mullerian ducts

Summary

Summary: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.

Top Publications

  1. Masse J, Watrin T, Laurent A, Deschamps S, Guerrier D, Pellerin I. The developing female genital tract: from genetics to epigenetics. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:411-24 pubmed publisher
    The mammalian female reproductive tract develops from the Mullerian ducts which differentiate, in a cranial to caudal direction, into oviducts, uterine horns, cervix and the anterior vagina...
  2. Papa G, Andreotti M, Giannubilo S, Cesari R, Cerè I, Tranquilli A. Case report and surgical solution for a voluminous uterine leiomyoma in a woman with complicated Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2014.e5-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe a case of leiomyoma in a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  3. Vallerie A, Breech L. Update in Müllerian anomalies: diagnosis, management, and outcomes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22:381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There is significant diversity in anatomic variants and their respective long-term sexual and reproductive outcomes. We review the current controversies in classification and management of vaginal, uterine, and fallopian tube anomalies...
  4. Breech L, Laufer M. Müllerian anomalies. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009;36:47-68 pubmed publisher
  5. Olpin J, Heilbrun M. Imaging of Müllerian duct anomalies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52:40-56 pubmed publisher
    ..MRI is the best imaging method available because of its superior ability to reliably visualize complex uterovaginal anatomy...
  6. Wang P, Zhao H, Sun M, Li Y, Chen Z. PAX2 in 192 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities: mutation analysis. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;25:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..One rare novel synonymous variant (c.320G>A) was discovered in one patient with uterus didelphys, whereas this variant was not found in the control group. Mutations in PAX2 may be not a common cause of MDA...
  7. Philibert P, Biason Lauber A, Rouzier R, Pienkowski C, Paris F, Konrad D, et al. Identification and functional analysis of a new WNT4 gene mutation among 28 adolescent girls with primary amenorrhea and müllerian duct abnormalities: a French collaborative study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:895-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The WNT4 mutation was recently reported to be associated with failure of müllerian duct formation and virilization in two 46, XX women...
  8. Sandbacka M, Halttunen M, Jokimaa V, Aittomaki K, Laivuori H. Evaluation of SHOX copy number variations in patients with Müllerian aplasia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:53 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore we have studied SHOX copy number variations (CNVs) in a cohort of 101 Finnish patients with MA and in 115 healthy controls...
  9. Mazouni C, Girard G, Deter R, Haumonte J, Blanc B, Bretelle F. Diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies in adults: evaluation of practice. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:219-22 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the circumstances associated with the diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies in adults...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Marcal L, Nothaft M, Coelho F, Volpato R, Iyer R. Mullerian duct anomalies: MR imaging. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:756-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These congenital anomalies usually result from one of the following categories of abnormalities of the mullerian ducts: failure of formation (no development or underdevelopment) or failure of fusion of the mullerian ducts...
  2. Ledig S, Brucker S, Barresi G, Schömburg J, Rall K, Wieacker P. Frame shift mutation of LHX1 is associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2872-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The LHX1 gene, which is located in the deletion interval, has been suggested to be a strong candidate, because targeting inactivation of Lhx1 causes a complex phenotype including aplasia of the Müllerian ducts...
  3. Ravel C, Bashamboo A, Bignon Topalovic J, Siffroi J, McElreavey K, Darai E. Polymorphisms in DLGH1 and LAMC1 in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2012;24:462-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the first time that an extensive study of LAMC1 and DLGH1 has been undertaken in patients with MRKHS. The data support the notion that mutations in the coding sequence of LAMC1 and DLGH1 may not be associated with MRKHS...
  4. Zhou J, Sun J, Yang C, Xie Z, Shao W, Jin H. Long-term outcomes of transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum in 182 patients with Rokitansky's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the technical feasibility and anatomical and functional outcomes of one-stage transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum for the patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  5. Sajjad Y. Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:929-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In some target tissues, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for the masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external genitalia...
  6. Cheroki C, Krepischi Santos A, Szuhai K, Brenner V, Kim C, Otto P, et al. Genomic imbalances associated with mullerian aplasia. J Med Genet. 2008;45:228-32 pubmed
    ..A number of different syndromes have been associated with MA, and in most cases its aetiology remains poorly understood...
  7. Nik Zainal S, Strick R, Storer M, Huang N, Rad R, Willatt L, et al. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Müllerian aplasia. J Med Genet. 2011;48:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in copy number at different genomic loci...
  8. Philibert P, Biason Lauber A, Gueorguieva I, Stuckens C, Pienkowski C, Lebon Labich B, et al. Molecular analysis of WNT4 gene in four adolescent girls with mullerian duct abnormality and hyperandrogenism (atypical Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome). Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2683-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this mutant partially lacks the capability to repress ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, with abnormal expression of 17?- hydroxylase...
  9. Ekici A, Strissel P, Oppelt P, Renner S, Brucker S, Beckmann M, et al. HOXA10 and HOXA13 sequence variations in human female genital malformations including congenital absence of the uterus and vagina. Gene. 2013;518:267-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare DNA sequence variations in the HOXA10 gene could contribute to the misdevelopment of female internal genitalia...
  10. Giusti S, Fruzzetti E, Perini D, Fruzzetti F, Giusti P, Bartolozzi C. Diagnosis of a variant of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: useful MRI findings. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:753-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, following diagnosis, surgery allows patients to have normal sexual function while reproduction may be possible if assisted techniques are performed...
  11. Ravel C, Lorenço D, Dessolle L, Mandelbaum J, McElreavey K, Darai E, et al. Mutational analysis of the WNT gene family in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1604-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the hypothesis that mutations in the coding sequence of WNT4, WNT5A, WNT7A, and WNT9B are not responsible for the Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome...
  12. Biason Lauber A, Konrad D. WNT4 and sex development. Sex Dev. 2008;2:210-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Dang Y, Qin Y, Tang R, Mu Y, Li G, Xia M, et al. Variants of the WNT7A gene in Chinese patients with müllerian duct abnormalities. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:391-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To search for WNT7A gene mutations in a cohort of 191 Chinese Han patients with müllerian duct abnormalities (MDAs)...
  14. Orvis G, Behringer R. Cellular mechanisms of Müllerian duct formation in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2007;306:493-504 pubmed
    ..Our studies define cellular and molecular mechanisms for Müllerian duct formation...
  15. Lermann J, Mueller A, Wiesinger E, Haberle L, Brucker S, Wallwiener D, et al. Comparison of different diagnostic procedures for the staging of malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:156-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare different diagnostic procedures for staging malformations associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  16. Guioli S, Sekido R, Lovell Badge R. The origin of the Mullerian duct in chick and mouse. Dev Biol. 2007;302:389-98 pubmed
    In vertebrates the female reproductive tracts derive from a pair of tubular structures called Mullerian ducts, which are composed of three elements: a canalised epithelial tube, mesenchymal cells surrounding the tube and, most externally,..
  17. Biason Lauber A, de Filippo G, Konrad D, Scarano G, Nazzaro A, Schoenle E. WNT4 deficiency--a clinical phenotype distinct from the classic Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: a case report. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:224-9 pubmed
  18. Rechberger T, Kulik Rechberger B. [Congenital anomalies of the female reproductive tract--diagnosis and management]. Ginekol Pol. 2011;82:137-45 pubmed
    ..The classification system of these anomalies facilitates the decision about therapy and prognosis, however individual approach in every case is strongly recommended...
  19. Ledig S, Schippert C, Strick R, Beckmann M, Oppelt P, Wieacker P. Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  20. Gervasini C, Grati F, Lalatta F, Tabano S, Gentilin B, Colapietro P, et al. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Genet Med. 2010;12:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome...
  21. Sultan C, Biason Lauber A, Philibert P. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: recent clinical and genetic findings. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009;25:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Beside the multiple malformations that may be associated with MRKH syndrome, such as renal, skeletal, cardiac and auditory defects, MRKH and hyperandrogenism represent a new clinical and genetic disorder...
  22. Miyamoto Y, Taniguchi H, Hamel F, Silversides D, Viger R. A GATA4/WT1 cooperation regulates transcription of genes required for mammalian sex determination and differentiation. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:44 pubmed publisher
  23. Dodd K, Wibbels T. Estrogen inhibits caudal progression but stimulates proliferation of developing müllerian ducts in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;150:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, reptilian müllerian ducts in T. scripta are estrogen sensitive and estrogen's effects may be similar to those reported for birds...
  24. Chandler T, Machan L, Cooperberg P, Harris A, Chang S. Mullerian duct anomalies: from diagnosis to intervention. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:1034-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features of the seven classes of Müllerian duct anomalies, as the appropriate course of treatment relies upon the correct diagnosis and categorisation of each anomaly...
  25. Ma J, Qin Y, Liu W, Duan H, Xia M, Chen Z. Analysis of PBX1 mutations in 192 Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2615-7 pubmed publisher
    ..61 > A in exon 1 and c.998-1330A>G in intron 7. Future studies in large cohorts of different ethnic populations are warranted to establish definite associations between the PBX1 gene and Müllerian duct abnormalities...
  26. Biason Lauber A, Konrad D, Navratil F, Schoenle E. A WNT4 mutation associated with Müllerian-duct regression and virilization in a 46,XX woman. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:792-8 pubmed
    ..WNT4 appears to be important in the development and maintenance of the female phenotype in women, by means of the regulation of müllerian-duct formation and control of ovarian steroidogenesis...
  27. Burgis J. Obstructive Müllerian anomalies: case report, diagnosis, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185:338-44 pubmed
    ..The workup and operative findings will be described, followed by a classification and discussion of other obstructive Müllerian anomalies. The incidence, workup, and management will be reviewed...
  28. Munsterberg A, Lovell Badge R. Expression of the mouse anti-müllerian hormone gene suggests a role in both male and female sexual differentiation. Development. 1991;113:613-24 pubmed
    ..We have correlated the pattern of AMH expression in both sexes with cellular events occurring in gonadal development and discuss some implications that this may have for its function and regulation...
  29. McCoard S, Wise T, Ford J. Expression levels of Mullerian-inhibiting substance, GATA4 and 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 during embryonic gonadal development in two diverse breeds of swine. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:365-74 pubmed
    ..In contrast, female MS embryos exhibited advanced ovarian differentiation compared with WC embryos which may be related to the earlier reproductive maturity observed in this breed...
  30. Chen G, Shinka T, Kinoshita K, Yan H, Iwamoto T, Nakahori Y. Roles of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) in the regulation of the human Müllerian inhibitory substance (MIS) promoter. J Med Invest. 2003;50:192-8 pubmed
    ..The present findings may be useful to understand the molecular mechanisms by which EDs or estrogens affect the MIS expression...
  31. Shen W, Moore C, Ikeda Y, Parker K, Ingraham H. Nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 regulates the müllerian inhibiting substance gene: a link to the sex determination cascade. Cell. 1994;77:651-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that SF-1 regulates MIS in vivo and participates directly in the process of mammalian sex determination...
  32. Console D, Tamburrini S, Barresi D, Notarangelo L, Bertucci B, Tamburrini O. [The value of the MR imaging in the evaluation of Müllerian duct anomalies]. Radiol Med. 2001;102:226-32 pubmed
    ..To reaffirm the role of MRI in the assessment of the M#159;llerian duct anomalies (MDAs)...
  33. Troiano R. Magnetic resonance imaging of mullerian duct anomalies of the uterus. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;14:269-79 pubmed
    ..The need for diagnostic surgical intervention has largely been eclipsed with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging, which has become the imaging modality of choice for characterization of congenital mullerian anomalies...
  34. Kobayashi A, Shawlot W, Kania A, Behringer R. Requirement of Lim1 for female reproductive tract development. Development. 2004;131:539-49 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate an essential role for Lim1 in female reproductive tract development...
  35. Gell J. Müllerian anomalies. Semin Reprod Med. 2003;21:375-88 pubmed
    ..This chapter serves to review the embryology and development of the reproductive system and to describe common genital tract anomalies. Details of surgical or nonsurgical correction of these anomalies are presented...
  36. Zenteno J, Carranza Lira S, Kofman Alfaro S. Molecular analysis of the anti-Müllerian hormone, the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, and galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase genes in patients with the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;269:270-3 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested that activating mutations in the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) or in its receptor (AMHRII) are potential sources for the defect...
  37. DU H, Taylor H. Molecular regulation of mullerian development by Hox genes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1034:152-65 pubmed
    ..EMX2 and beta(3)-integrin acting downstream of Hoxa10 gene are likely involved in both these developmental processes. This article reviews the role and molecular regulation of Hox genes in reproductive tract development...
  38. Josso N, Belville C, di Clemente N, Picard J. AMH and AMH receptor defects in persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:351-6 pubmed
    ..In 15% of cases, the cause of the persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is unknown and could be related to complex malformations of the urogenital region, unrelated to AMH physiology...
  39. Oppelt P, Renner S, Kellermann A, Brucker S, Hauser G, Ludwig K, et al. Clinical aspects of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome: recommendations for clinical diagnosis and staging. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:792-7 pubmed
    ..This retrospective study examined the issue of associated malformations, subtyping, and the frequency distribution of subtypes in MRKH syndrome...
  40. Troiano R, McCarthy S. Mullerian duct anomalies: imaging and clinical issues. Radiology. 2004;233:19-34 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are reserved for women in whom interventional therapy is likely to be undertaken...
  41. Timmreck L, Pan H, Reindollar R, Gray M. WNT7A mutations in patients with Müllerian duct abnormalities. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2003;16:217-21 pubmed
    ..The WNT7A gene has been previously identified as necessary for normal murine Müllerian duct development. WNT7A mutant mice display several Müllerian duct derivative abnormalities...
  42. Arango N, Lovell Badge R, Behringer R. Targeted mutagenesis of the endogenous mouse Mis gene promoter: in vivo definition of genetic pathways of vertebrate sexual development. Cell. 1999;99:409-19 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, sufficient MIS was produced to eliminate the MUllerian ducts. In contrast, males homozygous for the mutant SOX9-binding site did not initiate Mis transcription, resulting ..
  43. L Gilliam M, Shulman L. Tetralogy of Fallot, imperforate anus, and Müllerian, renal, and cervical spine (MURCS) anomalies in a 15-year-old girl. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002;15:231-3 pubmed
    ..To examine the etiology of MURCs anomalies and the management of a patient with these anomalies as well as cardiac and anorectal abnormalities causing primary amenorrhea and abdominal pain...
  44. Visser J. AMH signaling: from receptor to target gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;211:65-73 pubmed
    ..This review describes the identification of candidate AMH type I receptors and an AMH-target gene involved in Müllerian duct regression...
  45. Resendes B, Sohn S, Stelling J, Tineo R, Davis A, Gray M, et al. Role for anti-Müllerian hormone in congenital absence of the uterus and vagina. Am J Med Genet. 2001;98:129-36 pubmed
    ..Because no mutations or rare DNA sequence polymorphisms were detected in the AMH and the AMHR genes in this group of CAUV patients, it is unlikely that either gene commonly has an etiologic role in CAUV...
  46. Oppelt P, Strissel P, Kellermann A, Seeber S, Humeny A, Beckmann M, et al. DNA sequence variations of the entire anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) gene promoter and AMH protein expression in patients with the Mayer-Rokitanski-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:149-57 pubmed
    The etiology of the Mayer-Rokitanski-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, where congenitally the Mullerian ducts fail to develop into the uterus, cervix and upper vagina, along with other malformations, is unresolved...
  47. Hundley A, Fielding J, Hoyte L. Double cervix and vagina with septate uterus: an uncommon müllerian malformation. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:982-5 pubmed
    ..The case of an unusual müllerian anomaly is described...
  48. Ozkan O, Akar M, Erdogan O, Ozkan O, Hadimioglu N. Uterus transplantation from a deceased donor. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:e41 pubmed publisher
    ..It has major risks related to surgery, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Uterus transplantation might be considered promising only after the birth of a near-term healthy baby. ..
  49. Marcus K, Halbertsma F, Picard J, Otten B. A visual pitfall: persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS). Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:129-32 pubmed
    ..In case of urologic symptoms, surgical removal of the Müllerian remnants can be considered, with careful attention for the vulnerable ductus deferens. Despite optimal treatment the prognosis regarding fertility remain uncertain. ..
  50. Morcel K, Lavoue V, Jaffre F, Paniel B, Rouzier R. Sexual and functional results after creation of a neovagina in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a comparison of nonsurgical and surgical procedures. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;169:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of failure of this technique or of refusal by the patient, surgical reconstruction may then be offered. ..
  51. Ha Y, Tsukada A, Saito N, Zadworny D, Shimada K. Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in the regression and development of the chicken Müllerian duct. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:1135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that both up-regulation of MSX1 and MSX2 mRNA expression is involved in the regression of the Müllerian duct in male chicken embryo, whereas VCP expression is involved in development of the female duct. ..
  52. Del Vescovo R, Battisti S, Di Paola V, Piccolo C, Cazzato R, Sansoni I, et al. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome: MRI findings, radiological guide (two cases and literature review), and differential diagnosis. BMC Med Imaging. 2012;12:4 pubmed publisher
    ..MR imaging is a very suitable diagnostic tool in order to perform the correct diagnosis of HWW syndrome. ..
  53. El Saman A. Retropubic balloon vaginoplasty for management of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2016-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study operative, postoperative, anatomic, and functional outcomes of retropubic balloon vaginoplasty (RBV) for the management of vaginal aplasia...
  54. Fedele L, Frontino G, Motta F, Peruzzi E. Davydov's procedure for the treatment of neovaginal prolapse in Rokitansky syndrome. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011;18:503-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A modified Davydov procedure was performed. No complications occurred. Vaginoscopy after 6 months showed an iodine-positive 8- × 3-cm neovagina. Functional results were assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index...
  55. Katre R, Morani A, Prasad S, Surabhi V, Choudhary S, Sunnapwar A. Tumors and pseudotumors of the secondary müllerian system: review with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:1452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-sectional imaging findings of diseases and disorders of the secondary müllerian system are presented here...
  56. DU H, Taylor H. The Role of Hox Genes in Female Reproductive Tract Development, Adult Function, and Fertility. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2015;6:a023002 pubmed publisher
    ..Alteration of HOX gene expression causes both uterine developmental abnormalities and impaired adult endometrial development that prevent implantation and lead to female infertility. ..
  57. Verma A, Vyas S, Patwari S, Verma M, Srivastava A, Chandra Shukla R. Magnetic resonance fistulogram demonstration of urethrovesicovaginal fistula in a case of müllerian agenesis due to traumatic urethral coitus. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2012;19:259-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we report a case of urethrovesicovaginal fistula with müllerian agenesis caused by traumatic urethral coitus, as demonstrated using indirect magnetic resonance fistulography...
  58. Alborzi S, Asadi N, Zolghadri J, Alborzi S, Alborzi M. Laparoscopic metroplasty in bicornuate and didelphic uteri. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:352-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the feasibility of laparoscopic metroplasty in the treatment of bicornuate and didelphic uteri...
  59. Iura A, Sasajima Y, Katsumata N, Kasamatsu T. Serous adenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum, as a type of multifocal müllerian carcinoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2009;14:254-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient had been taking conjugated estrogen for 10 years, suggesting that long-term estrogen stimulation may have contributed to the progression of the tumors...