gastrula

Summary

Summary: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.

Top Publications

  1. Tam P, Khoo P, Lewis S, Bildsoe H, Wong N, Tsang T, et al. Sequential allocation and global pattern of movement of the definitive endoderm in the mouse embryo during gastrulation. Development. 2007;134:251-60 pubmed
    ..The observation that the endoderm cells are inherently unable to move despite the expansion of the mesoderm in the Mixl1-null mutant suggests that the movement of the endoderm and the mesoderm is driven independently of one another. ..
  2. Solnica Krezel L. Gastrulation in zebrafish -- all just about adhesion?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:433-41 pubmed
    ..Whereas some signaling pathways are required for a subset of these behaviors, other molecules, such as E-cadherin or Galpha12 and Galpha13 proteins, appear to have a widespread role in different gastrulation cell behaviors...
  3. Yamanaka Y, Tamplin O, Beckers A, Gossler A, Rossant J. Live imaging and genetic analysis of mouse notochord formation reveals regional morphogenetic mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;13:884-96 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose three distinct regions within the mouse notochord, each with unique morphogenetic origins...
  4. Panizzi J, Jessen J, Drummond I, Solnica Krezel L. New functions for a vertebrate Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor in ciliated epithelia. Development. 2007;134:921-31 pubmed
    ..functional characterization of a zebrafish homolog of ARHGEF11 that is expressed ubiquitously at blastula and gastrula stages and is enriched in neural tissues and the pronephros during later embryogenesis...
  5. Faunes F, Sánchez N, Castellanos J, Vergara I, Melo F, Larraín J. Identification of novel transcripts with differential dorso-ventral expression in Xenopus gastrula using serial analysis of gene expression. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R15 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to identify novel transcripts involved in dorso-ventral patterning, we compared dorsal and ventral transcriptomes of Xenopus tropicalis at the gastrula stage using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).
  6. Aoyama M, Sun Wada G, Yamamoto A, Yamamoto M, Hamada H, Wada Y. Spatial restriction of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mouse gastrula through the mVam2-dependent endocytic pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that mVam2, which interacts with BMP type I receptor, is required for the spatiotemporal modulation of BMP signaling, via sequestration of the receptor complex in the late stages of the endocytic pathway...
  7. Yu J, Satou Y, Holland N, Shin I T, Kohara Y, Satoh N, et al. Axial patterning in cephalochordates and the evolution of the organizer. Nature. 2007;445:613-7 pubmed
    The organizer of the vertebrate gastrula is an important signalling centre that induces and patterns dorsal axial structures. Although a topic of long-standing interest, the evolutionary origin of the organizer remains unclear...
  8. Lewis S, Tam P. Definitive endoderm of the mouse embryo: formation, cell fates, and morphogenetic function. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2315-29 pubmed
  9. Koop D, Holland N, Semon M, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Laudet V, et al. Retinoic acid signaling targets Hox genes during the amphioxus gastrula stage: insights into early anterior-posterior patterning of the chordate body plan. Dev Biol. 2010;338:98-106 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies of vertebrate development have shown that retinoic acid (RA) signaling at the gastrula stage strongly influences anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the neurula and later stages...
  10. Moore Scott B, Opoka R, Lin S, Kordich J, Wells J. Identification of molecular markers that are expressed in discrete anterior-posterior domains of the endoderm from the gastrula stage to mid-gestation. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1997-2003 pubmed
    ..We have identified 8 molecular markers that are expressed in discrete domains of the gastrula stage endoderm (e7...

Detail Information

Publications63

  1. Tam P, Khoo P, Lewis S, Bildsoe H, Wong N, Tsang T, et al. Sequential allocation and global pattern of movement of the definitive endoderm in the mouse embryo during gastrulation. Development. 2007;134:251-60 pubmed
    ..The observation that the endoderm cells are inherently unable to move despite the expansion of the mesoderm in the Mixl1-null mutant suggests that the movement of the endoderm and the mesoderm is driven independently of one another. ..
  2. Solnica Krezel L. Gastrulation in zebrafish -- all just about adhesion?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:433-41 pubmed
    ..Whereas some signaling pathways are required for a subset of these behaviors, other molecules, such as E-cadherin or Galpha12 and Galpha13 proteins, appear to have a widespread role in different gastrulation cell behaviors...
  3. Yamanaka Y, Tamplin O, Beckers A, Gossler A, Rossant J. Live imaging and genetic analysis of mouse notochord formation reveals regional morphogenetic mechanisms. Dev Cell. 2007;13:884-96 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose three distinct regions within the mouse notochord, each with unique morphogenetic origins...
  4. Panizzi J, Jessen J, Drummond I, Solnica Krezel L. New functions for a vertebrate Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor in ciliated epithelia. Development. 2007;134:921-31 pubmed
    ..functional characterization of a zebrafish homolog of ARHGEF11 that is expressed ubiquitously at blastula and gastrula stages and is enriched in neural tissues and the pronephros during later embryogenesis...
  5. Faunes F, Sánchez N, Castellanos J, Vergara I, Melo F, Larraín J. Identification of novel transcripts with differential dorso-ventral expression in Xenopus gastrula using serial analysis of gene expression. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R15 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to identify novel transcripts involved in dorso-ventral patterning, we compared dorsal and ventral transcriptomes of Xenopus tropicalis at the gastrula stage using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).
  6. Aoyama M, Sun Wada G, Yamamoto A, Yamamoto M, Hamada H, Wada Y. Spatial restriction of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mouse gastrula through the mVam2-dependent endocytic pathway. Dev Cell. 2012;22:1163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that mVam2, which interacts with BMP type I receptor, is required for the spatiotemporal modulation of BMP signaling, via sequestration of the receptor complex in the late stages of the endocytic pathway...
  7. Yu J, Satou Y, Holland N, Shin I T, Kohara Y, Satoh N, et al. Axial patterning in cephalochordates and the evolution of the organizer. Nature. 2007;445:613-7 pubmed
    The organizer of the vertebrate gastrula is an important signalling centre that induces and patterns dorsal axial structures. Although a topic of long-standing interest, the evolutionary origin of the organizer remains unclear...
  8. Lewis S, Tam P. Definitive endoderm of the mouse embryo: formation, cell fates, and morphogenetic function. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2315-29 pubmed
  9. Koop D, Holland N, Semon M, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Laudet V, et al. Retinoic acid signaling targets Hox genes during the amphioxus gastrula stage: insights into early anterior-posterior patterning of the chordate body plan. Dev Biol. 2010;338:98-106 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies of vertebrate development have shown that retinoic acid (RA) signaling at the gastrula stage strongly influences anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning of the neurula and later stages...
  10. Moore Scott B, Opoka R, Lin S, Kordich J, Wells J. Identification of molecular markers that are expressed in discrete anterior-posterior domains of the endoderm from the gastrula stage to mid-gestation. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1997-2003 pubmed
    ..We have identified 8 molecular markers that are expressed in discrete domains of the gastrula stage endoderm (e7...
  11. Witzel S, Zimyanin V, Carreira Barbosa F, Tada M, Heisenberg C. Wnt11 controls cell contact persistence by local accumulation of Frizzled 7 at the plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:791-802 pubmed
    ..We propose that Wnt11, by interacting with Frizzled 7 and Flamingo, modulates local cell contact persistence to coordinate cell movements during gastrulation...
  12. Tamplin O, Kinzel D, Cox B, Bell C, Rossant J, Lickert H. Microarray analysis of Foxa2 mutant mouse embryos reveals novel gene expression and inductive roles for the gastrula organizer and its derivatives. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:511 pubmed publisher
    The Spemann/Mangold organizer is a transient tissue critical for patterning the gastrula stage vertebrate embryo and formation of the three germ layers...
  13. Kreiling J, Balantac Z, Crawford A, Ren Y, Toure J, Zchut S, et al. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain. Mech Dev. 2008;125:396-410 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) ..
  14. Pezeron G, Anselme I, Laplante M, Ellingsen S, Becker T, Rosa F, et al. Duplicate sfrp1 genes in zebrafish: sfrp1a is dynamically expressed in the developing central nervous system, gut and lateral line. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:835-42 pubmed
    ..Overall, our studies provide a basis for future analyses of these developmentally important factors using the zebrafish model...
  15. Frankenberg S, Smith L, Greenfield A, Zernicka Goetz M. Novel gene expression patterns along the proximo-distal axis of the mouse embryo before gastrulation. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:8 pubmed
    ..5. At E5.5, prospective anterior markers are expressed at the distal tip of the embryo, whereas prospective posterior markers are expressed more proximally, close to the boundary with the extraembryonic region...
  16. Murray S, Gridley T. Snail1 gene function during early embryo patterning in mice. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:2566-70 pubmed
    ..These results shed new light on the role of Snail family genes in early mouse development, and raise interesting questions concerning the diversity of gene function among vertebrate species...
  17. Bennett J, Joubin K, Cheng S, Aanstad P, Herwig R, Clark M, et al. Nodal signaling activates differentiation genes during zebrafish gastrulation. Dev Biol. 2007;304:525-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Nodal signaling regulates not only specification genes but also differentiation genes...
  18. Chung H, Yamamoto T, Ueno N. ANR5, an FGF target gene product, regulates gastrulation in Xenopus. Curr Biol. 2007;17:932-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal for the first time that xANR5 acts through Rho to regulate gastrulation and is an important cytoplasmic partner of PAPC, whose cytoplasmic partner was previously unknown...
  19. Rohde L, Heisenberg C. Zebrafish gastrulation: cell movements, signals, and mechanisms. Int Rev Cytol. 2007;261:159-92 pubmed
    ..Future exploration of gastrulation mechanisms relies on the development of sensitive and quantitative techniques to characterize embryonic germ-layer properties...
  20. Dorey K, Hill C. A novel Cripto-related protein reveals an essential role for EGF-CFCs in Nodal signalling in Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol. 2006;292:303-16 pubmed
    ..We have focused on the role of XCR1/FRL1 and XCR3, which are both expressed at gastrula stages when Nodal signalling is active...
  21. Levine A, Brivanlou A. Proposal of a model of mammalian neural induction. Dev Biol. 2007;308:247-56 pubmed
    ..In this model, the gastrula organizer of the mouse embryo inhibits BMP signaling to allow neural tissue to form as a default fate-in the ..
  22. Luu O, Nagel M, Wacker S, Lemaire P, Winklbauer R. Control of gastrula cell motility by the Goosecoid/Mix.1/ Siamois network: basic patterns and paradoxical effects. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1307-20 pubmed publisher
    In the vegetal half of the Xenopus gastrula, cell populations differ with respect to migration on fibronectin substratum. We show that the paired-class homeodomain transcription factors Goosecoid (Gsc), Mix...
  23. Olander S, Nordström U, Patthey C, Edlund T. Convergent Wnt and FGF signaling at the gastrula stage induce the formation of the isthmic organizer. Mech Dev. 2006;123:166-76 pubmed
    ..We now provide evidence that convergent Wnt and FGF signaling at the gastrula stage are required to generate the complex polarized pattern of cells characteristic of the IsO, and that Wnt and ..
  24. van Impel A, Schumacher S, Draga M, Herz H, Grosshans J, Müller H. Regulation of the Rac GTPase pathway by the multifunctional Rho GEF Pebble is essential for mesoderm migration in the Drosophila gastrula. Development. 2009;136:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, gain-of-function and rescue experiments suggest an important regulatory role of the C-terminal tail of Pbl for the selective activation of Rho1-versus Rac-dependent pathways...
  25. Schweickert A, Weber T, Beyer T, Vick P, Bogusch S, Feistel K, et al. Cilia-driven leftward flow determines laterality in Xenopus. Curr Biol. 2007;17:60-6 pubmed
    ..Injection of 1.5% methylcellulose into the archenteron prevented leftward flow and resulted in laterality defects, demonstrating that the flow itself was required for asymmetric gene expression and organ placement...
  26. Beloussov L, Luchinskaya N, Ermakov A, Glagoleva N. Gastrulation in amphibian embryos, regarded as a succession of biomechanical feedback events. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:113-22 pubmed
    ..stage; inversion of convergent intercalation movements by relaxation of circumferential stresses at the early gastrula stage; stress-promoted reorientation of axial rudiments, and others...
  27. Nagel M, Luu O, Bisson N, Macanovic B, Moss T, Winklbauer R. Role of p21-activated kinase in cell polarity and directional mesendoderm migration in the Xenopus gastrula. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1709-26 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Pak1 inhibition interferes with the guidance of mesendoderm migration by directional cues residing in the extracellular matrix of the blastocoel roof, and with mesendoderm translocation in the embryo...
  28. Tzouanacou E, Wegener A, Wymeersch F, Wilson V, Nicolas J. Redefining the progression of lineage segregations during mammalian embryogenesis by clonal analysis. Dev Cell. 2009;17:365-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the interpretation of the phenotypic defects of several mouse mutants and the directed differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro...
  29. Webb S, Miller A. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1192-208 pubmed
    ..Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods...
  30. Bai J, Sepp K, Perrimon N. Culture of Drosophila primary cells dissociated from gastrula embryos and their use in RNAi screening. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:1502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The entire protocol takes approximately 14 d, whereas the preparation of primary cells from Drosophila embryos only requires 2-4 h...
  31. Penaloza C, Lin L, Lockshin R, Zakeri Z. Cell death in development: shaping the embryo. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:149-58 pubmed
  32. Zamir E, Czirok A, Cui C, Little C, Rongish B. Mesodermal cell displacements during avian gastrulation are due to both individual cell-autonomous and convective tissue movements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19806-11 pubmed
  33. Yasuoka Y, Kobayashi M, Kurokawa D, Akasaka K, Saiga H, Taira M. Evolutionary origins of blastoporal expression and organizer activity of the vertebrate gastrula organizer gene lhx1 and its ancient metazoan paralog lhx3. Development. 2009;136:2005-14 pubmed publisher
    Expression of the LIM homeobox gene lhx1 (lim1) is specific to the vertebrate gastrula organizer. Lhx1 functions as a transcriptional regulatory core protein to exert ;organizer' activity in Xenopus embryos...
  34. Lachnit M, Kur E, Driever W. Alterations of the cytoskeleton in all three embryonic lineages contribute to the epiboly defect of Pou5f1/Oct4 deficient MZspg zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2008;315:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings on the effect of Pou5f1 on cell behavior may be relevant to understand stem cell behavior and tumorigenesis involving Pou5f1...
  35. Imai K, Levine M, Satoh N, Satou Y. Regulatory blueprint for a chordate embryo. Science. 2006;312:1183-7 pubmed
    ..These diagrams constitute a blueprint for the Ciona embryo and provide a foundation for understanding the evolutionary origins of the chordate body plan...
  36. Coolen M, Nicolle D, Plouhinec J, Gombault A, Sauka Spengler T, Menuet A, et al. Molecular characterization of the gastrula in the turtle Emys orbicularis: an evolutionary perspective on gastrulation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2676 pubmed publisher
    ..characteristics of amniotes during gastrulation, we have performed the first molecular characterization of the gastrula in a reptile, the turtle Emys orbicularis...
  37. Yang Y, Anderson R, Klingensmith J. BMP antagonism protects Nodal signaling in the gastrula to promote the tissue interactions underlying mammalian forebrain and craniofacial patterning. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:3030-42 pubmed publisher
  38. Buechling T, Bartscherer K, Ohkawara B, Chaudhary V, Spirohn K, Niehrs C, et al. Wnt/Frizzled signaling requires dPRR, the Drosophila homolog of the prorenin receptor. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, dPRR binds to Fz and Fz2 receptors. In summary, our data suggest that dPRR has an evolutionarily conserved role at the receptor level for activation of canonical and noncanonical Wnt/Fz signaling pathways...
  39. Coolen M, Sauka Spengler T, Nicolle D, Le Mentec C, Lallemand Y, Da Silva C, et al. Evolution of axis specification mechanisms in jawed vertebrates: insights from a chondrichthyan. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e374 pubmed
    ..We show that the dogfish displays compelling similarities with amniotes at blastula and early gastrula stages, including the presence of clear homologs of the hypoblast and extraembryonic ectoderm...
  40. Kwon G, Viotti M, Hadjantonakis A. The endoderm of the mouse embryo arises by dynamic widespread intercalation of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Dev Cell. 2008;15:509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the cell behaviors and fate of the visceral endoderm during gut endoderm formation in the mouse gastrula. Contrary to the prevailing view, our data reveal no mass displacement of visceral endoderm to extraembryonic ..
  41. Tanaka T, Nishiumi F, Komiya T, Ikenishi K. Characterization of the 38 kDa protein lacking in gastrula-arrested mutant Xenopus embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:1347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study provides the first molecular information on the cause of the gastrulation-defective mutation in Amphibia...
  42. Taber L. Theoretical study of Beloussov's hyper-restoration hypothesis for mechanical regulation of morphogenesis. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2008;7:427-41 pubmed
    ..Other processes, however, may require secondary mechanisms or perturbations to proceed to completion...
  43. Tam P, Loebel D, Tanaka S. Building the mouse gastrula: signals, asymmetry and lineages. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:419-25 pubmed
    ..These signalling activities are also required for the specification of anterior and posterior fates of the epiblast cells and for the induction and navigation of the primordial germ cells...
  44. Albazerchi A, Stern C. A role for the hypoblast (AVE) in the initiation of neural induction, independent of its ability to position the primitive streak. Dev Biol. 2007;301:489-503 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, FGF and retinoids, generally considered as caudalizing factors, are shown here to play a role in the induction of a transient "pre-neural/pre-forebrain" state...
  45. Colombo A, Reig G, Mione M, Concha M. Zebrafish BarH-like genes define discrete neural domains in the early embryo. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:347-52 pubmed
    ..barhl2 becomes expressed in the late gastrula as a transverse diencephalic domain located immediately caudal to the prospective eyes...
  46. Tam P, Loebel D. Gene function in mouse embryogenesis: get set for gastrulation. Nat Rev Genet. 2007;8:368-81 pubmed
  47. Skoglund P, Rolo A, Chen X, Gumbiner B, Keller R. Convergence and extension at gastrulation require a myosin IIB-dependent cortical actin network. Development. 2008;135:2435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings bridge the gap between a molecular-scale motor protein and tissue-scale embryonic morphogenesis...
  48. Stuhlmiller T, GARCIA CASTRO M. FGF/MAPK signaling is required in the gastrula epiblast for avian neural crest induction. Development. 2012;139:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..suggest a later involvement in neural plate border development, likely due to widespread FGF/MAPK activity in the gastrula epiblast...
  49. von der Hardt S, Bakkers J, Inbal A, Carvalho L, Solnica Krezel L, Heisenberg C, et al. The Bmp gradient of the zebrafish gastrula guides migrating lateral cells by regulating cell-cell adhesion. Curr Biol. 2007;17:475-87 pubmed
  50. Lewis S, Khoo P, De Young R, Steiner K, Wilcock C, Mukhopadhyay M, et al. Dkk1 and Wnt3 interact to control head morphogenesis in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:1791-801 pubmed publisher
    ..signalling activity in the anterior germ layer tissues and impairs cell movement in the endoderm of the mouse gastrula. The juxtaposition of the expression domains of Dkk1 and Wnt3 is suggestive of an antagonist-agonist interaction...
  51. Kim H, Shin J, Kim S, Chun H, Kim J, Kim Y, et al. Eye field requires the function of Sfrp1 as a Wnt antagonist. Neurosci Lett. 2007;414:26-9 pubmed
    ..The transcripts of sfrp1 are detected in the presumptive forebrain at gastrula and in the ventral telencephalon, ventral diencephalon, midbrain and optic vesicles at 24h after ..
  52. Sinner D, Kirilenko P, Rankin S, Wei E, Howard L, Kofron M, et al. Global analysis of the transcriptional network controlling Xenopus endoderm formation. Development. 2006;133:1955-66 pubmed
    ..We identified over 300 transcripts enriched in the gastrula endoderm, including most of the known endoderm regulators and over a hundred uncharacterized genes...
  53. Chapman S, Matsumoto K, Cai Q, Schoenwolf G. Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:91 pubmed
  54. Vogeli K, Jin S, Martin G, Stainier D. A common progenitor for haematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the zebrafish gastrula. Nature. 2006;443:337-9 pubmed
    ..Through the construction of single-cell-resolution fate maps of the zebrafish late blastula and gastrula, we demonstrate that individual cells can give rise to both haematopoietic and endothelial cells...
  55. Soroldoni D, Bajoghli B, Aghaallaei N, Czerny T. Dynamic expression pattern of Nodal-related genes during left-right development in medaka. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the spatial distribution of Nodal transcripts resembles those reported for zebrafish, in case of Ndr2, however, we report a novel left-right asymmetry in the posterior paraxial mesoderm flanking the Kupffer's vesicle...
  56. Kraus Y, Fritzenwanker J, Genikhovich G, Technau U. The blastoporal organiser of a sea anemone. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R874-6 pubmed
  57. Basch M, Bronner Fraser M, GARCIA CASTRO M. Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7. Nature. 2006;441:218-22 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that neural crest specification initiates earlier than previously assumed, independently of mesodermal and neural tissues, and that Pax7 has a crucial function during neural crest development...
  58. Bergem M, Norberg K, Roseth A, Meuwissen T, Lien S, Aamodt R. Chimeric honeybees (Apis mellifera) produced by transplantation of embryonic cells into pre-gastrula stage embryos and detection of chimerism by use of microsatellite markers. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:475-81 pubmed
    ..Embryonic cells were transplanted between pre-gastrula stage embryos (32-34 hr after oviposition) and hatched larvae were reared in vitro for 4 days...
  59. Akkers R, van Heeringen S, Jacobi U, Janssen Megens E, Francoijs K, Stunnenberg H, et al. A hierarchy of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 acquisition in spatial gene regulation in Xenopus embryos. Dev Cell. 2009;17:425-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on the epigenetic and transcriptome genome-wide maps of gastrula-stage Xenopus tropicalis embryos using massive parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq) and DNA obtained by ..
  60. Skoglund P, Keller R. Xenopus fibrillin regulates directed convergence and extension. Dev Biol. 2007;301:404-16 pubmed
    ..Together, these data show that native Xenopus fibrillin is essential for the process of directed convergent extension in presumptive notochord at gastrulation...
  61. Moya I, Alarcón I, Del Pino E. Gastrulation of Gastrotheca riobambae in comparison with other frogs. Dev Biol. 2007;304:467-78 pubmed
    ..An embryonic disk, however, is formed only in the G. riobambae gastrula. We differentiate three gastrulation patterns according to the speed of development: In X...
  62. Del Pino E, Venegas Ferrín M, Romero Carvajal A, Montenegro Larrea P, Sáenz Ponce N, Moya I, et al. A comparative analysis of frog early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11882-8 pubmed
    ..In the gastrula of the rapidly developing embryos of the foam-nesting frogs Engystomops coloradorum and Engystomops randi, ..
  63. Cambray N, Wilson V. Two distinct sources for a population of maturing axial progenitors. Development. 2007;134:2829-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, at least some aspects of progenitor status are conferred by the environment and are not an intrinsic property of the cells...