endocrine system


Summary: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

Top Publications

  1. Cutolo M, Plebani M, Shoenfeld Y, Adorini L, Tincani A. Vitamin D endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases. Vitam Horm. 2011;86:327-51 pubmed publisher
  2. Vitale G, Salvioli S, Franceschi C. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9:228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that ..
  3. Balabanič D, Rupnik M, Klemenčič A. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23:403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Although EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, the main sources is industrial waste water. The present paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impact of EDCs on reproductive disorders in humans. ..
  4. Rippe J, Angelopoulos T. Sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fructose, their metabolism and potential health effects: what do we really know?. Adv Nutr. 2013;4:236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the metabolism, endocrine responses, and potential health effects of sucrose, HFCS, and fructose. ..
  5. Rogers J, Metz L, Yong V. Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals and immune responses: a focus on bisphenol-A and its potential mechanisms. Mol Immunol. 2013;53:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their effects on the endocrine system they have been thoroughly examined with regards to sexual dysfunction, malformation, and cancers of ..
  6. Gonzalez Bulnes A, Torres Rovira L, Ovilo C, Astiz S, Gomez Izquierdo E, Gonzalez Añover P, et al. Reproductive, endocrine and metabolic feto-maternal features and placental gene expression in a swine breed with obesity/leptin resistance. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;176:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the conceptus viability and growth appear to be strongly related to maternal metabolic features and, thus, affected in females with alterations in lipid metabolism. ..
  7. Ameri P, Ferone D. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?. Neuroendocrinology. 2012;95:267-76 pubmed publisher
  8. Mahuad C, Bozza V, Pezzotto S, Bay M, Besedovsky H, del Rey A, et al. Impaired immune responses in tuberculosis patients are related to weight loss that coexists with an immunoendocrine imbalance. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14:193-9 pubmed
    ..To conclude, the relation between weight loss and abnormal immune response of TB patients is partly associated with the immunoendocrine imbalance observed in parallel. ..
  9. Zielonka M, Xia J, Friedel R, Offermanns S, Worzfeld T. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair.

More Information


  1. Merza Z. Chronic use of opioids and the endocrine system. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:621-6 pubmed publisher
    ..They are also abused for recreational purposes. Long term use may lead to abnormalities in the endocrine system. The axis mainly affected is the gonadal axis leading to hypogonadism...
  2. Pérez López F. Sunlight, the vitamin D endocrine system, and their relationships with gynaecologic cancer. Maturitas. 2008;59:101-13 pubmed publisher
  3. Stratikopoulos E, Szabolcs M, Dragatsis I, Klinakis A, Efstratiadis A. The hormonal action of IGF1 in postnatal mouse growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19378-83 pubmed publisher
  4. Torres A, Rubio M. The Endocrine Society's Clinical Practice Guideline on endocrine and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery patient: commentary from a European Perspective. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The main arguments reflected in those recommendations are set out in this article and are subject to analysis and discussion from the specific viewpoint of the current European experience. ..
  5. Sun J, Shi R, Zhao S, Li X, Lu S, Bu H, et al. E2F8, a direct target of miR-144, promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017;36:40 pubmed publisher
    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of endocrine system, and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common subtype...
  6. Cooper C. Endocrinology of osmoregulation and thermoregulation of Australian desert tetrapods: A historical perspective. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;244:186-200 pubmed publisher
    ..osmoregulation and thermoregulation are two physiological challenges faced by tetrapods in deserts, and the endocrine system plays an important role in regulating these processes...
  7. Fonseca E, Ruivo R, Lopes Marques M, Zhang H, Santos M, Venkatesh B, et al. LXR? and LXR? Nuclear Receptors Evolved in the Common Ancestor of Gnathostomes. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:222-230 pubmed publisher
    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate numerous aspects of the endocrine system. They mediate endogenous and exogenous cues, ensuring a homeostatic control of development and metabolism...
  8. Peter M. The role of thyroid hormones in stress response of fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;172:198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..A major role of THs in stress response is thus evident in fish. ..
  9. Jin Y, Wang L, Fu Z. Oral exposure to atrazine modulates hormone synthesis and the transcription of steroidogenic genes in male peripubertal mice. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;184:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insights into the mammalian toxicological mechanism of ATZ. ..
  10. Aoyama H, Hojo H, Takahashi K, Shimizu Endo N, Araki M, Takeuchi Kashimoto Y, et al. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats with methoxychlor. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2012;52:28-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Neither systemic nor reproductive toxicities appeared in the 10 ppm group. ..
  11. Hu Y, Wang H, Chen E, Xu Z, Chen B, Lu G. Candidate microRNAs as biomarkers of thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and experimental validation. Cancer Med. 2016;5:2602-14 pubmed publisher
    Thyroid cancer is one of the most common carcinomas of the endocrine system with an increasing incidence...
  12. Lee H, Hwang K, Choi K. Diverse pathways of epithelial mesenchymal transition related with cancer progression and metastasis and potential effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on epithelial mesenchymal transition process. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;457:103-113 pubmed publisher
    ..that interfere with normal functions of natural hormones in the body, leading to a disruption of the endocrine system. Specifically, EDCs have the potential to cause formation of several hormone-dependent cancers, including ..
  13. Zhao X, Sun Z, Li H, Jiang F, Zhou J, Zhang L. MiR-135a-5p modulates biological functions of thyroid carcinoma cells via targeting VCAN 3'-UTR. Cancer Biomark. 2017;20:207-216 pubmed publisher
    Thyroid carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignant tumors of the endocrine system, which accounts for nearly 1% population in newly diagnosed carcinoma worldwide and the incidence has an increasing tendency in recent years...
  14. Ariyasu H, Inaba H, Ota T, Yamaoka H, Furukawa Y, Iwakura H, et al. Thyrotoxicosis and Adrenocortical Hormone Deficiency During Immune-checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment for Malignant Melanoma. In Vivo. 2018;32:345-351 pubmed
    ..Since rapidly progressive fatal endocrine system failure may be provoked during ICI therapy, precise diagnosis and prompt treatment as well as close follow-up ..
  15. Terrien X, Fini J, Demeneix B, Schramm K, Prunet P. Generation of fluorescent zebrafish to study endocrine disruption and potential crosstalk between thyroid hormone and corticosteroids. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;105:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a new rapid diagnostic tool for characterizing the disrupting effects of toxicants on thyroid function and suggests possible crosstalk between the TR and Corticoid Signaling system. ..
  16. Iavicoli I, Fontana L, Leso V, Bergamaschi A. The effects of nanomaterials as endocrine disruptors. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:16732-801 pubmed publisher
    ..on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe ..
  17. Häusser J, Mojzisch A, Schulz Hardt S. Endocrinological and psychological responses to job stressors: an experimental test of the job demand--control model. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1021-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, this study provides the first clear-cut experimental evidence for the idea that the negative impact of high job demands on endocrinological responses can be buffered by high levels of job control. ..
  18. Vélez E, Azizi S, Millán Cubillo A, Fernández Borràs J, Blasco J, Chan S, et al. Effects of sustained exercise on GH-IGFs axis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016;310:R313-22 pubmed publisher
    The endocrine system regulates growth mainly through the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis and, although exercise promotes growth, little is known about its modulation of these factors...
  19. Gallieni M, Cozzolino M, Fallabrino G, Pasho S, Olivi L, Brancaccio D. Vitamin D: physiology and pathophysiology. Int J Artif Organs. 2009;32:87-94 pubmed
    ..it has been recognized that the molecules derived from vitamin D metabolism are best considered as a complex endocrine system. In this review article we summarize the basic concepts regarding vitamin D metabolism, transport, and ..
  20. Sun L, Wang S, Lin X, Tan H, Fu Z. Early Life Exposure to Ractopamine Causes Endocrine-Disrupting Effects in Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..HPG) axis, especially in females, suggested that β-agonists may have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Moreover, genes involved in anti-oxidative activity or detoxification were affected in a gender-specific ..
  21. Willett C, Bishop P, Sullivan K. Application of an integrated testing strategy to the U.S. EPA endocrine disruptor screening program. Toxicol Sci. 2011;123:15-25 pubmed publisher
  22. Stange D, Sieratowicz A, Horres R, Oehlmann J. Freshwater mudsnail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) estrogen receptor: identification and expression analysis under exposure to (xeno-)hormones. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;75:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..antipodarum, which can be assessed by embryo numbers in the brood pouch. However, the knowledge about the endocrine system of P. antipodarum is rather limited...
  23. Xing J, Bai Z. Is testicular dysgenesis syndrome a genetic, endocrine, or environmental disease, or an unexplained reproductive disorder?. Life Sci. 2018;194:120-129 pubmed publisher
    ..that environmental exposures owing to modern lifestyles are primary factors involved in the associated trends of the syndrome, which are capable of affecting the adult endocrine system via direct means or through epigenetic mechanisms.
  24. Kusuyama J, Ohnishi T, Bandow K, Amir M, Shima K, Semba I, et al. Constitutive activation of p46JNK2 is indispensable for C/EBP? induction in the initial stage of adipogenic differentiation. Biochem J. 2017;474:3421-3437 pubmed publisher
    Adipogenic differentiation plays a vital role in energy homeostasis and endocrine system. Several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ?, ?, and ?, ..
  25. Christie A, Roncalli V, Lenz P. Diversity of insulin-like peptide signaling system proteins in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea; Copepoda) - Possible contributors to seasonal pre-adult diapause. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;236:157-173 pubmed publisher
    ..finmarchicus, one hypothesis is that it is an insect-like diapause, where the endocrine system is a key regulator...
  26. Azim H, Davidson N, Ruddy K. Challenges in Treating Premenopausal Women with Endocrine-Sensitive Breast Cancer. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016;35:23-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Still, embryo or oocyte cryopreservation should be considered at the time of diagnosis for patients with endocrine-sensitive disease who desire future childbearing, particularly if they will undergo chemotherapy. ..
  27. Rejnmark L. The ageing endocrine system: Fracture risk after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013;9:189-90 pubmed publisher
  28. Claassen H, Schicht M, Paulsen F. Impact of sex hormones, insulin, growth factors and peptides on cartilage health and disease. Prog Histochem Cytochem. 2011;45:239-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Both animal and human research data were considered. The results are presented in an information matrix that identifies what is known, with supporting references, and identifies areas for further investigation. ..
  29. Zhou W, Cheng X, Zhang Y. Effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction, a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, on the neuroendocrine immunomodulation network. Pharmacol Ther. 2016;162:170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and neuroendocrine-immune interactions, including the effects of LW on the central nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system...
  30. Roller L, Čižmár D, Bednár B, Žitňan D. Expression of RYamide in the nervous and endocrine system of Bombyx mori. Peptides. 2016;80:72-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Two minor subpopulations of these EC were also immunoreactive to antibodies against tachykinin and myosupressin. This expression pattern suggests RYamides may play a role in the regulation of feeding and digestion. ..
  31. Saini G, Pant S, Singh S, Kazmi A, Alam T. A comparative study of occurrence and fate of endocrine disruptors: diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate in ASP- and SBR-based wastewater treatment plants. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188:609 pubmed
    Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals which affect endocrine system by bio-accumulation in aquatic organisms and produce adverse health effects in aquatic organisms as well as human beings, when come in contact...
  32. Ablimit A, Kühnel H, Strasser A, Upur H. Abnormal Savda syndrome: long-term consequences of emotional and physical stress on endocrine and immune activities in an animal model. Chin J Integr Med. 2013;19:603-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identified this animal model of a combination of physical and emotional stress as an optimal model for further studies on ASS and relative therapies. ..
  33. Lynch C, Sakamuru S, Huang R, Stavreva D, Varticovski L, Hager G, et al. Identifying environmental chemicals as agonists of the androgen receptor by using a quantitative high-throughput screening platform. Toxicology. 2017;385:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The information gained from the current study can be directly used to prioritize compounds for further in-depth toxicological evaluations, as well as their potential to disrupt the endocrine system via AR activation.
  34. von Holstein Rathlou S, BonDurant L, Peltekian L, Naber M, Yin T, Claflin K, et al. FGF21 Mediates Endocrine Control of Simple Sugar Intake and Sweet Taste Preference by the Liver. Cell Metab. 2016;23:335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the liver functions to regulate macronutrient-specific intake by producing an endocrine satiety signal that acts centrally to suppress the intake of "sweets." ..
  35. Li S, Yu J, Diao Z, Zeng L, Zeng M, Shen X, et al. Analysis on nutritional risk screening and influencing factors of hospitalized patients in central urban area. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2017;37:628-634 pubmed publisher
    ..fasting, intraoperative bleeding, the surgery in recent month, digestive diseases, metabolic diseases and endocrine system diseases had significant effects on nutritional risk (P<0.05)...
  36. Fair P, Schaefer A, Houser D, Bossart G, Romano T, Champagne C, et al. The environment as a driver of immune and endocrine responses in dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176202 pubmed publisher
    ..While the underlying mechanisms are likely multiple and complex, the marked differences observed in the immune and endocrine systems of wild and managed-care care dolphins appear to be shaped by their environment. ..
  37. Arnés L, Akerman I, Balderes D, Ferrer J, Sussel L. βlinc1 encodes a long noncoding RNA that regulates islet β-cell formation and function. Genes Dev. 2016;30:502-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, deletion of βlinc1 results in defective islet development and disruption of glucose homeostasis in adult mice. ..
  38. Dauchy R, Dauchy E, Tirrell R, Hill C, Davidson L, Greene M, et al. Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats. Comp Med. 2010;60:348-56 pubmed
    ..Therefore even minimal light contamination during the dark phase can disrupt normal circadian rhythms of endocrine metabolism and physiology and may alter the outcome of scientific investigations. ..
  39. Panthi S, Chung H, Jung J, Jeong N. Physiological Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide: Emerging Potent Neuroprotector and Neuromodulator. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:9049782 pubmed publisher
    ..H2S exerts a wide range of pathological and physiological functions in the human body, from endocrine system and cellular longevity to hepatic protection and kidney function...
  40. Jacobsen N, Brooks B, Halling Sørensen B. Suggesting a testing strategy for possible endocrine effects of drug metabolites. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;62:441-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, a five step integrated strategy for screening of the potential endocrine effects of drugs and their metabolites are proposed. ..
  41. Verrotti A, Mencaroni E, Cofini M, Castagnino M, Leo A, Russo E, et al. Valproic Acid Metabolism and its Consequences on Sexual Functions. Curr Drug Metab. 2016;17:573-81 pubmed
    ..VPA interferes with the endocrine system at multiples levels causing several reproductive and sexual dysfunctions in women and men with epilepsy, ..
  42. Maqbool F, Mostafalou S, Bahadar H, Abdollahi M. Review of endocrine disorders associated with environmental toxicants and possible involved mechanisms. Life Sci. 2016;145:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These methods help to understand the results of xenobiotic action on the endocrine system. Endocrine disturbances in the human body result in breast cancer, ovarian problems, thyroid eruptions, ..
  43. Henriet P, Gaide Chevronnay H, Marbaix E. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;358:197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). ..
  44. Morales M, Martínez Paz P, Sánchez Argüello P, Morcillo G, Martínez Guitarte J. Bisphenol A (BPA) modulates the expression of endocrine and stress response genes in the freshwater snail Physa acuta. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;152:132-138 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to explore the effects of BPA on the Gastropoda endocrine system. The effects following a range of exposure times (5-96h) to BPA in P...
  45. Gao J, Liu S, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Yuan C, Chen S, et al. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;15:20-7 pubmed publisher
    The 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is known for its interference effects on the endocrine system. Aiming to investigate the transcriptome profiling of gonads induced by MT and to understand the molecular mechanism ..
  46. Vezzosi D, Bertherat J. Phosphodiesterases in endocrine physiology and disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential significance of this knowledge can be easily envisaged by the development of drugs targeting specific PDEs. ..
  47. Stebbing J, Filipovic A, Lit L, Blighe K, Grothey A, Xu Y, et al. LMTK3 is implicated in endocrine resistance via multiple signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2013;32:3371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In aggregate, these data support a role for LMTK3 in both innate (intrinsic) and acquired (adaptive) endocrine resistance in breast cancer. ..
  48. Bhatta S, Iwai T, Miura C, Higuchi M, Shimizu Yamaguchi S, Fukada H, et al. Gonads directly regulate growth in teleosts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11408-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that gonads are integral players in the dynamic regulation of growth in teleosts. ..
  49. Beucher A, Martin M, Spenlé C, Poulet M, Collin C, Gradwohl G. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development. Dev Biol. 2012;361:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. ..
  50. Meng S, Qiu L, Hu G, Fan L, Song C, Zheng Y, et al. Effects of methomyl on steroidogenic gene transcription of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad-liver axis in male tilapia. Chemosphere. 2016;165:152-162 pubmed publisher
    ..However, higher concentrations of methomyl (20 and 200 ?g/L) disrupted the endocrine system and caused significant increase in the levels of GnRH2, GnRH3, ER?, and ER? genes in the hypothalamus, GnRHR ..
  51. Clegg A, Young J, Iliffe S, Rikkert M, Rockwood K. Frailty in elderly people. Lancet. 2013;381:752-62 pubmed publisher
  52. Hoskins L, Volkoff H. The comparative endocrinology of feeding in fish: insights and challenges. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;176:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This review gives a brief perspective of the endocrine regulation of feeding in fish, some of the methods used, and challenges encountered when using a comparative approach. ..
  53. Chen Q, Tan H, Yu H, Shi W. Activation of steroid hormone receptors: Shed light on the in silico evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Sci Total Environ. 2018;631-632:27-39 pubmed publisher
    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are of great concern given their potential influence on the endocrine system. In silico methods for the evaluation of EDCs have been widely recognized...