morula

Summary

Summary: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.

Top Publications

  1. Strelchenko N, Verlinsky O, Kukharenko V, Verlinsky Y. Morula-derived human embryonic stem cells. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;9:623-9 pubmed
    ..also been used as a source for ES cells in animal models, the feasibility of obtaining ES cell lines from human morula is not known, despite being an obvious source available through assisted reproduction and preimplantation genetic ..
  2. Matoba S, Inoue K, Kohda T, Sugimoto M, Mizutani E, Ogonuki N, et al. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Xist can rescue the impaired postimplantation development of cloned mouse embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20621-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Xist-specific siRNA into reconstructed oocytes efficiently corrected SCNT-specific aberrant Xist expression at the morula stage, but failed to do so thereafter at the blastocyst stage...
  3. Wang H, Ding T, Brown N, Yamamoto Y, Prince L, Reese J, et al. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2008;318:112-25 pubmed publisher
    It is unknown whether or not tight junction formation plays any role in morula to blastocyst transformation that is associated with development of polarized trophoblast cells and fluid accumulation...
  4. Tao J, Craig R, Johnson M, Williams B, Lewis W, White J, et al. Cryopreservation of human embryos at the morula stage and outcomes after transfer. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:108-18 pubmed
    To evaluate the survival rate of human morula embryo freezing and the morphological alterations during freezing, during and after thawing, and their applications in embryo selection.
  5. Ling X, Zhang J, Cao S, Chen J, Peng Y, Guo X, et al. Effect of cryotop vitrification on preimplantation developmental competence of murine morula and blastocyst stage embryos. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19:708-13 pubmed
    ..This study, therefore, compared the effects of cryotop vitrification on the developmental competence of murine morula and blastocyst stage embryos...
  6. Cui X, Li X, Shen X, Bae Y, Kang J, Kim N. Transcription profile in mouse four-cell, morula, and blastocyst: Genes implicated in compaction and blastocoel formation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:133-43 pubmed
    ..early embryo development, we utilized microarray technology to compare gene expression profiles in four-cell (4C), morula (MO), and blastocyst (BL) stage embryos...
  7. Berthelot F, Martinat Botté F, Perreau C, Terqui M. Birth of piglets after OPS vitrification and transfer of compacted morula stage embryos with intact zona pellucida. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2001;41:267-72 pubmed
    ..Although survival rates are still compromised, OPS technology is therefore appropriate to cryopreserve porcine morulae with intact zona pellucida...
  8. Matsunari H, Maehara M, Nakano K, Ikezawa Y, Hagiwara Y, Sasayama N, et al. Hollow fiber vitrification: a novel method for vitrifying multiple embryos in a single device. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:599-608 pubmed
    ..the hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos (1-cell, 2-cell, morula or blastocyst; n = 50/group)...
  9. Ozawa M, Sakatani M, Hankowski K, Terada N, Dobbs K, Hansen P. Importance of culture conditions during the morula-to-blastocyst period on capacity of inner cell-mass cells of bovine blastocysts for establishment of self-renewing pluripotent cells. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1243-51.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, exposure to inhibitors during the morula-blastocyst transition facilitated formation of self-renewing pluripotent cell lines from bovine blastocysts.

More Information

Publications92

  1. Ikeda S, Sugimoto M, Kume S. Importance of methionine metabolism in morula-to-blastocyst transition in bovine preimplantation embryos. J Reprod Dev. 2012;58:91-7 pubmed
    ..Development to the compacted morula stage on day 6 was not affected by 10 mM ethionine treatment...
  2. Edashige K, Tanaka M, Ichimaru N, Ota S, Yazawa K, Higashino Y, et al. Channel-dependent permeation of water and glycerol in mouse morulae. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:625-32 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, water and glycerol appear to move across the plasma membrane mainly by simple diffusion in oocytes but by facilitated diffusion through water channel(s) including aquaporin 3 in morulae...
  3. Sakatani M, Bonilla L, Dobbs K, Block J, Ozawa M, Shanker S, et al. Changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos caused by heat shock: relationship to developmental acquisition of thermotolerance. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:3 pubmed publisher
    ..tag digital gene expression (3'DGE) and real-time PCR were conducted to determine changes in the transcriptome of morula-stage bovine embryos in response to heat shock (40 degrees C for 8 h) that could be associated with thermotolerance...
  4. Vanderzwalmen P, Bertin G, Debauche C, Standaert V, van Roosendaal E, Vandervorst M, et al. Births after vitrification at morula and blastocyst stages: effect of artificial reduction of the blastocoelic cavity before vitrification. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:744-51 pubmed
    ..We analysed therefore the effectiveness of reducing before vitrification the volume of the blastocoelic cavity...
  5. Strelchenko N, Verlinsky Y. Embryonic stem cells from morula. Methods Enzymol. 2006;418:93-108 pubmed
    It has been shown that it is possible to establish human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines from morula. Details of the aforementioned injection method of morula under blastocyst are described in this chapter...
  6. Edashige K, Sakamoto M, Kasai M. Expression of mRNAs of the aquaporin family in mouse oocytes and embryos. Cryobiology. 2000;40:171-5 pubmed
    ..The total RNA of mouse oocytes at metaphase II and embryos at the 4-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages was isolated, reverse-transcribed, and subjected to nested PCR amplification...
  7. Tao J, Tamis R, Fink K. Cryopreservation of mouse embryos at morula/compact stage. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2001;18:235-43 pubmed
    The objective of this article was to study mouse morula/compact stage embryo postthaw survival rates and postthaw developmental potential.
  8. Chazaud C, Yamanaka Y, Pawson T, Rossant J. Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-MAPK pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:615-24 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which the ICM develops as a mosaic of EPI and PE progenitors at E3.5, dependent on Grb2-Ras-MAP kinase signaling, followed by later segregation of the progenitors into the appropriate cell layers...
  9. Okamoto I, Otte A, Allis C, Reinberg D, Heard E. Epigenetic dynamics of imprinted X inactivation during early mouse development. Science. 2004;303:644-9 pubmed
    ..This reveals the remarkable plasticity of the X-inactivation process during preimplantation development and underlines the importance of the ICM in global reprogramming of epigenetic marks in the early embryo...
  10. Eakin G, Hadjantonakis A. Production of chimeras by aggregation of embryonic stem cells with diploid or tetraploid mouse embryos. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1145-53 pubmed
    ..a simple and economical technique for the production of large numbers of mouse chimeras using traditional diploid morula<-->diploid embryonic stem (ES) cell aggregations...
  11. Keskintepe L, Pacholczyk G, Machnicka A, Norris K, Curuk M, Khan I, et al. Bovine blastocyst development from oocytes injected with freeze-dried spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:409-15 pubmed
    ..56%; P < 0.03). The rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst development of sperm-injected oocytes treated with ionomycin plus DMAP were higher than after ..
  12. Rodriguez A, Diez C, Ikeda S, Royo L, Caamano J, Alonso Montes C, et al. Retinoids during the in vitro transition from bovine morula to blastocyst. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2149-57 pubmed
    ..The conversion of retinol (ROH) to retinoic acid (RA) is crucial during development but has been not studied during blastocyst formation...
  13. Ribas R, Taylor J, McCorquodale C, Maurício A, Sousa M, Wilmut I. Effect of zona pellucida removal on DNA methylation in early mouse embryos. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:307-13 pubmed
    ..reduction in the DNA methylation level at two-cell and four-cell stages, but no differences at pronuclear, morula, and blastocyst stages, as observed by immunofluorescence...
  14. Nelson T, Martinez Fernandez A, Terzic A. KCNJ11 knockout morula re-engineered by stem cell diploid aggregation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Integration of wild-type embryonic stem cells into zona pellucida-denuded morula derived from knockout embryos achieved varying degrees of incorporation of stress-tolerant tissue within the KATP ..
  15. Paula Lopes F, al Katanani Y, Majewski A, McDowell L, Hansen P. Manipulation of antioxidant status fails to improve fertility of lactating cows or survival of heat-shocked embryos. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86:2343-51 pubmed
    ..Additionally, there was no overall effect of vitamin E on morula development...
  16. Tao J, Tamis R, Fink K, Williams B, Nelson White T, Craig R. The neglected morula/compact stage embryo transfer. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1513-8 pubmed
    This retrospective study analysed the outcomes of 339 embryo transfers on either day 3 (n = 97) or day 4 (n = 242), and proposed a grading system for morula/compact embryos.
  17. Feugang J, de Roover R, Moens A, Léonard S, Dessy F, Donnay I. Addition of beta-mercaptoethanol or Trolox at the morula/blastocyst stage improves the quality of bovine blastocysts and prevents induction of apoptosis and degeneration by prooxidant agents. Theriogenology. 2004;61:71-90 pubmed
    ..of glutathione synthesis) and Trolox (an hydrosoluble analogue of Vitamin E) on bovine embryos cultured from the morula stage (Day 5 post-insemination; pi) under oxidative stress conditions...
  18. Zhao X, Fu X, Hou Y, Yan C, Suo L, Wang Y, et al. Effect of vitrification on mitochondrial distribution and membrane potential in mouse two pronuclear (2-PN) embryos. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:1056-63 pubmed publisher
    ..7 +/- 2.5%). In conclusion, vitrification affected mitochondrial distribution and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in mouse 2-PN embryos, events which may affect subsequent developmental viability of such embryos...
  19. Romanova L, Anger M, Zatsepina O, Schultz R. Implication of nucleolar protein SURF6 in ribosome biogenesis and preimplantation mouse development. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:690-6 pubmed
    ..by RNAi led to a decrease in both the mRNA and protein levels, and resulted in developmental arrest at the 8-cell/morula stage, as well as a decrease in the level of 18S rRNA...
  20. Edashige K, Ohta S, Tanaka M, Kuwano T, Valdez D, Hara T, et al. The role of aquaporin 3 in the movement of water and cryoprotectants in mouse morulae. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:365-75 pubmed
    ..These results provide important information for understanding the permeability of the plasma membrane of the mouse embryo...
  21. Feldman B, Poueymirou W, Papaioannou V, DeChiara T, Goldfarb M. Requirement of FGF-4 for postimplantation mouse development. Science. 1995;267:246-9 pubmed
  22. Bathige S, Umasuthan N, Park H, Lee J. An invertebrate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) ortholog from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus: Genomic structure, early developmental expression, and immune responses to bacterial and viral stresses. Dev Comp Immunol. 2016;56:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA was detected in different stages of embryonic development and observed at considerably higher levels in the morula and late veliger stages...
  23. Hosseini S, Moulavi F, Tanhaie Vash N, Asgari V, Ghanaei H, Abedi Dorche M, et al. The Principal Forces of Oocyte Polarity Are Evolutionary Conserved but May Not Affect the Contribution of the First Two Blastomeres to the Blastocyst Development in Mammals. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148382 pubmed publisher
    ..had an overall similar probability to arrest at any stage before the blastocyst (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula) or to achieve the blastocyst stage...
  24. Landrock D, Atshaves B, McIntosh A, Landrock K, Schroeder F, Kier A. Acyl-CoA binding protein gene ablation induces pre-implantation embryonic lethality in mice. Lipids. 2010;45:567-80 pubmed publisher
    ..While ACBP-null embryos were not detected at any blastocyst stage, ACBP-null embryos were detected at the morula (8-cell), cleavage (2-cell), and zygote (1-cell) pre-implantation stages...
  25. Wilson R, Fricke P, Leibfried Rutledge M, Rutledge J, Penfield C, Weigel K. In vitro production of bovine embryos using sex-sorted sperm. Theriogenology. 2006;65:1007-15 pubmed
    ..Oocytes (N=3526) were aspirated from these ovaries, fertilized 22+/-0.2h later, and cultured to the morula or blastocyst stage...
  26. Kong Q, Banaszynski L, Geng F, Zhang X, Zhang J, Zhang H, et al. Histone variant H3.3-mediated chromatin remodeling is essential for paternal genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryos. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:3829-3838 pubmed publisher
    ..into the paternal genome as early as 2 h postfertilization and is detectable in the paternal genome until the morula stage. Knockdown of maternal H3...
  27. McClatchie T, Meredith M, Ouédraogo M, Slow S, Lever M, Mann M, et al. Betaine is accumulated via transient choline dehydrogenase activation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13784-13794 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, betaine accumulation is a previously unsuspected physiological process during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation whose underlying mechanism is the transient activation of CHDH. ..
  28. Kovacic B, Vlaisavljevic V, Reljic M, Cizek Sajko M. Developmental capacity of different morphological types of day 5 human morulae and blastocysts. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;8:687-94 pubmed
    ..There was a strong relation between such ordered morphology categories and implantation capacity (P < 0.0001). Such a grading system is helpful in selecting the best of all available day-5 embryos for transfer. ..
  29. Nematollahi mahani S, Pahang H, Moshkdanian G, Nematollahi mahani A. Effect of embryonic fibroblast cell co-culture on development of mouse embryos following exposure to visible light. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental rate of embryos at day 3 (morula), 4 (expanded blastocyst) and 5 (hatching or hatched blastocyst) was evaluated...
  30. Bettencourt E, Bettencourt C, Silva J, Ferreira P, de Matos C, Oliveira E, et al. Ultrastructural characterization of fresh and cryopreserved in vivo produced ovine embryos. Theriogenology. 2009;71:947-58 pubmed publisher
  31. Escribá M, García Ximénez F. Use of a variable electrical pulsing sequence in rabbit oocyte activation. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2000;40:261-9 pubmed
    ..8-cell stage: 33-35% in Series 1 and 23-26% in Series 2), nor at 32 h of culture (16-cell stage: 77-93% and morula stage: 34-41%; Series 2)...
  32. Nong Y, Liu F, Chen Y, Wang F. The expression and distribution of aquaporin 3 in mouse embryos before and after vitrification. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2013;30:601-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The developmental and vitrification-dependent changes in AQP3 expression and distribution suggest that this transmembrane channel might regulate mouse embryo development and contribute to the protective response during vitrification. ..
  33. Wells D. Cloning in livestock agriculture. Reprod Suppl. 2003;61:131-50 pubmed
  34. Niimura S, Ogata T, Okimura A, Sato T, Uchiyama Y, Seta T, et al. Time-lapse videomicrographic observations of blastocyst hatching in cattle. J Reprod Dev. 2010;56:649-54 pubmed
  35. Ochota M, Niżański W. Time of early cleavage affects the developmental potential of feline preimplantation embryos in vitro. Theriogenology. 2017;89:26-31 pubmed publisher
    The study compared developmental competence of embryos, based on the timing of the first cleavage and morula formation, with their subsequent ability to reach the blastocyst stage and the resulting blastocyst morphology and quality...
  36. Ludwig T, Squirrell J, Palmenberg A, Bavister B. Relationship between development, metabolism, and mitochondrial organization in 2-cell hamster embryos in the presence of low levels of phosphate. Biol Reprod. 2001;65:1648-54 pubmed
    ..Total cell numbers, as well as cell allocation to the trophectoderm and inner cell mass were determined for morula- and blastocyst-stage embryos. Culture with P(i) did not alter TCA-cycle activity. However, culture with > or 2...
  37. Anderson R, Bayne R, Gardner J, De Sousa P. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a regulator of human oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:1394-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Only H + SR yielded morulae/blastocysts (6%). Expression of GREM1 in cumulus increased after IVM in H + BDNF versus H + SR or in vivo maturation. The BDNF signaling within COCs influences oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. ..
  38. Mutluay D, Oner H. The Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) localization in preimplantation mouse development. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58:1385-1391 pubmed
    ..We also observed strong c-Abl staining in external cells, especially enriched at the apical poles in morula stage and at the E3...
  39. Li Q, Ren Y, Liang C, Qiao G, Wang Y, Ye S, et al. Regeneration of coelomocytes after evisceration in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;76:266-271 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end of the study, only the counts of amoebocytes and morula cells recovered to the pre-evisceration level. DNA replication assay showed EdU-positive cells accounted for 9...
  40. Ruan H, Zhu X, Luo Q, Liu A, Qian Y, Zhou C, et al. Ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonist, but not GnRH antagonist, partially restores the expression of endometrial integrin beta3 and leukaemia-inhibitory factor and improves uterine receptivity in mice. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:2521-9 pubmed
    ..OS with GnRH agonist, but not GnRH antagonist, may partially restore the endometrial physiological secretion and improve uterine receptivity. ..
  41. El Halawany N, Ponsuksili S, Wimmers K, Gilles M, Tesfaye D, Schellander K. Quantitative expression analysis of blastocyst-derived gene transcripts in preimplantation developmental stages of in vitro-produced bovine embryos using real-time polymerase chain reaction technology. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2004;16:753-62 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, Day 5 morula (M) cDNAs were subtracted from Day 7 blastocyst (B) cDNAs (B-M) and used to establish a B-M subtracted cDNA ..
  42. Tsukamoto S, Hara T, Yamamoto A, Ohta Y, Wada A, Ishida Y, et al. Functional analysis of lysosomes during mouse preimplantation embryo development. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:33-9 pubmed
    ..Lysosomes were abundant during mouse preimplantation development until the morula stage, but their numbers decreased slightly in blastocysts...
  43. Enders A, Lantz K, Peterson P, Hendrickx A. From blastocyst to placenta: the morphology of implantation in the baboon. Hum Reprod Update. 1997;3:561-73 pubmed
    ..Maturation of trophoblast from the compacted morula stage to the expanded blastocyst stage includes increase in numbers of polyribosomes, changes in conformation of ..
  44. Amstislavsky S, Kizilova E, Ternovskaya Y, Zudova G, Lindeberg H, Aalto J, et al. Embryo development and embryo transfer in the European mink (Mustela lutreola), an endangered mustelid species. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2006;18:459-67 pubmed
    ..Embryos develop in the oviducts and then migrate into the uterus on Day 6 post coitum (p.c.) at the morula stage. Embryos expanded as blastocysts from Day 7 until implantation on Day 12 p.c...
  45. Nakano K, Watanabe M, Matsunari H, Matsuda T, Honda K, Maehara M, et al. Generating porcine chimeras using inner cell mass cells and parthenogenetic preimplantation embryos. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61900 pubmed publisher
    ..This method provides a practical and highly accurate system for evaluating pluripotency of undifferentiated cells, such as iPS cells, based on their ability to form chimeras. ..
  46. Grasa P, Kaune H, Williams S. Embryos generated from oocytes lacking complex N- and O-glycans have compromised development and implantation. Reproduction. 2012;144:455-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a lack of complex N- and O-glycans in oocytes during development impairs early embryo development and viability in vivo leading to delayed implantation and a small litter. ..
  47. Tribulo P, Moss J, Ozawa M, Jiang Z, Tian X, Hansen P. WNT regulation of embryonic development likely involves pathways independent of nuclear CTNNB1. Reproduction. 2017;153:405-419 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of seven key genes involved in canonical WNT signaling declined to a nadir at the morula or blastocyst stage...
  48. Denker H. Potentiality of embryonic stem cells: an ethical problem even with alternative stem cell sources. J Med Ethics. 2006;32:665-71 pubmed
    ..as illustrated by a comparison of the developmental potential of three-dimensional clusters of blastomeres (morula), embryonic stem cells, somatic or (adult) stem cells or other somatic (non-stem) cells...
  49. Hochi S, Terao T, Kamei M, Kato M, Hirabayashi M, Hirao M. Successful vitrification of pronuclear-stage rabbit zygotes by minimum volume cooling procedure. Theriogenology. 2004;61:267-75 pubmed
    ..Pronuclear-stage rabbit zygotes were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification using the Cryotop method. ..
  50. Felipe A, Teruel M, Cabodevila J, Callejas S. Morphological aspects of in vivo cleavage in Myocastor coypus (coypu). Anat Histol Embryol. 2004;33:75-80 pubmed
    ..Specimens from the beginning of the first cleavage to the acquisition of a morula appearance were considered to be in cleavage stage...
  51. Antunes G, Chaveiro A, Santos P, Marques A, Jin H, Moreira da Silva F. Influence of apoptosis in bovine embryo's development. Reprod Domest Anim. 2010;45:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the total 139 embryos included, 65 arrested at 2-8 cells; 14 arrested at 9-16 cells; 18 compacted morula and 42 were non-arrested blastocysts...
  52. Karja N, Otoi T, Wongsrikeao P, Shimizu R, Murakami M, Agung B, et al. Effects of electric field strengths on fusion and in vitro development of domestic cat embryos derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Theriogenology. 2006;66:1237-42 pubmed
    ..field strength, there were no differences among the groups with respect to the proportion of development to the morula and blastocyst stages...
  53. Ziegler Birling C, Helmrich A, Tora L, Torres Padilla M. Distribution of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated H2A.X during mouse preimplantation development in the absence of DNA damage. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1003-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible consequences of these findings on the genome-wide chromatin remodelling that ocurs in the preimplantation mammalian embryo...
  54. Ali A, Sirard M. The effects of 17beta-estradiol and protein supplement on the response to purified and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in bovine oocytes. Zygote. 2002;10:65-71 pubmed
    ..the maturation medium at all concentrations studied did not increase the proportion of oocytes developing to the morula and blastocyst stages. However, morula and blastocyst yield were improved (p < 0...
  55. Zollner U, Zollner K, Hartl G, Dietl J, Steck T. The use of a detailed zygote score after IVF/ICSI to obtain good quality blastocysts: the German experience. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1327-33 pubmed
    ..In Germany it is illegal to culture more than three embryos. Therefore, there is need for a sufficient selection at the pronuclear (PN) stage to select the best zygotes and exclude those of poor quality...
  56. Xu J, Chan S, Lee W, Lee K, Yeung W. Differential growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis of mouse embryo in various culture media and in coculture. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;68:72-80 pubmed
    ..2/G2.2 was superior to KSOM, MTF, and CZB/CZB + G with respect to the formation of 3-4 cell embryos, morula, and blastocyst. G1.2/G2...
  57. Grupen C, Mau J, McIlfatrick S, Maddocks S, Nottle M. Effect of 6-dimethylaminopurine on electrically activated in vitro matured porcine oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;62:387-96 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the increased developmental potential of 6-DMAP-treated parthenotes may be attributable to the MPF-inactivating effect of 6-DMAP, rather than the diploidizing effect of 6-DMAP...
  58. Wani N, Maurya S, Misra A, Saxena V, Lakhchaura B. Effect of cryoprotectants and their concentration on in vitro development of vitrified-warmed immature oocytes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2004;61:831-42 pubmed
    ..However, the percentage of morula and blastocyst formation from the cleaved embryos did not vary in fresh oocytes and vitrified oocytes...
  59. Kawamura K, Sato N, Fukuda J, Kodama H, Kumagai J, Tanikawa H, et al. The role of leptin during the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;202:185-9 pubmed
    ..mRNA was detected in blastocyst and hatched blastocyst, and OB-Rb mRNA was detected in oocytes, 1-cell, 2-cell, morula, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst...
  60. Kochhar H, Kochhar K, Basrur P, King W. Influence of the duration of gamete interaction on cleavage, growth rate and sex distribution of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Anim Reprod Sci. 2003;77:33-49 pubmed
    ..This advantage, manifested in the precocious development during the pre-morulae stage is confined to a short duration that is neutralized when gamete interaction is allowed to proceed beyond 6h...
  61. Garcia Garcia R, Gonzalez Bulnes A, Dominguez V, Veiga Lopez A, Cocero M. Survival of frozen-thawed sheep embryos cryopreserved at cleavage stages. Cryobiology. 2006;52:108-13 pubmed
    ..908), increasing linearly from 2- to 4-cell embryos (17.1%) to morula stage (46.3%) and in a quadratic regression from the morula to the blastocyst stage (83.7%)...
  62. De La Torre Sanchez J, Preis K, Seidel G. Metabolic regulation of in-vitro-produced bovine embryos. I. Effects of metabolic regulators at different glucose concentrations with embryos produced by semen from different bulls. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2006;18:585-96 pubmed
    ..A fifth metabolic regulator, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), was studied at various doses at pre-morula or morula-blastocyst stages cultured in 2 mm glucose...
  63. Cui W, Pizzollo J, Han Z, Marcho C, Zhang K, Mager J. Nop2 is required for mammalian preimplantation development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2016;83:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..is expressed throughout preimplantation development, with highest mRNA and protein accumulation at the 8-cell and morula stages, respectively. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Nop2 results in embryos that arrest as morula...
  64. Apparicio M, Ruggeri E, Luvoni G. Vitrification of immature feline oocytes with a commercial kit for bovine embryo vitrification. Reprod Domest Anim. 2013;48:240-4 pubmed publisher
  65. Kanzler B, Dear T. Hox11 acts cell autonomously in spleen development and its absence results in altered cell fate of mesenchymal spleen precursors. Dev Biol. 2001;234:231-43 pubmed
    ..The formation of the spleen primordium before the entry of haematopoietic cells does not require the activity of Hox11. However, subsequent differentiation of spleen precursor cells is dependent on the Hox11 gene...
  66. Auerbach W, Dunmore J, Fairchild Huntress V, Fang Q, Auerbach A, Huszar D, et al. Establishment and chimera analysis of 129/SvEv- and C57BL/6-derived mouse embryonic stem cell lines. Biotechniques. 2000;29:1024-8, 1030, 1032 pubmed
    ..to contribute to the germline following blastocyst injections and/or the less expensive and easier method of morula-ES cell aggregation...
  67. Lindeberg H, Jarvinen M. Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius). Theriogenology. 2003;60:965-75 pubmed
    ..For all cultured embryos, the hatching rate was 15%. The in vitro culture requirements for the preimplantation embryos of the farmed European polecat remain to be determined before further utilization of the technique...
  68. Abe H, Hoshi H. Evaluation of bovine embryos produced in high performance serum-free media. J Reprod Dev. 2003;49:193-202 pubmed
    ..A new method using scanning electrochemical microscopy may be capable of assessing the viability and developmental potential of bovine embryos...
  69. Krisher R, Lane M, Bavister B. Developmental competence and metabolism of bovine embryos cultured in semi-defined and defined culture media. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:1345-52 pubmed
    ..There were no differences in development to the morula and blastocyst stages between SOF, G1/G2, or control (41%, 36%, and 46%, respectively), although more blastocysts ..
  70. Wakayama T, Yanagimachi R. Effect of cytokinesis inhibitors, DMSO and the timing of oocyte activation on mouse cloning using cumulus cell nuclei. Reproduction. 2001;122:49-60 pubmed
    ..Despite such differences, 42--61% of reconstructed embryos developed to the morula-blastocyst stage and 1--3% developed to full term in all groups...
  71. Jumaa H, Wei G, Nielsen P. Blastocyst formation is blocked in mouse embryos lacking the splicing factor SRp20. Curr Biol. 1999;9:899-902 pubmed
    ..Mutant preimplantation embryos failed to form blastocysts and died at the morula stage...
  72. Maehara M, Matsunari H, Honda K, Nakano K, Takeuchi Y, Kanai T, et al. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:133 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Morula-stage embryos were assigned to vitrification and nonvitrification groups to compare their in vitro and in vivo ..
  73. Alvarenga M, McCue P, Bruemmer J, Neves Neto J, Squire E. Ovarian superstimulatory response and embryo production in mares treated with equine pituitary extract twice daily. Theriogenology. 2001;56:879-87 pubmed
  74. Huntriss J, Hemmings K, Hinkins M, Rutherford A, Sturmey R, Elder K, et al. Variable imprinting of the MEST gene in human preimplantation embryos. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013;21:40-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryonic genomic DNA from morula or blastocyst stage embryos was screened for a transcribed AflIII polymorphism in MEST and imprinting analysis was ..
  75. Saint Dizier M, Guyader Joly C, Charpigny G, Grimard B, Humblot P, Ponter A. Expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 in bovine in vitro-produced embryos. Zygote. 2011;19:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that bovine IVP embryos at the morula and blastocyst stages use exclusively the COX-2/mPGES-1 pathway for PGE2 biosynthesis, and that PGE2 is ..
  76. Steele K, Hester J, Stone B, Carrico K, Spear B, FATH GOODIN A. Nonsurgical embryo transfer device compared with surgery for embryo transfer in mice. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2013;52:17-21 pubmed
  77. Kim J, Ogura A, Nagata M, Aoki F. Analysis of the mechanism for chromatin remodeling in embryos reconstructed by somatic nuclear transfer. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:760-6 pubmed
    ..More than half (56.1%) of the embryos reconstructed using the TA protocol developed to the morula/blastocyst stage, whereas very few (1...
  78. Han M, Niwa K, Kasai M. Vitrification of rat embryos at various developmental stages. Theriogenology. 2003;59:1851-63 pubmed
    ..These results show that rat embryos at the 2-cell to blastocyst stages can be vitrified with EFS40, and that the morula stage is the most feasible stage for embryo cryopreservation in this species.
  79. Peippo J, Kurkilahti M, Bredbacka P. Developmental kinetics of in vitro produced bovine embryos: the effect of sex, glucose and exposure to time-lapse environment. Zygote. 2001;9:105-13 pubmed
    ..in the absence of glucose, but in the presence of glucose more male than female embryos reached the morula and blastocyst stage...
  80. Grazul Bilska A, Borowczyk E, Bilski J, Reynolds L, Redmer D, Caton J, et al. Overfeeding and underfeeding have detrimental effects on oocyte quality measured by in vitro fertilization and early embryonic development in sheep. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2012;43:289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of cleaved oocytes after IVF and developing morula and blastocyst were less (P < 0.0001) in overfed and underfed ewes than in control ewes...
  81. Abe H, Otoi T, Tachikawa S, Yamashita S, Satoh T, Hoshi H. Fine structure of bovine morulae and blastocysts in vivo and in vitro. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1999;199:519-27 pubmed
  82. Greenlee A, Ellis T, Berg R, Mercieca M. Pregnancy outcomes for mouse preimplantation embryos exposed in vitro to the estrogenic pesticide o,p'-DDT. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;20:229-38 pubmed
    ..1% ethanol (control) or 0.1 microg/ml o,p'-DDT (pesticide). Morula and preblastocyst embryos were transferred in groups of eight to right uterine horns of pseudopregnant mice (n=111)..
  83. Stice S, Strelchenko N, Keefer C, Matthews L. Pluripotent bovine embryonic cell lines direct embryonic development following nuclear transfer. Biol Reprod. 1996;54:100-10 pubmed
    ..were used to determine the in vivo developmental capacity of bovine embryonic cell lines derived from both morula- and blastocyst-stage embryos. These cell lines differed in morphology from trophoblast and endoderm-like cells...