivator: a highly conserved protein found in a range of exocrine and endocrine cells and tissues in cattle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1681:126-33 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the p100 protein plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic biology, and functions in secretory cells, at least in cattle...
  58. Stockhorst U, de Fries D, Steingrueber H, Scherbaum W. Insulin and the CNS: effects on food intake, memory, and endocrine parameters and the role of intranasal insulin administration in humans. Physiol Behav. 2004;83:47-54 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, initial data indicate that states of central insulin deficiencies (DAT and obesity) are accompanied by olfactory deviations. Thus, the nose-to-brain pathway deserves further attention...
  59. Guarraci F, Holifield C, Morales Valenzuela J, Greene K, Brown J, Lopez R, et al. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016;142:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli. ..
  60. Thigpen J, Setchell K, Saunders H, Haseman J, Grant M, Forsythe D. Selecting the appropriate rodent diet for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. ILAR J. 2004;45:401-16 pubmed
  61. Koska J, Ksinantova L, Kvetnansky R, Hamar D, Martinkovic M, Vigas M. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:569-75 pubmed
    ..01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest...
  62. Kang J, Asai D, Aasi D, Katayama Y. Bisphenol A in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007;37:607-25 pubmed
    ..This report reviews the literature concerning contamination routes and degradation of BPA in the aquatic environment and its endocrine-disruptive effects on aquatic organisms...
  63. Kwek J, Wijesundera C, Digby M, Nicholas K. The endocrine regulation of milk lipid synthesis and secretion in tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:48-54 pubmed
    ..These results provide new information identifying the role of insulin and prolactin in regulating milk lipid synthesis and secretion in the tammar...
  64. Zheng J, Nakatsuji T, Roer R, Watson R. Studies of a receptor guanylyl cyclase cloned from Y-organs of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and its possible functional link to ecdysteroidogenesis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155:780-8 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the biological action of CsGC-YO1 in Y-organs is likely to be most pronounced during intermolt. The combined results are consistent with the hypothesis that CsGC-YO1 is an MIH receptor...
  65. Perez Cadahia B, Lafuente A, Cabaleiro T, Pasaro E, Mendez J, Laffon B. Initial study on the effects of Prestige oil on human health. Environ Int. 2007;33:176-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, data obtained point to the importance of using protective devices in preventing the effects related to the exposure...
  66. LeBaron M, Ahonen T, Nevalainen M, Rui H. In vivo response-based identification of direct hormone target cell populations using high-density tissue arrays. Endocrinology. 2007;148:989-1008 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, PRL but not GH activated Stat5 in nearly all of the endocrine glands. In mammary glands, PRL activated Stat5 in a majority of luminal epithelial cells but not myoepithelial cells,..
  67. Hashimoto M, Okuda C, Sakurai C, Seki K, Matsuda M, Nagao G, et al. Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:141-2 pubmed
  68. Dimitrov N, Colucci P, Nagpal S. Some aspects of the endocrine profile and management of hormone-dependent male breast cancer. Oncologist. 2007;12:798-807 pubmed
    ..This could be accomplished by the development of a specific multi-institutional tumor registry and execution of prospective clinical trials...
  69. Yang T, Fu M, Pestell R, Sauve A. SIRT1 and endocrine signaling. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006;17:186-91 pubmed
  70. Felix T, Puga A, Cestari T, Cartell A, Cerski M. Infantile Systemic Hyalinosis: report of three unrelated Brazilian children and review of the literature. Clin Dysmorphol. 2004;13:231-6 pubmed
    ..Skin biopsy performed in all three patients showed diffuse deposits of hyaline material, confirming the diagnosis of ISH...
  71. Navarro V, Tena Sempere M. The KiSS-1/GPR54 system: putative target for endocrine disruption of reproduction at hypothalamic-pituitary unit?. Int J Androl. 2008;31:224-32 pubmed
    ..We review herein the physiological basis and initial, albeit so far scarce, experimental evidence supporting such possibility...
  72. Hsieh Y, Hsu S, Gu S. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that mitochondria-derived, but not membrane NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated ROS signaling, is involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis of PGs in B. mori. ..
  73. Huang X, Zhou Y, Ma J, Wang N, Zhang Z, Ji J, et al. Nitric oxide mediated effects on reproductive toxicity caused by carbon disulfide in male rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;34:679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..SNP reduced some of the toxic effects of CS(2), while L-NMMA treatment showed no effect. The results suggests that NO mediates compromised reproductive system function caused by CS(2) exposure...
  74. Ou Q, Magico A, King Jones K. Nuclear receptor DHR4 controls the timing of steroid hormone pulses during Drosophila development. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001160 pubmed publisher
  75. Tropea C, Hermida G, López Greco L. Effects of androgenic gland ablation on growth and reproductive parameters of Cherax quadricarinatus males (Parastacidae, Decapoda). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in the present study support and complement those from intersexes of the same species...
  76. Gürtler T, Weber M. [Current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery]. Ther Umsch. 2011;68:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other side more precise techniques allow a more complete and radical removal of endocrine tissue, especially in thyroid surgery. This article presents a summary of current operative techniques and strategies in endocrine surgery...
  77. Lee Y, Chan Y, Chow W, Ng E, Lee K, Yeung W, et al. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates proliferation and tube formation in human uterine microvascular endothelial cell through the mitogen-activated protein kinase but not through the Akt pathway. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2163-71 pubmed publisher
  78. Pedersen B, Febbraio M. Muscle as an endocrine organ: focus on muscle-derived interleukin-6. Physiol Rev. 2008;88:1379-406 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the myokine IL-6, its regulation by exercise, its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, and its role in metabolism in both health and disease...
  79. Arai Y, Takayama M, Gondo Y, Inagaki H, Yamamura K, Nakazawa S, et al. Adipose endocrine function, insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and exceptional survival beyond 100 years of age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:1209-18 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to determine whether hormonal pathways potentially involved in energy homeostasis contribute to survival beyond 100 years of age...
  80. Grigoryev S, Shukanov R. Morphophysiology of endocrine glands in young hogs during postnatal ontogeny under conditions of treatment with biogenic compounds. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;147:661-3 pubmed
  81. Pereira O, Bernardi M, Gerardin D. Could neonatal testosterone replacement prevent alterations induced by prenatal stress in male rats?. Life Sci. 2006;78:2767-71 pubmed
    ..In this way, testosterone replacement probably through increasing neonatal level of this hormone was able to prevent the later alterations caused by the prenatal stress during the period of brain sexual differentiation...
  82. Edgar A, Morris E, Kelnar C, Wallace W. Long-term follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer. Endocr Dev. 2009;15:159-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we describe the chronic health problems encountered by survivors and discuss the development of a long-term follow-up service for childhood cancer survivors...
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