chromaffin cells


Summary: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.

Top Publications

  1. Picollo F, Gosso S, Vittone E, Pasquarelli A, Carbone E, Olivero P, et al. A new diamond biosensor with integrated graphitic microchannels for detecting quantal exocytic events from chromaffin cells. Adv Mater. 2013;25:4696-700 pubmed publisher
    ..The device is functionally characterized for the in vitro recording of quantal exocytic events from single chromaffin cells, with high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio, opening promising perspectives for the realization of ..
  2. Gelain D, Moreira J, Bevilaqua L, Dickson P, Dunkley P. Retinol activates tyrosine hydroxylase acutely by increasing the phosphorylation of serine40 and then serine31 in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 2007;103:2369-79 pubmed, we observed that retinol also leads to an acute activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells and this was shown to occur via two distinct non-genomic mechanisms...
  3. Hook V, Toneff T, Baylon S, Sei C. Differential activation of enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin, NPY, and VIP neuropeptide production by stimulators of protein kinases A and C in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. Neuropeptides. 2008;42:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study compared the differential effects of treating neuroendocrine chromaffin cells with stimulators of PKA and PKC on the production of the neuropeptides (Met)enkephalin, galanin, somatostatin,..
  4. Trifaro J, Gasman S, Gutierrez L. Cytoskeletal control of vesicle transport and exocytosis in chromaffin cells. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2008;192:165-72 pubmed
    ..Cdc42 signalling which induces the formation of local actin filaments at active sites, provide additional evidence on the importance of F-actin as a key element in vesicle transport and in the exocytotic machinery of chromaffin cells.
  5. Darios F, Ruipérez V, Lopez I, Villanueva J, Gutierrez L, Davletov B. Alpha-synuclein sequesters arachidonic acid to modulate SNARE-mediated exocytosis. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:528-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Alpha-synuclein sequesters arachidonic acid and thereby blocks the activation of SNAREs. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the action of alpha-synuclein in the modulation of neurotransmission. ..
  6. Shtukmaster S, Schier M, Huber K, Krispin S, Kalcheim C, Unsicker K. Sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells share a common progenitor in the neural crest in vivo. Neural Dev. 2013;8:12 pubmed publisher
    ..sympathoadrenal (SA) cell lineage is one major sub-lineage of the NC that gives rise to sympathetic neurons, chromaffin cells, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells...
  7. Bachnoff N, Trus M, Atlas D. Alleviation of oxidative stress by potent and selective thioredoxin-mimetic peptides. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:1355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Catecholamine (CA) secretion in bovine chromaffin cells, which is a highly redox sensitive process, is abolished by AuF...
  8. Lin M, Rohan J, Cai H, Reim K, Ko C, Chow R. Complexin facilitates exocytosis and synchronizes vesicle release in two secretory model systems. J Physiol. 2013;591:2463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In Cplx 2-null adrenal chromaffin cells, we also find decreased and desynchronized evoked release, and identify a significant reduction in the ..
  9. Pérez Alvarez A, Hernández Vivanco A, McIntosh J, Albillos A. Native ?6?4* nicotinic receptors control exocytosis in human chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. FASEB J. 2012;26:346-54 pubmed publisher
    ..we have electrophysiologically characterized native nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in human chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland as well as their contribution to the exocytotic process...

More Information


  1. Rosmaninho Salgado J, Araújo I, Alvaro A, Mendes A, Ferreira L, Grouzmann E, et al. Regulation of catecholamine release and tyrosine hydroxylase in human adrenal chromaffin cells by interleukin-1beta: role of neuropeptide Y and nitric oxide. J Neurochem. 2009;109:911-22 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides that may regulate hormonal and paracrine signaling in stress and also during inflammation...
  2. van Weering J, Wijntjes R, de Wit H, Wortel J, Cornelisse L, Veldkamp W, et al. Automated analysis of secretory vesicle distribution at the ultrastructural level. J Neurosci Methods. 2008;173:83-90 pubmed publisher
    Neuroendocrine cells like chromaffin cells and PC-12 cells are established models for transport, docking and secretion of secretory vesicles. In micrographs, these vesicles are recognized by their electron dense core...
  3. de Wit H. Molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle docking. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, access of secretory vesicles to docking sites is controlled by dense F-actin (filamentous actin) beneath the ..
  4. Powers J, Picard K, Tischler A. RET expression and neuron-like differentiation of pheochromocytoma and normal chromaffin cells. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:710-4 pubmed publisher
    Receptor tyrosine kinase RET is normally expressed at low levels in chromaffin cells and high levels in sympathetic neurons. Paradoxically, it is overexpressed in subsets of pheochromocytomas...
  5. Cai H, Reim K, Varoqueaux F, Tapechum S, Hill K, Sørensen J, et al. Complexin II plays a positive role in Ca2+-triggered exocytosis by facilitating vesicle priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that adrenal chromaffin cells from CPX II knockout mice exhibit markedly diminished releasable vesicle pools (comprising the readily and ..
  6. McGovern G, Jeffrey M. Membrane toxicity of abnormal prion protein in adrenal chromaffin cells of scrapie infected sheep. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58620 pubmed publisher
    ..electron microscopy, non-fibrillar forms of PrP(d) were shown to accumulate mainly in association with chromaffin cells, occasional nerve endings and macrophages...
  7. Trus M, Corkey R, Nesher R, Richard A, Deeney J, Corkey B, et al. The L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel is the Ca2+ sensor protein of stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta cells. Biochemistry. 2007;46:14461-7 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that the Ca2+ channel is a constituent of the exocytotic complex [Wiser et al. (1999) PNAS 96, 248-253] and the putative Ca2+-sensor protein of release. ..
  8. Neco P, Fernández Peruchena C, Navas S, Gutierrez L, de Toledo G, Ales E. Myosin II contributes to fusion pore expansion during exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..surprisingly, in the final phases of exocytosis, affecting the kinetics of catecholamine release in adrenal chromaffin cells as measured by amperometry...
  9. Liu Y, Schirra C, Edelmann L, Matti U, Rhee J, Hof D, et al. Two distinct secretory vesicle-priming steps in adrenal chromaffin cells. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:1067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..of the calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS), we show that LDCV priming in adrenal chromaffin cells entails two distinct steps...
  10. Ait Ali D, Turquier V, Tanguy Y, Thouennon E, Ghzili H, Mounien L, et al. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha persistently activates nuclear factor-kappaB signaling through the type 2 TNF receptor in chromaffin cells: implications for long-term regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in inflammation. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2840-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla elaborate and secrete catecholamines and neuropeptides for hormonal and paracrine signaling in stress and during inflammation...
  11. Matsuoka H, Harada K, Nakamura J, Fukuda M, Inoue M. Differential distribution of synaptotagmin-1, -4, -7, and -9 in rat adrenal chromaffin cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;344:41-50 pubmed publisher
    Neurons and certain kinds of endocrine cells, such as adrenal chromaffin cells, have large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) and synaptic vesicles or synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs)...
  12. Wang L, Bittner M, Axelrod D, Holz R. The structural and functional implications of linked SNARE motifs in SNAP25. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:3944-55 pubmed publisher
    ..and the combination of its separated, membrane-bound constituent chains supported secretion in permeabilized chromaffin cells that had been allowed to rundown...
  13. Feng J, Wu X, Li X, Zou Y, Qin L, Hu C. Transformation of adrenal medullary chromaffin cells increases asthmatic susceptibility in pups from allergen-sensitized rats. Respir Res. 2012;13:99 pubmed publisher
    ..The pregnancy of female rats (dams) with asthma promotes in their pups the differentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs) into sympathetic neurons, mediated by nerve growth factor, which leads to a reduction in epinephrine ..
  14. de Wit H. Morphological docking of secretory vesicles. Histochem Cell Biol. 2010;134:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In electron micrographs of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, like chromaffin cells many synaptic vesicles (SVs) and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are docked...
  15. Pérez Alvarez A, Hernández Vivanco A, Alonso y Gregorio S, Tabernero A, McIntosh J, Albillos A. Pharmacological characterization of native ?7 nicotinic ACh receptors and their contribution to depolarization-elicited exocytosis in human chromaffin cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:908-21 pubmed publisher
    ..nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and their role in exocytosis have not yet been examined in human chromaffin cells. To characterize these receptors and investigate their function, patch-clamp experiments were performed in ..
  16. Ziegler C, Sicard F, Lattke P, Bornstein S, Ehrhart Bornstein M, Krug A. Dehydroepiandrosterone induces a neuroendocrine phenotype in nerve growth factor-stimulated chromaffin pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Endocrinology. 2008;149:320-8 pubmed
    ..DHEA drives NGF-stimulated cells toward a neuroendocrine phenotype, suggesting that the interaction of intraadrenal steroids and growth factors is required for the maintenance of an intact adrenal medulla. ..
  17. Gong L, de Toledo G, Lindau M. Exocytotic catecholamine release is not associated with cation flux through channels in the vesicle membrane but Na+ influx through the fusion pore. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:915-22 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis was tested in chromaffin cells using cell-attached patch amperometry that simultaneously measured catecholamine release from single vesicles ..
  18. Chen M, Chen Y, Peng I, Kang R, Wu M, Cheng P, et al. Ca2+ binding protein-1 inhibits Ca2+ currents and exocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:169-81 pubmed
    ..spliced CaBP1 variants (L- and S-CaBP1) in modulating stimulus-secretion coupling in primary cultured bovine chromaffin cells. L- and S-CaBP1 were cloned from rat brain and fused with yellow fluorescent protein at the C-terminal...
  19. Amatore C, Arbault S, Bonifas I, Guille M. Quantitative investigations of amperometric spike feet suggest different controlling factors of the fusion pore in exocytosis at chromaffin cells. Biophys Chem. 2009;143:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The amperometric data reported herein were obtained using bovine chromaffin cells stimulated with either potassium or barium ions, two commonly-employed elicitors of exocytosis...
  20. Vandael D, Zuccotti A, Striessnig J, Carbone E. Ca(V)1.3-driven SK channel activation regulates pacemaking and spike frequency adaptation in mouse chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:16345-59 pubmed publisher
    Mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) fire spontaneous action potentials (APs) at rest. Ca(v)1...
  21. Schonn J, van Weering J, Mohrmann R, Schlüter O, Sudhof T, de Wit H, et al. Rab3 proteins involved in vesicle biogenesis and priming in embryonic mouse chromaffin cells. Traffic. 2010;11:1415-28 pubmed publisher
    ..rab3d null, here denoted as ABCD(-/-) ) mouse line to investigate Rab3 function in embryonic mouse adrenal chromaffin cells by electron microscopy and electrophysiological measurements...
  22. González Jamett A, Báez Matus X, Hevia M, Guerra M, Olivares M, Martinez A, et al. The association of dynamin with synaptophysin regulates quantal size and duration of exocytotic events in chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of amperometric measurements of quantal catecholamine release from chromaffin cells. First, we showed that synaptophysin and dynamin interact in chromaffin granule-rich fractions and that this ..
  23. Chen Y, Zhang K, Wen G, Rao F, Sanchez A, Wang L, et al. Human dopamine ?-hydroxylase promoter variant alters transcription in chromaffin cells, enzyme secretion, and blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2011;24:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..studied by site-directed mutagenesis in DBH promoter haplotype/luciferase reporter plasmids transfected into chromaffin cells. Sequence motifs were predicted from position weight matrices, and endogenous transcription factor binding ..
  24. Shi G, Ma K, Pappas G, Qu T. Phenotypic characteristics of hybrid cells produced by cell fusion of porcine adrenal chromaffin cells with human mesenchymal stem cells: a preliminary study. Neurol Res. 2008;30:217-22 pubmed publisher
    Transplantation of adrenal chromaffin cells (CCs) that release endogenous opioid peptides and catecholamines produces significant antinociceptive effects in patients with terminal cancer pain...
  25. Parlato R, Otto C, Tuckermann J, Stotz S, Kaden S, Grone H, et al. Conditional inactivation of glucocorticoid receptor gene in dopamine-beta-hydroxylase cells impairs chromaffin cell survival. Endocrinology. 2009;150:1775-81 pubmed publisher
    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been thought to determine the fate of chromaffin cells from sympathoadrenal progenitor cells...
  26. Pérez Alvarez A, Hernández Vivanco A, Caba González J, Albillos A. Different roles attributed to Cav1 channel subtypes in spontaneous action potential firing and fine tuning of exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 2011;116:105-21 pubmed publisher
    This study examines the Cav1 isoforms expressed in mouse chromaffin cells and compares their biophysical properties and roles played in cell excitability and exocytosis...
  27. Montesinos M, Machado J, Camacho M, Diaz J, Morales Y, Alvarez de la Rosa D, et al. The crucial role of chromogranins in storage and exocytosis revealed using chromaffin cells from chromogranin A null mouse. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3350-8 pubmed publisher
    Chromogranins (Cgs) are the major soluble proteins of dense-core secretory vesicles. Chromaffin cells from Chga null mice [chromogranin A knock-out (CgA-KO)] exhibited approximately 30% reduction in the content and in the release of ..
  28. Kuri B, Chan S, SMITH C. PACAP regulates immediate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells in an activity-dependent manner through a protein kinase C-dependent pathway. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1214-25 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells are a major peripheral output of the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamine release from these cells is driven by synaptic excitation from the innervating splanchnic nerve...
  29. Wildner H, Gierl M, Strehle M, Pla P, Birchmeier C. Insm1 (IA-1) is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that controls differentiation of the sympatho-adrenal lineage. Development. 2008;135:473-81 pubmed
    ..By contrast, terminal differentiation of adrenal chromaffin cells does not occur...
  30. Gonz lez Jamett A, Momboisse F, Guerra M, Ory S, B ez Matus X, Barraza N, et al. Dynamin-2 regulates fusion pore expansion and quantal release through a mechanism that involves actin dynamics in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70638 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we investigated whether this mechanism rely on dynamin's ability to remodel actin cytoskeleton...
  31. Unsicker K, Huber K, Schober A, Kalcheim C. Resolved and open issues in chromaffin cell development. Mech Dev. 2013;130:324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..attributed to glucocorticoids: they are essential for the postnatal maintenance of adrenal and extra-adrenal chromaffin cells. Transcription factors, as, e.g...
  32. Marcantoni A, Vandael D, Mahapatra S, Carabelli V, Sinnegger Brauns M, Striessnig J, et al. Loss of Cav1.3 channels reveals the critical role of L-type and BK channel coupling in pacemaking mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2010;30:491-504 pubmed publisher
    We studied wild-type (WT) and Cav1.3(-/-) mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) with the aim to determine the isoform of L-type Ca(2+) channel (LTCC) and BK channels that underlie the pacemaker current controlling spontaneous firing...
  33. Tomé A, Castro E, Santos R, Rosário L. Selective stimulation of catecholamine release from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by an ionotropic purinergic receptor sensitive to 2-methylthio ATP. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:41 pubmed
    ..purinergic receptor agonist, stimulates Ca2+ influx and evokes catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells. These cells express P2Y and P2X (ionotropic) purinoceptors, with the latter providing an important Ca2+ ..
  34. Anantharam A, Onoa B, Edwards R, Holz R, Axelrod D. Localized topological changes of the plasma membrane upon exocytosis visualized by polarized TIRFM. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:415-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments on diI-stained bovine adrenal chromaffin cells using polarized TIRFM demonstrate rapid and varied submicrometer changes in plasma membrane topology at sites ..
  35. Darios F, Wasser C, Shakirzyanova A, Giniatullin A, Goodman K, Munoz Bravo J, et al. Sphingosine facilitates SNARE complex assembly and activates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Neuron. 2009;62:683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further mechanistic insights suggest that sphingosine acts on the synaptobrevin/phospholipid interface, defining a novel function for this important lipid regulator. ..
  36. Gulyas Kovacs A, de Wit H, Milosevic I, Kochubey O, Toonen R, Klingauf J, et al. Munc18-1: sequential interactions with the fusion machinery stimulate vesicle docking and priming. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8676-86 pubmed
    ..In Munc18-1 null chromaffin cells, vesicle docking is abolished and syntaxin levels are reduced...
  37. Chan S, Doreian B, Smith C. Dynamin and myosin regulate differential exocytosis from mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1351-7 pubmed publisher
    Neuroendocrine chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla represent a primary output for the sympathetic nervous system...
  38. Buttigieg J, Brown S, Zhang M, Lowe M, Holloway A, Nurse C. Chronic nicotine in utero selectively suppresses hypoxic sensitivity in neonatal rat adrenal chromaffin cells. FASEB J. 2008;22:1317-26 pubmed
    ..Catecholamine (CA) release from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMCs) in response to asphyxial stressors, e.g...
  39. Nguyen Huu T, Mattei C, Wen P, Bourdelais A, Lewis R, Benoit E, et al. Ciguatoxin-induced catecholamine secretion in bovine chromaffin cells: mechanism of action and reversible inhibition by brevenal. Toxicon. 2010;56:792-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we report that P-CTX-1B promotes catecholamine secretion from bovine chromaffin cells, an effect that is insensitive to concomitant activation of capacitative Ca(2+) entry...
  40. Zhang Z, Jackson M. Membrane bending energy and fusion pore kinetics in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Biophys J. 2010;98:2524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis begins with a proteinaceous fusion pore with less stressed membrane, and becomes lipidic as it dilates, bending membrane into a highly curved shape...
  41. Fulop T, Doreian B, Smith C. Dynamin I plays dual roles in the activity-dependent shift in exocytic mode in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008;477:146-54 pubmed publisher
    Under low stimulation, adrenal chromaffin cells release freely soluble catecholamines through a restricted granule fusion pore while retaining the large neuropeptide-containing proteinacious granule core...
  42. Carabelli V, Marcantoni A, Comunanza V, De Luca A, Diaz J, Borges R, et al. Chronic hypoxia up-regulates alpha1H T-type channels and low-threshold catecholamine secretion in rat chromaffin cells. J Physiol. 2007;584:149-65 pubmed
    alpha(1H) T-type channels recruited by beta(1)-adrenergic stimulation in rat chromaffin cells (RCCs) are coupled to fast exocytosis with the same Ca(2+) dependence of high-threshold Ca(2+) channels...
  43. Becherer U, Pasche M, Nofal S, Hof D, Matti U, Rettig J. Quantifying exocytosis by combination of membrane capacitance measurements and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in chromaffin cells. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e505 pubmed
    ..concern by combining TIRF-Microscopy and membrane capacitance recording to quantify exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells. We found that secretion measured with TIRF-Microscopy is representative of the overall secretion of the ..
  44. Doreian B, Fulop T, SMITH C. Myosin II activation and actin reorganization regulate the mode of quantal exocytosis in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4470-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. Stimulation causes chromaffin cells to fire action potentials, leading to the exocytosis of various classes of transmitters into the circulation...
  45. Segovia M, Ales E, Montes M, Bonifas I, Jemal I, Lindau M, et al. Push-and-pull regulation of the fusion pore by synaptotagmin-7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19032-7 pubmed publisher
    In chromaffin cells, Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin-1 and -7 triggers exocytosis by promoting fusion pore opening and fusion pore expansion...
  46. Yates D, Macko A, Chen X, Green A, Kelly A, Anderson M, et al. Hypoxaemia-induced catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells inhibits glucose-stimulated hyperinsulinaemia in fetal sheep. J Physiol. 2012;590:5439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that this effect is mediated by catecholamines, exclusively, from fetal adrenal chromaffin cells. To investigate this hypothesis, square-wave hyperglycaemic clamp studies were performed under normoxaemic (..
  47. Brown S, Reyes E, Nurse C. Chronic hypoxia upregulates adenosine 2a receptor expression in chromaffin cells via hypoxia inducible factor-2?: role in modulating secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:466-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, A2aR, adenosine, and HIF-2? are key contributors to the potentiation of CAT secretion in developing chromaffin cells during chronic hypoxia.
  48. de Wit H, Walter A, Milosevic I, Gulyas Kovacs A, Riedel D, Sørensen J, et al. Synaptotagmin-1 docks secretory vesicles to syntaxin-1/SNAP-25 acceptor complexes. Cell. 2009;138:935-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using adrenal chromaffin cells, we identify the vesicular docking partner as synaptotagmin-1, the calcium sensor for exocytosis, and SNAP-25 ..
  49. Alvarez Y, Marengo F. The immediately releasable vesicle pool: highly coupled secretion in chromaffin and other neuroendocrine cells. J Neurochem. 2011;116:155-63 pubmed publisher
    In neuroendocrine cells, such as adrenal chromaffin cells, the exocytosis of hormone-filled vesicles is triggered by a localized Ca(2+) increase that develops after the activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels...
  50. Lopez Font I, Torregrosa Hetland C, Villanueva J, Gutierrez L. t-SNARE cluster organization and dynamics in chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1550-6 pubmed publisher
    Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells represent an excellent model to study the molecular events linked to exocytosis, because they use the same type of SNAREs for vesicle docking and fusion as neurons...
  51. Tsarovina K, Reiff T, Stubbusch J, Kurek D, Grosveld F, Parlato R, et al. The Gata3 transcription factor is required for the survival of embryonic and adult sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10833-43 pubmed publisher
    The transcription factor Gata3 is essential for the development of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. As Gata3 expression is maintained up to the adult stage, we addressed its function in differentiated sympathoadrenal ..
  52. Anantharam A, Bittner M, Aikman R, Stuenkel E, Schmid S, Axelrod D, et al. A new role for the dynamin GTPase in the regulation of fusion pore expansion. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1907-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand the membrane-sculpting repertoire of dynamin to include the regulation of immediate postfusion events in exocytosis that control the rate of release of soluble granule contents...