Summary: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
Hurle J, Ros M, Climent V, Garcia Martinez V. Morphology and significance of programmed cell death in the developing limb bud of the vertebrate embryo. Microsc Res Tech. 1996;34:236-46 pubmed
..Information concerning the biochemical basis of cell death in the developing limb is also revised. Finally, the possible role of genes whose pattern of expression is coincident with the dying processes is discussed. ..
Macias D, Gañan Y, Sampath T, Piedra M, Ros M, Hurle J. Role of BMP-2 and OP-1 (BMP-7) in programmed cell death and skeletogenesis during chick limb development. Development. 1997;124:1109-17 pubmed
Tavella S, Bellese G, Castagnola P, Martin I, Piccini D, Doliana R, et al
. Regulated expression of fibronectin, laminin and related integrin receptors during the early chondrocyte differentiation. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 18):2261-70 pubmed
..e. the periphery, which eventually gives rise to the perichondrium. ..
Salas Vidal E, Lomeli H, Castro Obregon S, Cuervo R, Escalante Alcalde D, Covarrubias L. Reactive oxygen species participate in the control of mouse embryonic cell death. Exp Cell Res. 1998;238:136-47 pubmed
..Our data suggest that the generation of oxidative stress is a common requirement for cell death that occurs during mouse embryonic development. ..
Yokoyama S, Furukawa S, Kitada S, Mori M, Saito T, Kawakami K, et al
. Analysis of transcription factors expressed at the anterior mouse limb bud. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175673 pubmed publisher
..5-E11.5 limb bud. Among these genes, Irx3 showed a posteriorly expanded expression domain in Shh-/- limb buds and an anteriorly reduced expression domain in Gli3-/- limb buds, suggesting their importance in anterior-..
Firulli B, Milliar H, Toolan K, Harkin J, Fuchs R, Robling A, et al
. Defective Hand1 phosphoregulation uncovers essential roles for Hand1 in limb morphogenesis. Development. 2017;144:2480-2489 pubmed publisher
..A reduction of Hand2 and Shh gene dosage improves the integrity of anterior limb structures, validating the importance of the Twist-family bHLH dimer pool in limb morphogenesis. ..
Hopyan S. Biophysical regulation of early limb bud morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2017;429:429-433 pubmed publisher
..A combination of quantitative biophysical experimentation and modelling will likely advance this field. ..
Butterfield N, Qian C, Logan M. Pitx1 determines characteristic hindlimb morphologies in cartilage micromass culture. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180453 pubmed publisher
..Our results demonstrate that the micromass culture system is ideally suited to study cues governing morphogenesis of limb skeletal elements in a simple and experimentally tractable in vitro system that reflects in vivo potential. ..
RodrÃguez Carballo E, Lopez Delisle L, Zhan Y, Fabre P, Beccari L, El Idrissi I, et al
. The HoxD cluster is a dynamic and resilient TAD boundary controlling the segregation of antagonistic regulatory landscapes. Genes Dev. 2017;31:2264-2281 pubmed publisher
..We propose that the whole HoxD cluster is a dynamic TAD border and that the exact boundary position varies depending on both the transcriptional status and the developmental context. ..