chromaffin system


Summary: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.

Top Publications

  1. Huber K, Brühl B, Guillemot F, Olson E, Ernsberger U, Unsicker K. Development of chromaffin cells depends on MASH1 function. Development. 2002;129:4729-38 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that the development of chromaffin cells does depend on MASH1 function not only for catecholaminergic differentiation but also for general chromaffin cell differentiation. ..
  2. Firestone J, Browning M. Calcium signalling in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: additive effects of histamine and nicotine. Synapse. 1994;17:268-74 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a model in which two distinct sources of Ca++ can summate within the cell, producing a greater Ca++ signal and, hence, a greater effect on neurotransmitter release. ..
  3. Sasakawa N, Nakaki T, Yamamoto S, Kato R. Stimulation by ATP of inositol trisphosphate accumulation and calcium mobilization in cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1989;52:441-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ATP induces the formation of 1,4,5-IP3 through the P2-purinergic receptor and consequently promotes Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular storage sites in cultured adrenal chromaffin cells. ..
  4. Anderson A, Boyd A, Byford A, Campbell A, Gemmell D, Hamilton N, et al. Anesthetic activity of novel water-soluble 2 beta-morpholinyl steroids and their modulatory effects at GABAA receptors. J Med Chem. 1997;40:1668-81 pubmed
    ..These in vitro results are consistent with the anesthetic activity of the amino steroids being related to their modulatory effects at GABAA receptors. ..
  5. Rieker S, Fischer Colbrie R, Eiden L, Winkler H. Phylogenetic distribution of peptides related to chromogranins A and B. J Neurochem. 1988;50:1066-73 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with the concept that these peptides have a specific function. ..
  6. Nakanishi A, Morita K, Oka M. Influence of reduction of cytoplasmic ATP on catecholamine secretion from intact and digitonin-permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1988;46:109-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ATP in the cell cytoplasm may play an important role in the regulation of catecholamine secretion as a factor modulating the activity of the exocytotic process in the adrenal chromaffin cell. ..
  7. Lin L, Kao L, Westhead E. Agents that promote protein phosphorylation inhibit the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and prolong Ca2+ transients in bovine chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1994;63:1941-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that reversible protein phosphorylation modulates the activity of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and suggest that modulation of the exchanger may play a role in the regulation of secretion. ..
  8. Skar R, Larsen T, Serck Hanssen G. Regulation of c-fos expression by IGF-I in bovine chromaffin cells: desensitization following cholinergic activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;106:213-20 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with IGF-I stimulating c-fos gene activation in the adrenal medulla and show that c-fos expression can be negatively regulated by temporal neural and hormonal stimulation. ..
  9. Dhariwal K, Washko P, Hartzell W, Levine M. Ascorbic acid within chromaffin granules. In situ kinetics of norepinephrine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:15404-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in situ kinetics of dopamine beta-monooxygenase for ascorbic acid may be most accurately determined using intact granules and the true physiologic substrate. ..

More Information


  1. Reinartz A, Ehling J, Franz S, Simon V, Bravo I, Tessmer C, et al. Small intestinal mucosa expression of putative chaperone fls485. BMC Gastroenterol. 2010;10:27 pubmed publisher
    ..An interdependence of enterocyte differentiation along the crypt-villus axis and fls485 chaperone activity might be possible. ..
  2. Giovanella L, Ceriani L. Serum chromogranin-alpha immunoradiometric assay in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2002;17:130-4 pubmed
    ..Consequently, serum CgA increases in patients affected by pheochromocytoma and other diseases of the chromaffin system.
  3. Lapner K, Montpetit C, Perry S. Desensitisation of chromaffin cell nicotinic receptors does not impede catecholamine secretion during acute hypoxia in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Exp Biol. 2000;203:1589-97 pubmed
  4. Romanenko V, Gebara R, Miller K, Njus D. Determination of transport parameters of permeant substrates of the vesicular amine transporter. Anal Biochem. 1998;257:127-33 pubmed
    ..7 +/- 1.0 x 10(-9) and 1.1 +/- 0.4 x 10(-8) cm/s, respectively. Values for K(m) are 15 +/- 9 and 34 +/- 14 microM and for Vmax are 1.3 +/- 0.2 and 1.4 +/- 0.9 nmol/ of membrane protein, respectively. ..
  5. Inoue M, Imanaga I. G protein-mediated inhibition of inwardly rectifying K+ channels in guinea pig chromaffin cells. Am J Physiol. 1993;265:C946-56 pubmed
    ..Time course of the inhibition of the IR K+ current coincided in part with that of inactivation of a nonselective cation current. In conclusion, IR K+ channels in the chromaffin cell are subject to G protein-mediated inhibition. ..
  6. Chamberlain L, Roth D, Morgan A, Burgoyne R. Distinct effects of alpha-SNAP, 14-3-3 proteins, and calmodulin on priming and triggering of regulated exocytosis. J Cell Biol. 1995;130:1063-70 pubmed
  7. Wong K, Waterfield R, Marzola M, Scarsbrook A, Chowdhury F, Gross M, et al. Contemporary nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumours. Clin Radiol. 2012;67:1035-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will summarize the role of current and emerging radiopharmaceuticals in NM imaging of this rare but important group of tumours. ..
  8. Sortwell C, Petty F, Kramer G, Sagen J. In vivo release of catecholamines from xenogeneic chromaffin cell grafts with antidepressive activity. Exp Neurol. 1994;130:1-8 pubmed
    ..The results of this study directly demonstrate that xenografts of bovine chromaffin cells to the rat frontal cortex provide a releasable pool of catecholamines for antidepressive activity. ..
  9. Tsutsui M, Yanagihara N, Fukunaga K, Minami K, Nakashima Y, Kuroiwa A, et al. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN-62 inhibits adrenal medullary chromaffin cell functions independent of its action on the kinase. J Neurochem. 1996;66:2517-22 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that KN-62 inhibits catecholamine secretion and tyrosine hydroxylase activation due to mainly its ion channel blockade on the plasma membrane rather than the inhibition of CaM kinase II activity in the cells. ..
  10. Gower W, Buzogany J, Ellison E, Knierim T, Fabri P. Control of gastrin release in cultured gastrinoma-derived G cells. Surgery. 1988;104:424-30 pubmed
    ..The biologically inactive phorbol ester, 4 alpha PDD, was without effect at all concentrations. Somatostatin (10(-8) - 10(-6) mol/L) inhibited 8-BrcAMP-stimulated gastrin release in a dose-dependent fashion to a maximum of 75%...
  11. Aunis D, Bader M. The cytoskeleton as a barrier to exocytosis in secretory cells. J Exp Biol. 1988;139:253-66 pubmed
    ..This dissolution of cytoskeletal filaments should result in granule detachment and permit granules free access to exocytotic sites on the plasma membrane. ..
  12. Larsson H, Carlsson E, Hakanson R, Mattsson H, Nilsson G, Seensalu R, et al. Time-course of development and reversal of gastric endocrine cell hyperplasia after inhibition of acid secretion. Studies with omeprazole and ranitidine in intact and antrectomized rats. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:1477-86 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the effects described are reversible and that gastrin cells turn over more rapidly than ECL cells. ..
  13. Matsumoto S, Tanaka K, Yamamoto A, Nakada H, Uchida M, Tashiro Y. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of dopamine beta-hydroxylase and chromogranin A in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. Cell Struct Funct. 1987;12:483-96 pubmed
    ..DBH was observed evenly in the periphery and in the dense matrix of the chromaffin granules. ..
  14. Livett B, Marley P. Noncholinergic control of adrenal catecholamine secretion. J Anat. 1993;183 ( Pt 2):277-89 pubmed
  15. Schweizer F, Schafer T, Tapparelli C, Grob M, Karli U, Heumann R, et al. Inhibition of exocytosis by intracellularly applied antibodies against a chromaffin granule-binding protein. Nature. 1989;339:709-12 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the functional involvement in exocytosis of a plasma membrane protein with high affinity for secretory vesicles. ..
  16. Monkhouse W, Chell J. The effect of hydrocortisone on the para-aortic body of the newborn mouse: an in vivo fraction of labelled mitoses study. J Anat. 1987;150:211-8 pubmed
  17. McKay D, Cobianchi M, Schneider A. Comparison of the effects of colchicine and beta-lumicolchicine on cultured adrenal chromaffin cells: lack of evidence for an action of colchicine on receptor-associated microtubules. Pharmacology. 1987;35:155-62 pubmed
    ..However, our data do not preclude such a role. Differences in the effect of colchicine and beta-lumicolchicine on K+-evoked secretion suggests different modes of action of these structural isomers on chromaffin cell function. ..
  18. Castro E, Tome A, Miras Portugal M, Rosario L. Single-cell fura-2 microfluorometry reveals different purinoceptor subtypes coupled to Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release in bovine adrenal chromaffin and endothelial cells. Pflugers Arch. 1994;426:524-33 pubmed
    ..An intracellular Ca(2+)-releasing P2U-type purinoceptor is specifically localized to adrenal endothelial cells, while a subpopulation of chromaffin cells expresses a non-P2X, non-P2Y subtype exclusively coupled to Ca2+ influx. ..
  19. Soszynski D, Metz Boutigue M, Aunis D, Bader M. Secretogranin II: regulation of synthesis and post-translational proteolysis in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neuroendocrinol. 1993;5:655-62 pubmed
  20. Tabarin A, Chen D, Hakanson R, Sundler F. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide in the adrenal gland of mammals: distribution, characterization and responses to drugs. Neuroendocrinology. 1994;59:113-9 pubmed
    ..Two days later, the concentrations of NPY-LI were increased to 216% of controls, while the concentrations of PACAP-27-LI were similar to that of controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  21. Hussain I, Bate G, Henry J, Djali P, Dimaline R, Dockray G, et al. Modulation of gastrin processing by vesicular monoamine transporter type 1 (VMAT1) in rat gastrin cells. J Physiol. 1999;517 ( Pt 2):495-505 pubmed
    ..Dietary amines also modulate cleavage of progastrin-derived peptides, but do so by a VMAT1-independent mechanism; they may act as weak bases that passively permeate secretory vesicle membranes and raise intravesicular pH. ..
  22. Ehrengruber M, Deranleau D, Kempf C, Zahler P, Lanzrein M. Arachidonic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids alter membrane potential in PC12 and bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1993;60:282-8 pubmed
    ..We propose a model where internally generated fatty acids act as a feedback to desensitize the stimulated cell via inhibition of receptor-dependent Ca2+ influx and induction of membrane hyperpolarization. ..
  23. Loo D, Sachs G, Prinz C. Potassium and chloride currents in rat gastric enterochromaffin-like cells. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:E739-45 pubmed
    ..The depolarization that ensues may activate the K+ current to maintain the membrane potential during exocytosis. ..
  24. Huber K, Kalcheim C, Unsicker K. The development of the chromaffin cell lineage from the neural crest. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151:10-6 pubmed publisher
  25. Minami N, Morita K, Suemitsu T, Miyasako T, Dohi T. Cyclic AMP-induced depolarization measured by bis-oxonol fluorescence in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1994;97:65-72 pubmed
    ..These results may suggest that cyclic AMP causes the membrane depolarization by accumulating Na+ through the inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase in adrenal chromaffin cells. ..
  26. Yamauchi T, Kachi T. An electron microscopic study on nerve endings on adrenomedullary adrenaline cells in golden hamsters: position, size and changes due to pinealectomy. Arch Histol Cytol. 2008;71:115-22 pubmed
    ..04; shorter diameter: P < 0.05). In conclusion, preganglionic nerve endings in the adrenal medulla of the golden hamster show differential morphological changes following PX depending on the intracellular part of A cells. ..
  27. Obendorf D, Schwarzenbrunner U, Fischer Colbrie R, Laslop A, Winkler H. Immunological characterization of a membrane glycoprotein of chromaffin granules: its presence in endocrine and exocrine tissues. Neuroscience. 1988;25:343-51 pubmed
    ..e. the glycoprotein II. It seems likely that this protein is involved in a basic function common to all secretory vesicles. ..
  28. Fox G. A morphometric analysis of exocytosis in KCl-stimulated bovine chromaffin cells. Cell Tissue Res. 1996;284:303-16 pubmed
    ..In short, if exocytosis is responsible for release, it would appear to function without leaving a morphological trace. An alternative hypothesis, therefore, is outlined which better accommodates existing data. ..
  29. Afework M, Tomlinson A, Burnstock G. Distribution and colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase in adrenal gland of developing, adult and aging Sprague-Dawley rats. Cell Tissue Res. 1994;276:133-41 pubmed
    ..Most, but not all, nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive nerve fibres also showed NADPH-diaphorase staining. ..
  30. Liu P, Lin M, Hsieh H. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate inhibition of catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Neurosci Lett. 1996;204:181-4 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the inhibitory effects of DHEAS on secretion mainly occur at nicotinic receptors as well as at the voltage-dependent Na+ channels. ..
  31. Fujino Y, Fujii T. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulates both adrenaline and noradrenaline release from adrenal medulla in 21-day-old rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1995;69:413-20 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the responsiveness of the noradrenaline-storing cells to hypoglycemia in 21-day-old rats is different from that in young adult rats. ..
  32. Cox M, Ely C, Catling A, Weber M, Parsons S. Tyrosine kinases are required for catecholamine secretion and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1996;66:1103-12 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that an unidentified Ca(2+)-activated tyrosine kinase(s) is required for MAPK activation and exocytosis in chromaffin cells and suggest that MAPK participates in the regulation of secretion. ..
  33. Barker R, Dunnett S. The biology and behaviour of intracerebral adrenal transplants in animals and man. Rev Neurosci. 1993;4:113-46 pubmed
    ..This is followed by an evaluation of the use of these grafts in experimentally lesioned animals and in patients with Parkinson's disease. ..
  34. Yadid G, Maor G, Youdim M, Silberman M, Zinder O. Autoradiographic localization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in bovine adrenal medulla. Neurochem Res. 1993;18:1051-5 pubmed
    ..This difference supports biochemical evidence for glycine transport into medulla cells and glycine receptor sites on the chromaffin cell membrane. ..
  35. Tischler A, Freund R, Carroll J, Cahill A, Perlman R, Alroy J, et al. Polyoma-induced neoplasms of the mouse adrenal medulla. Characterization of the tumors and establishment of cell lines. Lab Invest. 1993;68:541-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, although polyoma virus cannot be readily used to produce adrenergic cell lines from the mouse adrenal medulla, the lines that are produced might substitute for PC12 cells in some types of studies that require a mouse model. ..
  36. Schmitz F, Wallis K, Rho M, Drenckhahn D, Murphy D. Intracellular distribution of kinesin in chromaffin cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 1994;63:77-83 pubmed
    ..Since these organelles are compartments with high membrane turnover, we speculate that kinesin might be involved in certain aspects of trafficking of these membrane systems. ..
  37. Engisch K, Nowycky M. Calcium dependence of large dense-cored vesicle exocytosis evoked by calcium influx in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurosci. 1996;16:1359-69 pubmed
  38. Abad F, Maroto R, Lopez M, Sanchez Garcia P, Garcia A. Pharmacological protection against the cytotoxicity induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and H2O2 in chromaffin cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;293:55-64 pubmed
    ..3rd) Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in primary cultures are a suitable model for adult neurons to study the basic mechanism of cell damage, and to screen new drugs with putative neuroprotective properties. ..
  39. Garcia Guzman M, Sala F, Sala S, Campos Caro A, Stuhmer W, Gutierrez L, et al. alpha-Bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic receptors on bovine chromaffin cells: molecular cloning, functional expression and alternative splicing of the alpha 7 subunit. Eur J Neurosci. 1995;7:647-55 pubmed
    ..Oocyte expression of this isoform does not yield functional channels. However, this alternative mRNA exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of alpha 7 homomer expression when coinjected with the undeleted isoform. ..
  40. Guillemot F, Lo L, Johnson J, Auerbach A, Anderson D, Joyner A. Mammalian achaete-scute homolog 1 is required for the early development of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Cell. 1993;75:463-76 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Mash-1, like its Drosophila homologs of the AS-C, controls a basic operation in development of neuronal progenitors in distinct neural lineages. ..
  41. Barnard R, Morgan A, Burgoyne R. Domains of alpha-SNAP required for the stimulation of exocytosis and for N-ethylmalemide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) binding and activation. Mol Biol Cell. 1996;7:693-701 pubmed
  42. Naranjo J, Wise B, Mellstrom B, Costa E. Negative feedback regulation of the content of proenkephalin mRNA in chromaffin cell cultures. Neuropharmacology. 1988;27:337-43 pubmed
    ..The present data establish a correlation between inhibition of the secretion of enkephalin and reduced accumulation of its specific mRNA, suggesting a negative feedback inhibition by low molecular weight enkephalins. ..
  43. Holman M, Tonta M, Coleman H, Parkington H. Currents caused by the spontaneous release of quanta of acetylcholine onto chromaffin cells in guinea-pig adrenal medulla. Neurosci Lett. 1995;184:75-8 pubmed
    ..Thus the neuronal nicotinic receptor-channels giving rise to SESCs in chromaffin cells are probably very similar to those that are opened by quanta of acetylcholine in sympathetic ganglion cells. ..
  44. Wimalasena K, Herman H, May S. Effects of dopamine beta-monooxygenase substrate analogs on ascorbate levels and norepinephrine synthesis in adrenal chromaffin granule ghosts. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:124-30 pubmed
  45. Nirenberg M, Tate S, Mosckovitz R, Udenfriend S, Pickel V. Immunocytochemical localization of the renal neutral and basic amino acid transporter in rat adrenal gland, brainstem, and spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 1995;356:505-22 pubmed
    ..The observed localization of NBAT suggests that this renal specific amino acid transporter subserves a role as a vesicular or plasmalemmal transporter in monoamine-containing cells, including chromaffin cells and autonomic neurons. ..
  46. Vijayaraghavan S, Schmid H, Mapp K. Serotonin modulates nicotinic responses of adrenal chromaffin cells. J Neurochem. 1993;61:324-31 pubmed
    ..Because both blood and the chromaffin cells contain 5-HT, the inhibition provides an opportunity for negative control of catecholamine secretion from the adrenals. ..
  47. Daniels A, Reinhard J, Painter G. Accumulation of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) into bovine chromaffin granules results in a large restriction of its molecular motion: a 13C and 31P NMR study. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;156:1243-9 pubmed
  48. Blaschko H, Comline R, Schneider F, Silver M, Smith A. Secretion of a chromaffin granule protein, chromogranin, from the adrenal gland after splanchnic stimulation. Nature. 1967;215:58-9 pubmed
  49. Schilling K, Gratzl M. Quantification of p38/synaptophysin in highly purified adrenal medullary chromaffin vesicles. FEBS Lett. 1988;233:22-4 pubmed
    ..However, because of the large difference in surface area and protein content, the amount of p38/synaptophysin per single vesicle is the same in both types of organelles. ..
  50. Powis D, Clark C, O Brien K. Depleted internal store-activated Ca2+ entry can trigger neurotransmitter release in bovine chromaffin cells. Neurosci Lett. 1996;204:165-8 pubmed
  51. Hansen J, Notter M, Okawara S, Gash D. Organization, fine structure, and viability of the human adrenal medulla: considerations for neural transplantation. Ann Neurol. 1988;24:599-609 pubmed
    ..The sex and age of the donor did not affect cell viability or morphological characteristics. ..
  52. Collery M, Delacour J, Jousselin Hosaja M. Cholinergic differentiation factor/leukemia inhibitory factor enhances functional effects of adrenal medulla grafts after hippocampal lesions in rats. Neuroscience. 1994;63:667-77 pubmed
    ..This might greatly enlarge the field of this grafting technique for analysing the normal functioning of the brain and for repairing it. ..
  53. Moriyama Y, Nelson N. Nucleotide binding sites and chemical modification of the chromaffin granule proton ATPase. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:14723-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that a tightly bound ADP on subunit II is necessary for the activity of the enzyme. ..