somites

Summary

Summary: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).

Top Publications

  1. Shindo A, Yamamoto T, Ueno N. Coordination of cell polarity during Xenopus gastrulation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1600 pubmed publisher
    ..These suggest that definitive tissue separation established by the distinct levels of nodal signaling is essential for the chordamesodermal cells to acquire mediolateral cell polarity. ..
  2. Tiedemann H, Schneltzer E, Zeiser S, Hoesel B, Beckers J, Przemeck G, et al. From dynamic expression patterns to boundary formation in the presomitic mesoderm. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002586 pubmed publisher
    ..and their interplay in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM) precedes the rhythmic budding of nascent somites at its anterior end, which later develops into epithelialized structures, the somites...
  3. Vilhais Neto G, Maruhashi M, Smith K, Vasseur Cognet M, Peterson A, Workman J, et al. Rere controls retinoic acid signalling and somite bilateral symmetry. Nature. 2010;463:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a mutation in Rere (also known as atrophin2) leads to the formation of asymmetrical somites in mouse embryos, similar to embryos deprived of retinoic acid...
  4. Watanabe T, Sato Y, Saito D, Tadokoro R, Takahashi Y. EphrinB2 coordinates the formation of a morphological boundary and cell epithelialization during somite segmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that Ephrin-reverse signal acts as a platform that couples distinct morphogenetic changes in cell polarity and tissue shape. ..
  5. Martins G, Rifes P, Amândio R, Rodrigues G, Palmeirim I, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Dynamic 3D cell rearrangements guided by a fibronectin matrix underlie somitogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7429 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development...
  6. Gervasini C, Grati F, Lalatta F, Tabano S, Gentilin B, Colapietro P, et al. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Genet Med. 2010;12:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome...
  7. Ledig S, Schippert C, Strick R, Beckmann M, Oppelt P, Wieacker P. Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  8. Sambasivan R, Gayraud Morel B, Dumas G, Cimper C, Paisant S, Kelly R, et al. Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates. Dev Cell. 2009;16:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
  9. Farin H, Mansouri A, Petry M, Kispert A. T-box protein Tbx18 interacts with the paired box protein Pax3 in the development of the paraxial mesoderm. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25372-80 pubmed publisher
    The compartmentalization of somites along their anterior-posterior axis is crucial to the segmental organization of the vertebral column...
  10. Sagha M, Karbalaie K, Tanhaee S, Esfandiari E, Salehi H, Sadeghi Aliabadi H, et al. Neural induction in mouse embryonic stem cells by co-culturing with chicken somites. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1351-60 pubmed publisher
    The role of paraxial mesoderm or the somites in decision of ectoderm to acquire the neuroepithelial fate and its subsequent diversification to functional neural subtypes especially in mammalians is obscure...

Detail Information

Publications74

  1. Shindo A, Yamamoto T, Ueno N. Coordination of cell polarity during Xenopus gastrulation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1600 pubmed publisher
    ..These suggest that definitive tissue separation established by the distinct levels of nodal signaling is essential for the chordamesodermal cells to acquire mediolateral cell polarity. ..
  2. Tiedemann H, Schneltzer E, Zeiser S, Hoesel B, Beckers J, Przemeck G, et al. From dynamic expression patterns to boundary formation in the presomitic mesoderm. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002586 pubmed publisher
    ..and their interplay in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM) precedes the rhythmic budding of nascent somites at its anterior end, which later develops into epithelialized structures, the somites...
  3. Vilhais Neto G, Maruhashi M, Smith K, Vasseur Cognet M, Peterson A, Workman J, et al. Rere controls retinoic acid signalling and somite bilateral symmetry. Nature. 2010;463:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a mutation in Rere (also known as atrophin2) leads to the formation of asymmetrical somites in mouse embryos, similar to embryos deprived of retinoic acid...
  4. Watanabe T, Sato Y, Saito D, Tadokoro R, Takahashi Y. EphrinB2 coordinates the formation of a morphological boundary and cell epithelialization during somite segmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration that Ephrin-reverse signal acts as a platform that couples distinct morphogenetic changes in cell polarity and tissue shape. ..
  5. Martins G, Rifes P, Amândio R, Rodrigues G, Palmeirim I, Thorsteinsdóttir S. Dynamic 3D cell rearrangements guided by a fibronectin matrix underlie somitogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7429 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development...
  6. Gervasini C, Grati F, Lalatta F, Tabano S, Gentilin B, Colapietro P, et al. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Genet Med. 2010;12:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome...
  7. Ledig S, Schippert C, Strick R, Beckmann M, Oppelt P, Wieacker P. Recurrent aberrations identified by array-CGH in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify genetic causes of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  8. Sambasivan R, Gayraud Morel B, Dumas G, Cimper C, Paisant S, Kelly R, et al. Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates. Dev Cell. 2009;16:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
  9. Farin H, Mansouri A, Petry M, Kispert A. T-box protein Tbx18 interacts with the paired box protein Pax3 in the development of the paraxial mesoderm. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25372-80 pubmed publisher
    The compartmentalization of somites along their anterior-posterior axis is crucial to the segmental organization of the vertebral column...
  10. Sagha M, Karbalaie K, Tanhaee S, Esfandiari E, Salehi H, Sadeghi Aliabadi H, et al. Neural induction in mouse embryonic stem cells by co-culturing with chicken somites. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1351-60 pubmed publisher
    The role of paraxial mesoderm or the somites in decision of ectoderm to acquire the neuroepithelial fate and its subsequent diversification to functional neural subtypes especially in mammalians is obscure...
  11. Hitachi K, Danno H, Kondow A, Ohnuma K, Uchiyama H, Ishiura S, et al. Physical interaction between Tbx6 and mespb is indispensable for the activation of bowline expression during Xenopus somitogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the appropriate expression of bowline/Ripply2 is regulated by a direct interaction between the Tbx6 and mespb proteins during Xenopus somitogenesis...
  12. Takahashi J, Ohbayashi A, Oginuma M, Saito D, Mochizuki A, Saga Y, et al. Analysis of Ripply1/2-deficient mouse embryos reveals a mechanism underlying the rostro-caudal patterning within a somite. Dev Biol. 2010;342:134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the rostro-caudal pattern is established by dynamic interaction of Notch activity with two Mesp2 domains, which are defined in successive segmentation cycles by Notch, Tbx6 and Ripply1/2...
  13. Uriu K, Morishita Y, Iwasa Y. Random cell movement promotes synchronization of the segmentation clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss that the enhancement of synchronization by random cell movement occurs in several different models for the oscillation of segmentation clock genes...
  14. Feller J, Schneider A, Schuster Gossler K, Gossler A. Noncyclic Notch activity in the presomitic mesoderm demonstrates uncoupling of somite compartmentalization and boundary formation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryos expressing NICD formed up to 18 somites. Expression in the PSM of Hes7, Lfng, and Spry2 was no longer cyclic, whereas Axin2 was expressed dynamically...
  15. Wright D, Ferjentsik Z, Chong S, Qiu X, Yun Jin J, Malapert P, et al. Cyclic Nrarp mRNA expression is regulated by the somitic oscillator but Nrarp protein levels do not oscillate. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:3043-3055 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are formed progressively from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) in a highly regulated process according to a strict periodicity driven by an oscillatory mechanism...
  16. Niwa Y, Shimojo H, Isomura A, Gonzalez A, Miyachi H, Kageyama R. Different types of oscillations in Notch and Fgf signaling regulate the spatiotemporal periodicity of somitogenesis. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1115-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Notch oscillators define the prospective somite region, while Fgf oscillators regulate the pace of segmentation...
  17. Gibb S, Zagorska A, Melton K, Tenin G, Vacca I, Trainor P, et al. Interfering with Wnt signalling alters the periodicity of the segmentation clock. Dev Biol. 2009;330:21-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are embryonic precursors of the ribs, vertebrae and certain dermis tissue. Somite formation is a periodic process regulated by a molecular clock which drives cyclic expression of a number of clock genes in the presomitic mesoderm...
  18. Ishimatsu K, Takamatsu A, Takeda H. Emergence of traveling waves in the zebrafish segmentation clock. Development. 2010;137:1595-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that Fgf has an essential role in establishing the period gradient that is required for the her1 spatial oscillation pattern at the emergence of the traveling wave...
  19. Brend T, Holley S. Expression of the oscillating gene her1 is directly regulated by Hairy/Enhancer of Split, T-box, and Suppressor of Hairless proteins in the zebrafish segmentation clock. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2745-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are segmental units of the mesoderm in vertebrate embryos that give rise to the axial skeleton, muscle, and dermis...
  20. Uriu K, Morishita Y, Iwasa Y. Synchronized oscillation of the segmentation clock gene in vertebrate development. J Math Biol. 2010;61:207-229 pubmed publisher
    ..From statistical study of a model with randomly generated parameters, we revealed how the likelihood that the system generates stable synchronized oscillation depends on the rate of each reaction in the gene-protein kinetics...
  21. Janvier P. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R661-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates...
  22. Hester S, Belmonte J, Gens J, Clendenon S, Glazier J. A multi-cell, multi-scale model of vertebrate segmentation and somite formation. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1002155 pubmed publisher
    ..For reasonable initial conditions, 2D simulations of our model robustly generate spatially and temporally regular somites, realistic dynamic morphologies and spontaneous emergence of anterior-traveling stripes of Lfng...
  23. Zhu H, Zhao J, Zhou W, Li H, Zhou R, Zhang L, et al. Ndrg2 regulates vertebral specification in differentiating somites. Dev Biol. 2012;369:308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..suppressor gene, was dynamically expressed in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and at early stage of differentiating somites. Loss of Ndrg2 in mice resulted in vertebral homeotic transformations in thoracic/lumbar and lumbar/sacral ..
  24. Fior R, Maxwell A, Ma T, Vezzaro A, Moens C, Amacher S, et al. The differentiation and movement of presomitic mesoderm progenitor cells are controlled by Mesogenin 1. Development. 2012;139:4656-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are formed from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and give rise to the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles...
  25. Kageyama R, Niwa Y, Shimojo H. Rhythmic gene expression in somite formation and neural development. Mol Cells. 2009;27:497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that oscillatory expression with short periods (ultradian oscillation) plays an important role in many biological events...
  26. Schroter C, Oates A. Segment number and axial identity in a segmentation clock period mutant. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The first segmental structures in the vertebrate embryo are the somites, which bud sequentially from the growing presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  27. Lepper C, Fan C. Inducible lineage tracing of Pax7-descendant cells reveals embryonic origin of adult satellite cells. Genesis. 2010;48:424-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they contribute to adult myofibers and regeneration competent satellite cells in the tibialis anterior muscle, providing evidence that some adult satellite cells are of embryonic origin...
  28. Christ B, Scaal M. Formation and differentiation of avian somite derivatives. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;638:1-41 pubmed
    ..We further discuss the molecular control of sclerotomal subdomain formation and cell type specification...
  29. Abu Elmagd M, Robson L, Sweetman D, Hadley J, Francis West P, Munsterberg A. Wnt/Lef1 signaling acts via Pitx2 to regulate somite myogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;337:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that Wnt signaling via Lef1 acts to regulate the number of premyogenic cells in somites but does not regulate myogenic initiation in the limb bud or maintenance in the first or second branchial arch...
  30. Ota K, Fujimoto S, Oisi Y, Kuratani S. Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish. Nat Commun. 2011;2:373 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it has yet to be conclusively shown whether hagfish lack all vertebra-like structures, and whether their somites follow developmental processes and patterning distinct from those in lampreys and gnathostomes...
  31. Valasek P, Theis S, DeLaurier A, Hinits Y, Luke G, Otto A, et al. Cellular and molecular investigations into the development of the pectoral girdle. Dev Biol. 2011;357:108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and latissimus dorsi) develop by the "In-Out" mechanism whereby migration of myogenic cells from the somites into the limb bud is followed by their extension from the proximal limb bud out onto the thorax...
  32. Matsuura K, Katsumoto K, Fukuda K, Kume K, Kume S. Conserved origin of the ventral pancreas in chicken. Mech Dev. 2009;126:817-27 pubmed publisher
  33. Takashima Y, Ohtsuka T, Gonzalez A, Miyachi H, Kageyama R. Intronic delay is essential for oscillatory expression in the segmentation clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that introns are indeed required for Hes7 oscillations and point to the significance of intronic delays in dynamic gene expression...
  34. Yasuhiko Y, Kitajima S, Takahashi Y, Oginuma M, Kagiwada H, Kanno J, et al. Functional importance of evolutionally conserved Tbx6 binding sites in the presomitic mesoderm-specific enhancer of Mesp2. Development. 2008;135:3511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that there is significant evolutionary conservation of Mesp regulatory mechanisms between fish and mice...
  35. Martin B, Kimelman D. Regulation of canonical Wnt signaling by Brachyury is essential for posterior mesoderm formation. Dev Cell. 2008;15:121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..the mouse phenotype, demonstrating an ancient role for Brachyury in patterning all but the most anterior somites. Using cell transplantation, we show that the only essential role for Brachyury during somite formation is non-..
  36. Aulehla A, Pourquie O. Oscillating signaling pathways during embryonic development. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008;20:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These discoveries indicate that oscillatory signaling activities during embryonic development might serve a more general function than previously thought...
  37. Jensen P, Pedersen L, Krishna S, Jensen M. A Wnt oscillator model for somitogenesis. Biophys J. 2010;98:943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the oscillations disappear as the ligand concentration decreases, in agreement with observations on embryos...
  38. Theis S, Patel K, Valasek P, Otto A, Pu Q, Harel I, et al. The occipital lateral plate mesoderm is a novel source for vertebrate neck musculature. Development. 2010;137:2961-71 pubmed publisher
    In vertebrates, body musculature originates from somites, whereas head muscles originate from the cranial mesoderm. Neck muscles are located in the transition between these regions...
  39. Herrgen L, Ares S, Morelli L, Schroter C, Jülicher F, Oates A. Intercellular coupling regulates the period of the segmentation clock. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we ask whether Delta-Notch coupling additionally influences the collective period of the segmentation clock...
  40. Oginuma M, Niwa Y, Chapman D, Saga Y. Mesp2 and Tbx6 cooperatively create periodic patterns coupled with the clock machinery during mouse somitogenesis. Development. 2008;135:2555-62 pubmed publisher
    The metameric structures in vertebrates are based on the periodicity of the somites that are formed one by one from the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  41. Shifley E, Cole S. Lunatic fringe protein processing by proprotein convertases may contribute to the short protein half-life in the segmentation clock. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:2384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have important implications for the mechanisms that contribute to the tight control of Notch signaling during vertebrate segmentation...
  42. Sato Y, Watanabe T, Saito D, Takahashi T, Yoshida S, Kohyama J, et al. Notch mediates the segmental specification of angioblasts in somites and their directed migration toward the dorsal aorta in avian embryos. Dev Cell. 2008;14:890-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon activation of Notch signaling, a subpopulation of cells in the posterior half of individual somites migrates ventrally toward the primary dorsal aorta of splanchnic origin...
  43. Campanelli M, Gedeon T. Somitogenesis clock-wave initiation requires differential decay and multiple binding sites for clock protein. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000728 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Somites form in the wake of passing waves of periodic gene expression that originate in the tailbud and sweep posteriorly ..
  44. Lewis J, Hanisch A, Holder M. Notch signaling, the segmentation clock, and the patterning of vertebrate somites. J Biol. 2009;8:44 pubmed publisher
    ..One of its most fundamental roles is in the emergence of the regular pattern of somites that will give rise to the musculoskeletal structures of the trunk...
  45. Harima Y, Takashima Y, Ueda Y, Ohtsuka T, Kageyama R. Accelerating the tempo of the segmentation clock by reducing the number of introns in the Hes7 gene. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and results in a more rapid tempo of both Hes7 oscillation and somite segmentation, increasing the number of somites and vertebrae in the cervical and upper thoracic region...
  46. Hughes D, Keynes R, Tannahill D. Extensive molecular differences between anterior- and posterior-half-sclerotomes underlie somite polarity and spinal nerve segmentation. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:30 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo...
  47. Zhou J, Sun J, Yang C, Xie Z, Shao W, Jin H. Long-term outcomes of transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum in 182 patients with Rokitansky's syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the technical feasibility and anatomical and functional outcomes of one-stage transvestibular vaginoplasty with pelvic peritoneum for the patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome...
  48. Aulehla A, Pourquie O. Signaling gradients during paraxial mesoderm development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2:a000869 pubmed publisher
    The sequential formation of somites along the anterior-posterior axis is under control of multiple signaling gradients involving the Wnt, FGF, and retinoic acid (RA) pathways...
  49. Brend T, Holley S. Balancing segmentation and laterality during vertebrate development. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009;20:472-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are the mesodermal segments of vertebrate embryos that become the vertebral column, skeletal muscle and dermis. Somites arise within the paraxial mesoderm by the periodic, bilaterally symmetric process of somitogenesis...
  50. Jacobs McDaniels N, Albertson R. Chd7 plays a critical role in controlling left-right symmetry during zebrafish somitogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2272-80 pubmed publisher
  51. Ferjentsik Z, Hayashi S, Dale J, Bessho Y, Herreman A, De Strooper B, et al. Notch is a critical component of the mouse somitogenesis oscillator and is essential for the formation of the somites. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000662 pubmed publisher
    Segmentation of the vertebrate body axis is initiated through somitogenesis, whereby epithelial somites bud off in pairs periodically from the rostral end of the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM)...
  52. Sewell W, Sparrow D, Smith A, Gonzalez D, Rappaport E, Dunwoodie S, et al. Cyclical expression of the Notch/Wnt regulator Nrarp requires modulation by Dll3 in somitogenesis. Dev Biol. 2009;329:400-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Towards identifying the role of Dll3 in regulating somitogenesis, Nrarp emerges as a potentially important regulator that requires Dll3 but not Lfng for normal function...
  53. Gomez C, Ozbudak E, Wunderlich J, Baumann D, Lewis J, Pourquie O. Control of segment number in vertebrate embryos. Nature. 2008;454:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..body axis is subdivided into repeated segments, best exemplified by the vertebrae that derive from embryonic somites. The number of somites is precisely defined for any given species but varies widely from one species to another...
  54. Yabe T, Takada S. Mesogenin causes embryonic mesoderm progenitors to differentiate during development of zebrafish tail somites. Dev Biol. 2012;370:213-22 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, spadetail/tbx16 (spt) mutant embryos lack trunk somites but not tail ones...
  55. Sasaki N, Kiso M, Kitagawa M, Saga Y. The repression of Notch signaling occurs via the destabilization of mastermind-like 1 by Mesp2 and is essential for somitogenesis. Development. 2011;138:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, this function of Mesp2 is found to be independent of its function as a transcription factor. Together, these data demonstrate that Mesp2 is a novel component involved in the suppression of Notch target genes...
  56. Sabo M, Nath K, Elinson R. Lbx1 expression and frog limb development. Dev Genes Evol. 2009;219:609-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Like in embryos of the frog Xenopus laevis but unlike in other vertebrates, EcLbx1 is expressed in all trunk somites. Like in embryos of chick, mouse, and zebrafish, cells expressing EcLbx1 are then found in limb buds, consistent ..
  57. Rallis C, Pinchin S, Ish Horowicz D. Cell-autonomous integrin control of Wnt and Notch signalling during somitogenesis. Development. 2010;137:3591-601 pubmed publisher
    ..signalling cascade that acts during the formation of the defining segmental features of the vertebrate body - the somites - in which ?1-integrin activity regulates epithelialisation by controlling downstream Wnt and Notch activity ..
  58. Oginuma M, Takahashi Y, Kitajima S, Kiso M, Kanno J, Kimura A, et al. The oscillation of Notch activation, but not its boundary, is required for somite border formation and rostral-caudal patterning within a somite. Development. 2010;137:1515-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch-intracellular domain (NICD) throughout the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) can still form more than ten somites, indicating that the NICD on/off state is dispensable for boundary formation...
  59. Pu Q, Bai Z, Haque Z, Wang J, Huang R. Occipital somites guide motor axons of the accessory nerve in the avian embryo. Neuroscience. 2013;246:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known about how this organization is achieved. We have investigated the role of somites in the guidance of motor axons of the accessory nerve using heterotopic transplantations of somites in avian ..
  60. Oates A, Morelli L, Ares S. Patterning embryos with oscillations: structure, function and dynamics of the vertebrate segmentation clock. Development. 2012;139:625-39 pubmed publisher
    ..to govern the rhythmic and sequential subdivision of the elongating body axis of the vertebrate embryo into somites: the precursors of the segmented vertebral column...
  61. Stauber M, Sachidanandan C, Morgenstern C, Ish Horowicz D. Differential axial requirements for lunatic fringe and Hes7 transcription during mouse somitogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7996 pubmed publisher
    ..Formation of cervical, thoracic and lumbar somites/vertebrae, but not sacral and adjacent tail somites/vertebrae, depends on caudal, cyclic Lfng expression...
  62. Giusti S, Fruzzetti E, Perini D, Fruzzetti F, Giusti P, Bartolozzi C. Diagnosis of a variant of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome: useful MRI findings. Abdom Imaging. 2011;36:753-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, following diagnosis, surgery allows patients to have normal sexual function while reproduction may be possible if assisted techniques are performed...
  63. Jülich D, Mould A, Koper E, Holley S. Control of extracellular matrix assembly along tissue boundaries via Integrin and Eph/Ephrin signaling. Development. 2009;136:2913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the tissue, interplay between Eph/Ephrin signaling, ligand-independent Integrin clustering and reciprocal Integrin inhibition restricts de novo ECM production to somite boundaries...
  64. Rathjen T, Pais H, Sweetman D, Moulton V, Munsterberg A, Dalmay T. High throughput sequencing of microRNAs in chicken somites. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1422-6 pubmed publisher
    High throughput Solexa sequencing technology was applied to identify microRNAs in somites of developing chicken embryos. We obtained 651,273 reads, from which 340,415 were mapped to the chicken genome representing 1701 distinct sequences...
  65. Hinits Y, Osborn D, Hughes S. Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations. Development. 2009;136:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Mrf4 does not contribute to early myogenesis in zebrafish. We suggest that the differential use of duplicated MRF paralogues in this novel two-component myogenic system facilitated the diversification of vertebrates...
  66. Gros J, Serralbo O, Marcelle C. WNT11 acts as a directional cue to organize the elongation of early muscle fibres. Nature. 2009;457:589-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the neural tube, known to drive WNT11 expression in the medial border of somites, is necessary and sufficient to orient myocyte elongation...
  67. Cairns D, Sato M, Lee P, Lassar A, Zeng L. A gradient of Shh establishes mutually repressing somitic cell fates induced by Nkx3.2 and Pax3. Dev Biol. 2008;323:152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, forced expression of Pax3 in somites can block Shh-mediated induction of sclerotomal gene expression and chondrocyte differentiation in vitro...
  68. Armstrong N, Painter K, Sherratt J. Adding adhesion to a chemical signaling model for somite formation. Bull Math Biol. 2009;71:1-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Somites are condensations of mesodermal cells that form along the two sides of the neural tube during early vertebrate development...
  69. Dias A, de Almeida I, Belmonte J, Glazier J, Stern C. Somites without a clock. Science. 2014;343:791-795 pubmed publisher
    The formation of body segments (somites) in vertebrate embryos is accompanied by molecular oscillations (segmentation clock)...