notochord

Summary

Summary: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.

Top Publications

  1. Skoglund P, Dzamba B, Coffman C, Harris W, Keller R. Xenopus fibrillin is expressed in the organizer and is the earliest component of matrix at the developing notochord-somite boundary. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1974-83 pubmed
    ..structures that begin to develop de novo by mid-gastrulation at both of the bilateral presumptive notochord-somite boundaries...
  2. Tada M. Notochord morphogenesis: a prickly subject for ascidians. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R14-6 pubmed
    ..marshalled by proper cell polarity in the developing body axes are fundamental to the elongation of the notochord during chordate embryogenesis...
  3. Imai K, Levine M, Satoh N, Satou Y. Regulatory blueprint for a chordate embryo. Science. 2006;312:1183-7 pubmed
    ..These diagrams constitute a blueprint for the Ciona embryo and provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origins of the chordate body plan...
  4. Tilton F, La Du J, Vue M, Alzarban N, Tanguay R. Dithiocarbamates have a common toxic effect on zebrafish body axis formation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;216:55-68 pubmed
    ..sodium metam (NaM) and its active ingredient methylisothiocyanate (MITC) were developmentally toxic causing notochord distortions in the zebrafish...
  5. Latimer A, Appel B. Notch signaling regulates midline cell specification and proliferation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2006;298:392-402 pubmed
    b>Notochord and floor plate cells are sources of molecules that pattern tissues near the midline, including the spinal cord. Hypochord cells are also found at the midline of anamniote embryos and are important for aorta development...
  6. Kugler J, Passamaneck Y, Feldman T, Beh J, Regnier T, Di Gregorio A. Evolutionary conservation of vertebrate notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Genesis. 2008;46:697-710 pubmed publisher
    To reconstruct a minimum complement of notochord genes evolutionarily conserved across chordates, we scanned the Ciona intestinalis genome using the sequences of 182 genes reported to be expressed in the notochord of different ..
  7. Passamaneck Y, Katikala L, Perrone L, Dunn M, Oda Ishii I, Di Gregorio A. Direct activation of a notochord cis-regulatory module by Brachyury and FoxA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Development. 2009;136:3679-89 pubmed publisher
    The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate body plan. Experiments in ascidian, frog and mouse embryos have shown that co-expression of Brachyury and FoxA class transcription factors is required for notochord development...
  8. Correa R, Tergaonkar V, Ng J, Dubova I, Izpisua Belmonte J, Verma I. Characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish and their involvement in notochord development. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5257-68 pubmed
    ..I kappa B alpha (mI kappa B alpha M), which is able to block NF-kappa B in zebra fish cells, interferes with the notochord differentiation, generating no tail (ntl)-like embryos...
  9. Gansner J, Mendelsohn B, Hultman K, Johnson S, Gitlin J. Essential role of lysyl oxidases in notochord development. Dev Biol. 2007;307:202-13 pubmed
    Recent studies reveal a critical role for copper in the development of the zebrafish notochord, suggesting that specific cuproenzymes are required for the structural integrity of the notochord sheath...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ettensohn C. Encoding anatomy: developmental gene regulatory networks and morphogenesis. Genesis. 2013;51:383-409 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights three experimental models (sea urchin skeletogenesis, ascidian notochord morphogenesis, and the formation of somatic muscles in Drosophila) that are currently being used to analyze the ..
  2. Lee J, Anderson K. Morphogenesis of the node and notochord: the cellular basis for the establishment and maintenance of left-right asymmetry in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3464-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The field is now poised to dissect the genetic and cellular mechanisms that create and organize the specialized cells of the node and midline that are essential for left-right asymmetry. ..
  3. Reintsch W, Habring Mueller A, Wang R, Schohl A, Fagotto F. beta-Catenin controls cell sorting at the notochord-somite boundary independently of cadherin-mediated adhesion. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:675-86 pubmed
    In Xenopus laevis, patterning of the trunk mesoderm into the dorsal notochord and lateral somites depends on differential regulation of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling...
  4. Sawada A, Kiyonari H, Ukita K, Nishioka N, Imuta Y, Sasaki H. Redundant roles of Tead1 and Tead2 in notochord development and the regulation of cell proliferation and survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Tead2(-/-) embryos were already small and lacked characteristic structures such as a closed neural tube, a notochord, and somites...
  5. Munro E, Robin F, Lemaire P. Cellular morphogenesis in ascidians: how to shape a simple tadpole. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:399-405 pubmed
    ..The relative simplicity and stereotypy of ascidian development suggests that it will be possible to understand, and possibly to mathematically model, this dynamic coupling between cell fate and shape change. ..
  6. Tanegashima K, Zhao H, Rebbert M, Dawid I. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo. Development. 2009;136:3543-8 pubmed publisher
    We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions...
  7. Choi K, Harfe B. Hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the notochord sheath and patterning of nuclei pulposi within the intervertebral discs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9484-9 pubmed publisher
    The vertebrae notochord is a transient rod-like structure that produces secreted factors that are responsible for patterning surrounding tissues...
  8. Satoh N, Tagawa K, Takahashi H. How was the notochord born?. Evol Dev. 2012;14:56-75 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The notochord is the supporting organ of the larval tail and the most prominent feature of chordates; indeed, phylum Chordata ..
  9. Nibu Y, José Edwards D, Di Gregorio A. From notochord formation to hereditary chordoma: the many roles of Brachyury. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:826435 pubmed publisher
    ..Chordomas originate from remnants of the notochord, the main embryonic axial structure that precedes the backbone, and share with notochord cells both histological ..
  10. Yasuo H, Hudson C. FGF8/17/18 functions together with FGF9/16/20 during formation of the notochord in Ciona embryos. Dev Biol. 2007;302:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In Ciona, FGF9/16/20 has been implicated in both of these processes. However, in FGF9/16/20 knockdown embryos, notochord fate recovers during later development...
  11. Nordvik K, Kryvi H, Totland G, Grotmol S. The salmon vertebral body develops through mineralization of two preformed tissues that are encompassed by two layers of bone. J Anat. 2005;206:103-14 pubmed
    The teleost backbone consists of amphicoelous vertebrae and intervertebral ligaments, both of which include notochord-derived structures...
  12. Pollard S, Parsons M, Kamei M, Kettleborough R, Thomas K, Pham V, et al. Essential and overlapping roles for laminin alpha chains in notochord and blood vessel formation. Dev Biol. 2006;289:64-76 pubmed
    ..two zebrafish loci, grumpy (gup) and sleepy (sly), encode laminin beta1 and gamma1, which are important both for notochord differentiation and for proper intersegmental blood vessel (ISV) formation...
  13. Barrionuevo F, Taketo M, Scherer G, Kispert A. Sox9 is required for notochord maintenance in mice. Dev Biol. 2006;295:128-40 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Sox9 is expressed in the notochord and the sclerotome during mouse development suggesting that the gene may play additional roles in the ..
  14. Dunn M, Di Gregorio A. The evolutionarily conserved leprecan gene: its regulation by Brachyury and its role in the developing Ciona notochord. Dev Biol. 2009;328:561-74 pubmed publisher
    In Ciona intestinalis, leprecan was identified as a target of the notochord-specific transcription factor Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) (Takahashi, H., Hotta, K., Erives, A., Di Gregorio, A., Zeller, R.W., Levine, M., Satoh, N., 1999...
  15. Erwin W, Ashman K, O Donnel P, Inman R. Nucleus pulposus notochord cells secrete connective tissue growth factor and up-regulate proteoglycan expression by intervertebral disc chondrocytes. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3859-67 pubmed
    ..To identify the components of conditioned medium obtained from intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus-derived canine notochord cells, and to evaluate the capacity of such factors to affect disc-derived chondrocyte gene expression of ..
  16. José Edwards D, Kerner P, Kugler J, Deng W, Jiang D, Di Gregorio A. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the brachyury gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1793-805 pubmed publisher
    The notochord is the distinctive characteristic of chordates; however, the knowledge of the complement of transcription factors governing the development of this structure is still incomplete...
  17. Purmessur D, Schek R, Abbott R, Ballif B, Godburn K, Iatridis J. Notochordal conditioned media from tissue increases proteoglycan accumulation and promotes a healthy nucleus pulposus phenotype in human mesenchymal stem cells. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R81 pubmed publisher
    ..Matricellular proteins, such as clusterin and tenascin, are likely to be important to optimize differentiation of MSCs for maximum GAG production and reduced collagen fiber expression. ..
  18. Salehi H, Karbalaie K, Salamian A, Kiani A, Razavi S, Nasr Esfahani M, et al. Differentiation of human ES cell-derived neural progenitors to neuronal cells with regional specific identity by co-culturing of notochord and somite. Stem Cell Res. 2012;8:120-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a very simple and efficient protocol to mimic in vivo events of human neural development in vitro which is important in the context of developmental neuroscience and cellular replacement therapies. ..
  19. Davidson B, Christiaen L. Linking chordate gene networks to cellular behavior in ascidians. Cell. 2006;124:247-50 pubmed
    ..This cellular and genetic simplicity is now being exploited to link comprehensive gene networks to the cellular events underlying morphogenesis. ..
  20. Yamamoto M, Morita R, Mizoguchi T, Matsuo H, Isoda M, Ishitani T, et al. Mib-Jag1-Notch signalling regulates patterning and structural roles of the notochord by controlling cell-fate decisions. Development. 2010;137:2527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..During midline development, the notochord plays roles in the patterning of its surrounding tissues while forming the axial structure; however, how these ..
  21. Romeo S, Hogendoorn P. Brachyury and chordoma: the chondroid-chordoid dilemma resolved?. J Pathol. 2006;209:143-6 pubmed
    Chordoma, and its relationship to the notochord, has intrigued many researchers over the last two centuries...
  22. Antipova O, Orgel J. In situ D-periodic molecular structure of type II collagen. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..type II collagen is the most prominent component of articular cartilage and other cartilage-like tissues such as notochord. Its in situ macromolecular and packing structures have not been fully characterized, but an understanding of ..
  23. Korecki C, Taboas J, Tuan R, Iatridis J. Notochordal cell conditioned medium stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a young nucleus pulposus phenotype. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2010;1:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, results suggest NCCM stimulates mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a potentially NP-like phenotype with some characteristics of the developing IVD. ..
  24. Qi B, Beasley S, Frizelle F. Evidence that the notochord may be pivotal in the development of sacral and anorectal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:1310-6 pubmed
    The notochord is known to organize normal development of central axial structures, such as the spinal cord, vertebral column, and anorectum, but its role in abnormal development of these organs has not been well documented...
  25. Scott A, Stemple D. Zebrafish notochordal basement membrane: signaling and structure. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;65:229-53 pubmed
  26. Mangos S, Liu Y, Drummond I. Dynamic expression of the osmosensory channel trpv4 in multiple developing organs in zebrafish. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:480-4 pubmed
    ..is expressed as maternal mRNA in 4-cell embryos and later zygotic expression is first observed in the forming notochord at the one somite stage. Notochord expression persists to 24 hpf when broad expression in the brain is observed...
  27. Dawrant M, Giles S, Bannigan J, Puri P. Abnormal separation of the respiratory primordium in the adriamycin mouse model of tracheoesophageal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:375-80 pubmed
    ..Abnormal branching of the notochord was seen from day 9.5 in AMM fetuses. This was not always associated with abnormal tracheoesophageal development...
  28. Yin C, Solnica Krezel L. Convergence and extension movements affect dynamic notochord-somite interactions essential for zebrafish slow muscle morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2742-56 pubmed
    ..The adaxial cells in knypek;trilobite double mutants maintain prolonged contact with the notochord and fail to rotate anteriorly...
  29. Chiba S, Jiang D, Satoh N, Smith W. Brachyury null mutant-induced defects in juvenile ascidian endodermal organs. Development. 2009;136:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Notochord differentiation and morphogenesis are severely disrupted in the mutant line...
  30. Dong B, Deng W, Jiang D. Distinct cytoskeleton populations and extensive crosstalk control Ciona notochord tubulogenesis. Development. 2011;138:1631-41 pubmed publisher
    Cell elongation is a fundamental process that allows cells and tissues to adopt new shapes and functions. During notochord tubulogenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a dramatic elongation of individual cells takes place that ..
  31. van Ramshorst G, Lequin M, Mancini G, van de Ven C. A case of split notochord syndrome: a child with a neuroenteric fistula presenting with meningitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:e19-23 pubmed
    The authors describe a case of split notochord syndrome with a neuroenteric fistula in a newborn presenting with meningitis...
  32. Li Y, Litingtung Y, Ten Dijke P, Chiang C. Aberrant Bmp signaling and notochord delamination in the pathogenesis of esophageal atresia. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:746-54 pubmed
    ..Instead, non-notochordal, likely endodermal, cells were found in Nog(-/-) notochord, suggesting that Noggin function is required in the notochordal plate for its proper delamination from the ..
  33. Denker E, Jiang D. Ciona intestinalis notochord as a new model to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tubulogenesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2012;23:308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to introduce ascidian notochord morphogenesis as an interesting model system to study the cell biology of tube formation, to a wider cell and ..
  34. Alten L, Schuster Gossler K, Eichenlaub M, Wittbrodt B, Wittbrodt J, Gossler A. A novel mammal-specific three partite enhancer element regulates node and notochord-specific Noto expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47785 pubmed publisher
    The vertebrate organizer and notochord have conserved, essential functions for embryonic development and patterning...
  35. Masuda T, Fukamauchi F, Takeda Y, Fujisawa H, Watanabe K, Okado N, et al. Developmental regulation of notochord-derived repulsion for dorsal root ganglion axons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;25:217-27 pubmed
    During the initial stages of development, the notochord provides repulsive signals for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axons via semaphorin 3A/neuropilin-1, axonin-1/SC2, and other unknown repulsive molecules...
  36. Yamaguchi T, Watanabe Ishiiwa H, Suzuki S, Igarashi Y, Ueda Y. Incipient chordoma: a report of two cases of early-stage chordoma arising from benign notochordal cell tumors. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1005-10 pubmed
    ..We suspect that unknown factors transform incipient chordoma into classic chordoma...
  37. Beckers A, Alten L, Viebahn C, Andre P, Gossler A. The mouse homeobox gene Noto regulates node morphogenesis, notochordal ciliogenesis, and left right patterning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15765-70 pubmed
    ..the homologue of zebrafish floating head (flh) and is expressed in the organizer node and in the nascent notochord. Previous analyses suggested that Noto is required exclusively for the formation of the caudal part of the ..
  38. Hotta K, Takahashi H, Satoh N, Gojobori T. Brachyury-downstream gene sets in a chordate, Ciona intestinalis: integrating notochord specification, morphogenesis and chordate evolution. Evol Dev. 2008;10:37-51 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factor gene, seems to have a dual role in the differentiation of axial midline mesoderm cells into notochord and gastrulation cell movements regulated by non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) signaling...
  39. Gansner J, Gitlin J. Essential role for the alpha 1 chain of type VIII collagen in zebrafish notochord formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3715-26 pubmed publisher
    Several zebrafish mutants identified in large-scale forward genetic screens exhibit notochord distortion. We now report the cloning and further characterization of one such mutant, gulliver(m208) (gul(m208))...
  40. Yamada S, Hotta K, Yamamoto T, Ueno N, Satoh N, Takahashi H. Interaction of notochord-derived fibrinogen-like protein with Notch regulates the patterning of the central nervous system of Ciona intestinalis embryos. Dev Biol. 2009;328:1-12 pubmed publisher
    The midline organ the notochord and its overlying dorsal neural tube are the most prominent features of the chordate body plan...
  41. Dahia C, Mahoney E, Durrani A, Wylie C. Postnatal growth, differentiation, and aging of the mouse intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..OBJECTIVE.: To initiate use of the mouse as a model system for postnatal IVD differentiation and growth, and to serve as a basis for assaying changes caused by disease or genetic or experimental perturbation...
  42. Dong B, Horie T, Denker E, Kusakabe T, Tsuda M, Smith W, et al. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord. Dev Biol. 2009;330:237-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" ..
  43. Hunter C, Matyas J, Duncan N. The functional significance of cell clusters in the notochordal nucleus pulposus: survival and signaling in the canine intervertebral disc. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:1099-104 pubmed
    ..Cell viability was assessed in relation to cell clustering, and mechanisms of cell-cell signaling in the clusters were investigated...
  44. Jiang D, Smith W. Ascidian notochord morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1748-57 pubmed
    The development of the notochord involves a complex set of cellular behaviors...
  45. Chamberlain C, Jeong J, Guo C, Allen B, McMahon A. Notochord-derived Shh concentrates in close association with the apically positioned basal body in neural target cells and forms a dynamic gradient during neural patterning. Development. 2008;135:1097-106 pubmed publisher
    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ligand secreted by the notochord induces distinct ventral cell identities in the adjacent neural tube by a concentration-dependent mechanism...
  46. Capellini T, Dunn M, Passamaneck Y, Selleri L, Di Gregorio A. Conservation of notochord gene expression across chordates: insights from the Leprecan gene family. Genesis. 2008;46:683-96 pubmed publisher
    The notochord is a defining character of the chordates, and the T-box transcription factor Brachyury has been shown to be required for notochord development in all chordates examined...
  47. Yamada S, Ueno N, Satoh N, Takahashi H. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 contains a phosphotyrosine interaction domain and is involved in the midline intercalation of notochord cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:11-8 pubmed publisher
    Brachyury plays a pivotal role in the notochord formation in ascidian embryos. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 (Ci-Noto4) was isolated as a gene downstream of Ci-Bra...
  48. Wakao N, Imagama S, Ito Z, Ando K, Hirano K, Tauchi R, et al. A case of split notochord syndrome: an adult with a spinal endodermal cyst mimicking an intramedullary tumor. Neuropathology. 2011;31:626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, they are called split notochord syndrome...
  49. Erwin W, Islam D, Inman R, Fehlings M, Tsui F. Notochordal cells protect nucleus pulposus cells from degradation and apoptosis: implications for the mechanisms of intervertebral disc degeneration. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R215 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we evaluated the ability of notochordal cell conditioned medium (NCCM) to protect NP cells from IL-1ß and IL-1ß +FasL-mediated cell death and degeneration...
  50. Yamaguchi T, Suzuki S, Ishiiwa H, Ueda Y. Intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumours: overlooked precursors of classic chordomas?. Histopathology. 2004;44:597-602 pubmed
    ..Intraosseous benign notochordal cell tumour is a recently recognized condition that may undergo malignant transformation to classic chordoma. The aim of this study was to describe its clinicopathological characteristics...
  51. Passamaneck Y, Di Gregorio A. Ciona intestinalis: chordate development made simple. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1-19 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the main similarities and differences so far identified, at the molecular level, between ascidian and vertebrate tissues and discuss the evolution of the compact ascidian genome...
  52. Shi W, Peyrot S, Munro E, Levine M. FGF3 in the floor plate directs notochord convergent extension in the Ciona tadpole. Development. 2009;136:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis, the notochord plate consists of just 40 cells, which undergo mediolateral convergence (intercalation) to form a single cell ..
  53. Guehring T, Wilde G, Sumner M, Grunhagen T, Karney G, Tirlapur U, et al. Notochordal intervertebral disc cells: sensitivity to nutrient deprivation. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1026-34 pubmed publisher
    The nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc develops from the notochord. Humans and other species in which notochordal cells (NCs) disappear to be replaced by chondrocyte-like mature NP cells (MNPCs) frequently develop disc ..
  54. Takahashi H, Hotta K, Takagi C, Ueno N, Satoh N, Shoguchi E. Regulation of notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra downstream genes in Ciona intestinalis embryos. Zoolog Sci. 2010;27:110-8 pubmed publisher
    Brachyury, a T-box transcription factor, is expressed in ascidian embryos exclusively in primordial notochord cells and plays a pivotal role in differentiation of notochord cells...
  55. Grotmol S, Kryvi H, Nordvik K, Totland G. Notochord segmentation may lay down the pathway for the development of the vertebral bodies in the Atlantic salmon. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2003;207:263-72 pubmed
    ..in the Atlantic salmon requires the orchestration of two sources of metameric patterning, derived from the notochord and the somite rows, respectively...
  56. Morgan R, Nalliah A, Morsi El Kadi A. FLASH, a component of the FAS-CAPSASE8 apoptotic pathway, is directly regulated by Hoxb4 in the notochord. Dev Biol. 2004;265:105-12 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Hoxb4 directly induces the expression of FLASH in the notochord of embryos after neurulation...
  57. Hunter C, Matyas J, Duncan N. Cytomorphology of notochordal and chondrocytic cells from the nucleus pulposus: a species comparison. J Anat. 2004;205:357-62 pubmed
    ..This tissue is formed either by or with the help of cells from the embryonic notochord, which appear to be replaced during development by a population of chondrocyte-like cells of uncertain origin...
  58. Grotmol S, Nordvik K, Kryvi H, Totland G. A segmental pattern of alkaline phosphatase activity within the notochord coincides with the initial formation of the vertebral bodies. J Anat. 2005;206:427-36 pubmed
    This study shows that segmental expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by the notochord of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L...
  59. Sawada A, Nishizaki Y, Sato H, Yada Y, Nakayama R, Yamamoto S, et al. Tead proteins activate the Foxa2 enhancer in the node in cooperation with a second factor. Development. 2005;132:4719-29 pubmed
    ..We addressed the mechanism of mouse node development via an analysis of the node/notochord enhancer (NE) of Foxa2...
  60. Bagheri Fam S, Barrionuevo F, Dohrmann U, Gunther T, Schüle R, Kemler R, et al. Long-range upstream and downstream enhancers control distinct subsets of the complex spatiotemporal Sox9 expression pattern. Dev Biol. 2006;291:382-97 pubmed
    ..E1 is located 28 kb 5' to SOX9 and controls expression in the node, notochord, gut, bronchial epithelium and pancreas...
  61. Haga Y, Dominique V, Du S. Analyzing notochord segmentation and intervertebral disc formation using the twhh:gfp transgenic zebrafish model. Transgenic Res. 2009;18:669-83 pubmed publisher
    ..twhh):green fluorescent protein (gfp) and sonic hedgehog (shh):gfp transgenic zebrafish models that display notochord-specific GFP expression...
  62. Hunter C, Matyas J, Duncan N. The notochordal cell in the nucleus pulposus: a review in the context of tissue engineering. Tissue Eng. 2003;9:667-77 pubmed
    ..During embryogenesis of the intervertebral disk, the cells of the notochord play a critical role in initiating tissue formation, and may be responsible for development of the nucleus ..
  63. Asagiri K, Yagi M, Tanaka Y, Akaiwa M, Asakawa T, Kaida A, et al. A case of split notochord syndrome with congenital ileal atresia, the total absence of a colon, and a dorsal enteric cyst communicating to the retroperitoneal isolated ceca with a vesical fistula. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:1073-7 pubmed publisher
    Split notochord syndrome (SNS) is an extremely rare anomaly...
  64. Gansner J, Madsen E, Mecham R, Gitlin J. Essential role for fibrillin-2 in zebrafish notochord and vascular morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:2844-61 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies demonstrate that lysyl oxidase cuproenzymes are critical for zebrafish notochord formation, but the molecular mechanisms of copper-dependent notochord morphogenesis are incompletely understood...
  65. Zou S, Kamei H, Modi Z, Duan C. Zebrafish IGF genes: gene duplication, conservation and divergence, and novel roles in midline and notochord development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7026 pubmed publisher
    ..suggesting that an excess of IGF signaling causes defects in the midline formation and an expansion of the notochord. IGF-2a, the most potent IGF, was analyzed in depth...
  66. Fujimi T, Hatayama M, Aruga J. Xenopus Zic3 controls notochord and organizer development through suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 2012;361:220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that Zic3 can suppress Wnt/?-catenin signaling and control development of the notochord and Spemann's organizer...
  67. Choi K, Lee C, Harfe B. Sonic hedgehog in the notochord is sufficient for patterning of the intervertebral discs. Mech Dev. 2012;129:255-62 pubmed publisher
    ..All cell types located in the middle regions of the discs, called nuclei pulposi, are derived from the embryonic notochord. Recently, it was shown that the hedgehog signaling pathway plays an essential role during formation of nuclei ..
  68. Yamane H, Nishikawa A. Differential muscle regulatory factor gene expression between larval and adult myogenesis in the frog Xenopus laevis: adult myogenic cell-specific myf5 upregulation and its relation to the notochord suppression of adult muscle differentiation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2013;49:524-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous study revealed that tail notochord cells suppress terminal differentiation in adult (but not larval) myogenic cells...
  69. Reese D, Hall C, Mikawa T. Negative regulation of midline vascular development by the notochord. Dev Cell. 2004;6:699-708 pubmed
    ..In amniotes, blood vessels develop throughout the embryonic disc, except for a midline region surrounding the notochord. Here we show that the notochord is the primary signaling center for the inhibition of vessel formation along ..
  70. Yamaguchi T, Suzuki S, Ishiiwa H, Shimizu K, Ueda Y. Benign notochordal cell tumors: A comparative histological study of benign notochordal cell tumors, classic chordomas, and notochordal vestiges of fetal intervertebral discs. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:756-61 pubmed
    ..Benign notochordal cell tumors do not need any surgical procedure and must be adequately recognized to prevent unnecessary operations...
  71. Abdelkhalek H, Beckers A, Schuster Gossler K, Pavlova M, Burkhardt H, Lickert H, et al. The mouse homeobox gene Not is required for caudal notochord development and affected by the truncate mutation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1725-36 pubmed
    The floating head (flh) gene in zebrafish encodes a homeodomain protein, which is essential for notochord formation along the entire body axis...
  72. Agangi A, Paladini D, Bagolan P, Maruotti G, Martinelli P. Split notochord syndrome variant: prenatal findings and neonatal management. Prenat Diagn. 2005;25:23-7 pubmed
    Spilt notochord syndrome is an extremely rare form of spinal dysraphism characterized by a complete cleft of the spine and a persistent communication between endoderm and ectoderm...
  73. Sommer J, Itani D, Homlar K, Keedy V, Halpern J, Holt G, et al. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and activated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor: potential therapeutic targets in chordoma. J Pathol. 2010;220:608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Skeletal chondrosarcomas, benign notochordal cell tumours, and fetal notochord were studied for comparison...
  74. Obara B, Veeman M, Choi J, Smith W, Manjunath B. Segmentation of ascidian notochord cells in DIC timelapse images. Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:727-34 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a method to automatically segment notochord cell boundaries from differential interference contrast (DIC) timelapse images of the elongating ascidian tail...
  75. Kugler J, Kerner P, Bouquet J, Jiang D, Di Gregorio A. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:21 pubmed publisher
    The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate clade, and invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates, are uniquely suited for studies of this structure...
  76. Winzi M, Hyttel P, Dale J, Serup P. Isolation and characterization of node/notochord-like cells from mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2011;20:1817-27 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Noto is expressed in the node and its derivative the notochord. Here we use a targeted Noto-GFP reporter to isolate and characterize node/notochord-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells...
  77. Yagi K, Satou Y, Satoh N. A zinc finger transcription factor, ZicL, is a direct activator of Brachyury in the notochord specification of Ciona intestinalis. Development. 2004;131:1279-88 pubmed
    In ascidian embryos, Brachyury is expressed exclusively in blastomeres of the notochord lineage and play an essential role in the notochord cell differentiation...
  78. Kawai N, Takahashi H, Nishida H, Yokosawa H. Regulation of NF-kappaB/Rel by IkappaB is essential for ascidian notochord formation. Dev Biol. 2005;277:80-91 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that two NF-kappaB/Rel family members are involved in notochord formation of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi...
  79. Kusakabe T. Decoding cis-regulatory systems in ascidians. Zoolog Sci. 2005;22:129-46 pubmed
  80. Erwin W, Inman R. Notochord cells regulate intervertebral disc chondrocyte proteoglycan production and cell proliferation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:1094-9 pubmed
    Non-chondrodystrophic dog notochord cell conditioned medium was used to evaluate chondrocyte proteoglycan production and cell proliferation.
  81. Frank D, Elliott S, Park E, Hammond J, Saijoh Y, Moon A. System for inducible expression of cre-recombinase from the Foxa2 locus in endoderm, notochord, and floor plate. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1085-92 pubmed
    ..a system for regulating Cre-recombinase activity within Foxa2 expression domains, including the endoderm, notochord, and floor plate of early mouse embryos...
  82. Kumakura A, Takahara T, Asada J, Matsukawa Y, Hata D. Split notochord syndrome with congenital unilateral Horner's sign. Pediatr Neurol. 2008;38:47-9 pubmed
    ..of transdiaphragmatic duplication, mediastinal cystic lesion, anterior spina bifida, and hemivertebra suggested notochord malformation. The diagnosis was split notochord syndrome, an extremely rare embryological malformation syndrome...
  83. Yamanaka Y, Tamplin O, Beckers A, Gossler A, Rossant J. Live imaging and genetic analysis of mouse notochord formation reveals regional morphogenetic mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;13:884-96 pubmed
    The node and notochord have been extensively studied as signaling centers in the vertebrate embryo. The morphogenesis of these tissues, particularly in mouse, is not well understood...
  84. Hunter C, Bianchi S, Cheng P, Muldrew K. Osmoregulatory function of large vacuoles found in notochordal cells of the intervertebral disc running title: an osmoregulatory vacuole. Mol Cell Biomech. 2007;4:227-37 pubmed
    The nucleus pulposi of many species contain residual cells from the embryonic notochord, which exhibit a very unusual appearance (large vacuoles occupying approximately 80% of the cell volume, surrounded by an actin cytoskeleton)...
  85. Kim J, Deasy B, Seo H, Studer R, Vo N, Georgescu H, et al. Differentiation of intervertebral notochordal cells through live automated cell imaging system in vitro. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:2486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated the differentiation of notochordal cells by direct observation using a live automated cell imaging system. We also hypothesized that notochordal cells have characteristics of chondrocyte-like cells...
  86. Ninomiya H, Elinson R, Winklbauer R. Antero-posterior tissue polarity links mesoderm convergent extension to axial patterning. Nature. 2004;430:364-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism that establishes AP polarity involves graded activin-like signalling and directly links mesoderm AP patterning to CE...
  87. Kumano G, Yamaguchi S, Nishida H. Overlapping expression of FoxA and Zic confers responsiveness to FGF signaling to specify notochord in ascidian embryos. Dev Biol. 2006;300:770-84 pubmed
    ..Growth Factor (FGF) signal secreted from endoderm cells induces several different tissue types, such as notochord, mesenchyme and brain, at different positions in the embryo at the 32-cell stage...
  88. Anderson C, Bartlett S, Gansner J, Wilson D, He L, Gitlin J, et al. Chemical genetics suggests a critical role for lysyl oxidase in zebrafish notochord morphogenesis. Mol Biosyst. 2007;3:51-9 pubmed
    ..of metalloprotease activity, we report that 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide induces a conspicuous undulating notochord defect in zebrafish embryos, a phenocopy of the leviathan mutant...
  89. Hotta K, Yamada S, Ueno N, Satoh N, Takahashi H. Brachyury-downstream notochord genes and convergent extension in Ciona intestinalis embryos. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:373-82 pubmed
    ..the chordate body is accomplished by a complex set of morphogenetic movements including convergent extension of notochord cells...
  90. Søviknes A, Glover J. Continued growth and cell proliferation into adulthood in the notochord of the appendicularian Oikopleura dioica. Biol Bull. 2008;214:17-28 pubmed
    ..urochordates, whose metamorphosis to a sessile adult form involves the loss of chordate structures such as the notochord and dorsal nerve cord...
  91. McCann M, Tamplin O, Rossant J, Séguin C. Tracing notochord-derived cells using a Noto-cre mouse: implications for intervertebral disc development. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the developmental origins of nucleus pulposus cells within the intervertebral disc using a novel notochord-specific Cre mouse...
  92. Ellis K, Bagwell J, Bagnat M. Notochord vacuoles are lysosome-related organelles that function in axis and spine morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2013;200:667-79 pubmed publisher
    The notochord plays critical structural and signaling roles during vertebrate development. At the center of the vertebrate notochord is a large fluid-filled organelle, the notochord vacuole...