bungarus

Summary

Summary: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)

Top Publications

  1. Chanhome L, Puempunpanich S, Omori Satoh T, Chaiyabutr N, Sitprija V. A pilot experiment for production of Malayan krait antivenom: immunization of rabbits with Bungarus candidus venom. J Nat Toxins. 2002;11:353-6 pubmed
    Immunization with Bungarus candidus venom was performed in four rabbits at high dose (initial dose, 75 microg/kg) and low dose (initial dose, 50 microg/kg)...
  2. Wang Y, Hong J, Liu X, Yang H, Liu R, Wu J, et al. Snake cathelicidin from Bungarus fasciatus is a potent peptide antibiotics. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3217 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported...
  3. Ahmed M, Rocha J, Mazzanti C, Morsch A, Cargnelutti D, Correa M, et al. Malathion, carbofuran and paraquat inhibit Bungarus sindanus (krait) venom acetylcholinesterase and human serum butyrylcholinesterase in vitro. Ecotoxicology. 2007;16:363-9 pubmed
    ..known pesticides, and paraquat, a world widely used herbicide, were tested on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Bungarus sindanus venom and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from human serum...
  4. Faiz A, Ghose A, Ahsan F, Rahman R, Amin R, Hassan M, et al. The greater black krait (Bungarus niger), a newly recognized cause of neuro-myotoxic snake bite envenoming in Bangladesh. Brain. 2010;133:3181-93 pubmed publisher
    ..studies of snake bite patients in Chittagong, Bangladesh, included five cases of bites by greater black kraits (Bungarus niger), proven by examination of the snakes that had been responsible...
  5. Nirthanan S, Charpantier E, Gopalakrishnakone P, Gwee M, Khoo H, Cheah L, et al. Neuromuscular effects of candoxin, a novel toxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). Br J Pharmacol. 2003;139:832-44 pubmed
    1 Candoxin (MW 7334.6), a novel toxin isolated from the venom of the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus, belongs to the poorly characterized subfamily of nonconventional three-finger toxins present in Elapid venoms...
  6. Chang L, Chung C, Lin J, Hong E. Organization and phylogenetic analysis of kappa-bungarotoxin genes from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). Genetica. 2002;115:213-21 pubmed
    Two genomic DNAs were isolated from the liver of Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait) encoded kappa1-bungarotoxin and kappa3-bungarotoxin precursors, respectively...
  7. Tsai I, Tsai H, Saha A, Gomes A. Sequences, geographic variations and molecular phylogeny of venom phospholipases and threefinger toxins of eastern India Bungarus fasciatus and kinetic analyses of its Pro31 phospholipases A2. FEBS J. 2007;274:512-25 pubmed
    Eight phospholipases A2 (PLAs) and four three-finger-toxins (3FTx) from the pooled venom of Bungarus fasciatus (Bf) were previously studied and sequenced, but their expression pattern in individual Bf venom and possible geographic ..
  8. Bawaskar H, Bawaskar P. Envenoming by the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and Asian cobra (Naja naja): clinical manifestations and their management in a rural setting. Wilderness Environ Med. 2004;15:257-66 pubmed
    ..This article discusses the clinical signs and symptoms of krait and cobra envenoming and medical intervention in a rural setting...
  9. Singh G, Gourinath S, Sharma S, Paramasivam M, Srinivasan A, Singh T. Sequence and crystal structure determination of a basic phospholipase A2 from common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) at 2.4 A resolution: identification and characterization of its pharmacological sites. J Mol Biol. 2001;307:1049-59 pubmed
    This is the first phospholipase A2 (PLA2) structure from the family of kraits. The protein was isolated from Bungarus caeruleus (common krait) and the primary sequence was determined using cDNA approach...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen C, Hsu C, Su N, Lin Y, Chiou S, Wu S. Solution structure of a Kunitz-type chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from the elapid snake Bungarus fasciatus. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45079-87 pubmed
    b>Bungarus fasciatus fraction IX (BF9), a chymotrypsin inhibitor, consists of 65 amino acid residues with three disulfide bridges. It was isolated from the snake venom of B...
  2. Kuch U, Sharma S, Alirol E, Chappuis F. Fatal neurotoxic envenomation from the bite of a Lesser Black Krait (Bungarus lividus) in Nepal. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:960-4 pubmed
    The Lesser Black Krait (Bungarus lividus) is a small, secretive, nocturnal elapid snake inhabiting Nepal, Bangladesh and India. We report a case of B...
  3. Kularatne S. Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bite in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka: a prospective clinical study, 1996-98. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:276-80 pubmed
    Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is the deadliest snake found commonly in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. In Anuradhapura, 210 farmers bitten by the common krait over a three year period were investigated prospectively from 1 January 1996...
  4. Lin L, Lin Q, Wang Y. Cloning, expression and characterization of two C-type lectins from the venom gland of Bungarus multicinctus. Toxicon. 2007;50:411-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning of two C-type lectins named BML-1 and BML-2 from the venom gland of Bungarus multicinctus, and expression of their mature peptides with 135 and 137 amino acids as inclusion bodies...
  5. Lu J, Yang H, Yu H, Gao W, Lai R, Liu J, et al. A novel serine protease inhibitor from Bungarus fasciatus venom. Peptides. 2008;29:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..HPLC), a novel serine protease inhibitor named bungaruskunin was purified and characterized from venom of Bungarus fasciatus. Its cDNA was also cloned from the cDNA library of B. fasciatus venomous glands...
  6. Wei J, Yang H, Wei X, Qiao L, Wang W, He S. Purification, characterization and biological activities of the L-amino acid oxidase from Bungarus fasciatus snake venom. Toxicon. 2009;54:262-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, LAAO from Bungarus fasciatus (B. fasciatus) snake venom has not been isolated previously. In the present study, LAAO from B...
  7. Ha T, Höjer J, Trinh X, Nguyen T. A controlled clinical trial of a novel antivenom in patients envenomed by Bungarus multicinctus. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:393-7 pubmed publisher
    In northern Vietnam, a majority of severely envenomed patients are bitten by Bungarus multicinctus. Hitherto, these victims have received supportive care only...
  8. Watanabe L, Nirthanan S, Rajaseger G, Polikarpov I, Kini R, Arni R. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of bucain, a novel toxin from the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002;58:1879-81 pubmed
    ..three-finger toxin, structurally homologous to snake-venom muscarinic toxins, from the venom of the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus...
  9. Chang L, Lin S, Huang H, Hsiao M. Genetic organization of alpha-bungarotoxins from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait): evidence showing that the production of alpha-bungarotoxin isotoxins is not derived from edited mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:3970-5 pubmed
    Two genomic DNAs with a size of approximately 2.8 kb, isolated from the liver of Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait), encode the precursors of the long neurotoxins, alpha-Bgt(A31) and alpha-Bgt(V31), respectively...
  10. Pachiappan A, Thwin M, Manikandan J, Gopalakrishnakone P. Glial inflammation and neurodegeneration induced by candoxin, a novel neurotoxin from Bungarus candidus venom: global gene expression analysis using microarray. Toxicon. 2005;46:883-99 pubmed
    Candoxin (PDB #1JGK), a three-finger neurotoxin from Bungarus candidus venom, inhibits post-synaptic neuromuscular and neuronal alpha7nACh-receptors, and induces delayed cell-death throughout the glial population...
  11. Murakami M, Kini R, Arni R. Crystal structure of bucain, a three-fingered toxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:1473-7 pubmed
    Bucain, a potent neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus), induces paralysis and death. Its crystal structure has been determined at 2...
  12. Ariaratnam C, Sheriff M, Theakston R, Warrell D. Distinctive epidemiologic and clinical features of common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bites in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:458-62 pubmed
    ..5%) were caused by common kraits (Bungarus caeruleus). Bites were: most frequent in September through November. Distinctive features of B...
  13. Khow O, Chanhome L, Omori Satoh T, Sitprija V. Isolation of the major lethal toxin in the venom of Bungarus flaviceps. Toxicon. 2002;40:463-9 pubmed
    The major lethal toxin in the venom of Bungarus flaviceps has been isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, absorption chromatography and RP-HPLC with a 14-fold purification and an overall yield of 16...
  14. Torres A, Kini R, Selvanayagam N, Kuchel P. NMR structure of bucandin, a neurotoxin from the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). Biochem J. 2001;360:539-48 pubmed
    A high-resolution solution structure of bucandin, a neurotoxin from Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus), was determined by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics...
  15. Chung C, Wu B, Yang C, Chang L. Muscarinic toxin-like proteins from Taiwan banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus) venom: purification, characterization and gene organization. Biol Chem. 2002;383:1397-406 pubmed
    Two novel proteins, BM8 and BM14, were isolated from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait) venom using the combination of chromatography on a SP-Sephadex C-25 column and a reverse-phase HPLC column...
  16. Anil A, Singh S, Bhalla A, Sharma N, Agarwal R, Simpson I. Role of neostigmine and polyvalent antivenom in Indian common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bite. J Infect Public Health. 2010;3:83-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Bungarus caeruleus (Indian common krait) bite during monsoons is common in Northwest India. This study was undertaken to find the effectiveness of neostigmine and polyvalent antivenom in improving neuromuscular paralysis following bite...
  17. Kuch U, Molles B, Omori Satoh T, Chanhome L, Samejima Y, Mebs D. Identification of alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) as the major postsynaptic neurotoxin, and complete nucleotide identity of a genomic DNA of Bungarus candidus from Java with exons of the Bungarus multicinctus alpha-bungarotoxin (A31) gene. Toxicon. 2003;42:381-90 pubmed
    The Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is one of the most medically significant snake species in Southeast Asia. No specific antivenom exists to treat envenoming by this species...
  18. Khow O, Chanhome L, Omori Satoh T, Ogawa Y, Yanoshita R, Samejima Y, et al. Isolation, toxicity and amino terminal sequences of three major neurotoxins in the venom of Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) from Thailand. J Biochem. 2003;134:799-804 pubmed
    We isolated the most lethal toxins in the venom of the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus), one of the medically most important snake species in southeast Asia...
  19. Hung H, Höjer J, Du N. Clinical features of 60 consecutive ICU-treated patients envenomed by Bungarus multicinctus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:518-24 pubmed
    In northern Vietnam, Bungarus multicinctus is the only krait of medical importance. We report 60 consecutive patients admitted to an ICU in Hanoi during 2000-2003 because of envenoming by B. multicinctus...
  20. Jiang Y, Li Y, Lee W, Xu X, Zhang Y, Zhao R, et al. Venom gland transcriptomes of two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) and evolution of toxin genes. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:1 pubmed publisher
    Kraits (genus Bungarus) and cobras (genus Naja) are two representative toxic genera of elapids in the old world...
  21. Chang L, Wang J, Cheng Y, Chou W. Genetic organization of Bungarus multicinctus protease inhibitor-like proteins. Toxicon. 2008;51:1490-5 pubmed publisher
    The structural organization of the genes encoding Bungarus multicinctus protease inhibitor-like proteins (PILPs), PILP-1, PILP-2 and PILP-3, are reported in this study...
  22. Siang A, Doley R, Vonk F, Kini R. Transcriptomic analysis of the venom gland of the red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps) using expressed sequence tags. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:24 pubmed publisher
    The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia...
  23. Cheng Y, Chen K, Lin S, Chang L. Divergence of genes encoding B chains of beta-bungarotoxins. Toxicon. 2006;47:322-9 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analyses indicated that Bungarus multicinctus venom gland, heart, liver and muscle expressed the RNA transcripts showing sequence similarity with ..
  24. Qian Y, Fan C, Gong Y, Yang S. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of six neurotoxin-like proteins from Chinese continental banded krait. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1998;46:821-8 pubmed
    The cDNAs encoding six neurotoxin-like proteins were cloned from the total RNA isolated from one venom gland of Bungarus multicinctus multicinctus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
  25. Xu C, Ma D, Yu H, Li Z, Liang J, Lin G, et al. A bactericidal homodimeric phospholipases A2 from Bungarus fasciatus venom. Peptides. 2007;28:969-73 pubmed
    ..In this work, a novel sPLA(2)-I named BFPA was identified from Bungarus fasciatus venom, and its antimicrobial activity was studied as well...
  26. Agarwal R, Singh A, Aggarwal A. Pulmonary oedema complicating snake bite due to Bungarus caeruleus. Singapore Med J. 2007;48:e227-30 pubmed
    ..a 26-year-old male Indian farmer who developed cardiogenic pulmonary oedema after neurotoxic snake envenoming by Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait)...
  27. Pahari S, Bickford D, Fry B, Kini R. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:175 pubmed
    ..It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes...
  28. Laothong C, Sitprija V. Decreased parasympathetic activities in Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) envenoming. Toxicon. 2001;39:1353-7 pubmed
    Three patients were bitten by the Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus). The patients developed ptosis and generalized muscle weakness which later progressed to respiratory paralysis...
  29. Zha H, Lee W, Zhang Y. Cloning of cDNAs encoding C-type lectins from Elapidae snakes Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus. Toxicon. 2001;39:1887-92 pubmed
    ..venoms, oligonucleotide primers were designed and used to screen the cDNA libraries made from the venom glands of Bungarus fasciatus and Bungarus multicinctus. This allowed the cloning of three full length cDNAs encoding C-type lectins...
  30. Brunda G, Rao B, Sarin R. Quantitation of Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) venom in human specimens of forensic origin by indirect competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J AOAC Int. 2006;89:1360-6 pubmed
    ..The methodology may find application in forensic laboratories to assess the cause of death in the cases of krait-bite victims...
  31. Poyot T, Nachon F, Froment M, Loiodice M, Wieseler S, Schopfer L, et al. Mutant of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase with low affinity and low hydrolase activity toward organophosphorus esters. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1470-8 pubmed
    ..b>Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase (BfAChE) was engineered to acquire organophosphate hydrolase (OPase) activity by ..
  32. Chang L, Lin S, Wu P. Differentially expressed snoRNAs in Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;245:397-402 pubmed
    Twenty novel snoRNAs forming extensive sequence complementarities to mature 5S rRNA were identified from Bungarus multicinctus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
  33. Shin I, Wachtel E, Roth E, Bon C, Silman I, Weiner L. Thermal denaturation of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase: Is aggregation a driving force in protein unfolding?. Protein Sci. 2002;11:2022-32 pubmed
    A monomeric form of acetylcholinesterase from the venom of Bungarus fasciatus is converted to a partially unfolded molten globule species by thermal inactivation, and subsequently aggregates rapidly...
  34. Ali S, Yang D, Jackson T, Undheim E, Koludarov I, Wood K, et al. Venom proteomic characterization and relative antivenom neutralization of two medically important Pakistani elapid snakes (Bungarus sindanus and Naja naja). J Proteomics. 2013;89:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the results of our proteomic research on two medically important snakes of Pakistan: Bungarus sindanus and Naja naja...
  35. Chu C, Li S, Chen Y. Resolution of isotoxins in the beta-bungarotoxin family. J Chromatogr A. 1995;694:492-7 pubmed
    ..Crude snake (Bungarus multicinctus) venom was divided into four main fractions by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column...
  36. Aird S, Womble G, Yates J, Griffin P. Primary structure of gamma-bungarotoxin, a new postsynaptic neurotoxin from venom of Bungarus multicinctus. Toxicon. 1999;37:609-25 pubmed
    The primary structure of gamma-bungarotoxin, a new toxin from Bungarus multicinctus venom, was determined using mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. The toxin has a mass of 7524...
  37. Karsani S, Othman I. Isolation, complete amino acid sequence and characterization of a previously unreported post-synaptic neurotoxin - AlphaN3, from the venom of Bungarus candidus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:343-8 pubmed publisher
    The Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) is one of the medically most important snake species in Southeast Asia. The venom from this snake has been shown to posses both presynaptic and post-synaptic neurotoxins...
  38. Nirthanan S, Charpantier E, Gopalakrishnakone P, Gwee M, Khoo H, Cheah L, et al. Candoxin, a novel toxin from Bungarus candidus, is a reversible antagonist of muscle (alphabetagammadelta ) but a poorly reversible antagonist of neuronal alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17811-20 pubmed
    ..blockade in isolated nerve-muscle preparations, candoxin, a novel three-finger toxin from the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus, produced postjunctional neuromuscular blockade that was readily and completely reversible...
  39. Trinh K, Khac Q, Trinh L, Warrell D. Hyponatraemia, rhabdomyolysis, alterations in blood pressure and persistent mydriasis in patients envenomed by Malayan kraits (Bungarus candidus) in southern Viet Nam. Toxicon. 2010;56:1070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Ho Chi Minh City, and to two hospitals in adjacent regions in southern Viet Nam brought the Malayan kraits (Bungarus candidus) that had been responsible for biting them. Half of the patients had been bitten while they were asleep...
  40. Leeprasert W, Kaojarern S. Specific antivenom for Bungarus candidus. J Med Assoc Thai. 2007;90:1467-76 pubmed
    b>Bungarus candidus (Malayan krait) snake is a neurotoxin snake. Previous treatment after snakebite was mainly respiratory support until the patient had spontaneous breathing...
  41. Porschke D, Creminon C, Cousin X, Bon C, Sussman J, Silman I. Electrooptical measurements demonstrate a large permanent dipole moment associated with acetylcholinesterase. Biophys J. 1996;70:1603-8 pubmed
    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom is a soluble, nonamphiphilic monomer of 72 kDa...
  42. Feng C, Tang X, Huang L, Qian Z, Zhang J, Cui G. [High specific PCR identification of Bungarus multicinctus and its adulterants]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006;31:1050-3 pubmed
    To develop a convenient and effective method for the identification of Bungarus multicinctus.
  43. Chiou Y, Lin S, Chang L. Lipid domain formation modulates activities of snake venom phospholipase A(2) enzymes. Toxicon. 2010;56:1362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of the present study is to elucidate the effect of lipid domain formation on activities of Naja naja atra and Bungarus multicinctus phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymes...
  44. Rochu D, Renault F, Masson P. Detection of unwanted protein-bound ligands by capillary zone electrophoresis: the case of hidden ligands that stabilize cholinesterase conformation. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:930-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, CZE was proved to be a pertinent tool to validate the conformity of purified enzymes to a status of biopharmaceutical...
  45. Simpson I, Norris R. Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?. Wilderness Environ Med. 2007;18:2-9 pubmed
    ..that 4 species are responsible for Indian snakebite mortality--the Indian cobra (Naja naja), the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus)...
  46. Chang L, Chung C, Wu B, Yang C. Characterization and gene organization of Taiwan banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus) gamma-bungarotoxin. J Protein Chem. 2002;21:223-9 pubmed
    gamma-Bungarotoxin was isolated from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait) venom using a combination of chromatography on a SP-Sephadex C-25 column and a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography column...
  47. Gomes A, Bhattacharya S, Mukherjee S, Gomes A. Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds. Indian J Med Res. 2012;136:40-5 pubmed
    ..As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial ..
  48. Bhattacharya S, Ghosh P, De T, Gomes A, Gomes A, Dungdung S. In vivo and in vitro antileishmanial activity of Bungarus caeruleus snake venom through alteration of immunomodulatory activity. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135:126-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study deals with the antileishmanial activity of Bungarus caeruleus snake venom (BCV) on in vitro promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani parasite and ..
  49. Ji X, Gao J, Han J. Phenotypic responses of hatchlings to constant versus fluctuating incubation temperatures in the multi-banded krait, Bungarus multicintus (Elapidae). Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:384-90 pubmed
    ..We incubated Bungarus multicintus eggs under three constant and one fluctuating-temperature regimes to evaluate the effects of constant ..
  50. Lin Y, Wu P, Wu T, Chang L. KChIP3: a binding protein for Taiwan banded krait beta-bungarotoxin. Toxicon. 2006;47:265-70 pubmed
    ..In view of the multiple functions of KChIP3 in neuronal cells, the interaction of KChIP3 with beta-Bgt may represent an event for the manifestation of the biological activities of beta-Bgt...
  51. Rochu D, Cléry Barraud C, Renault F, Chevalier A, Bon C, Masson P. Capillary electrophoresis versus differential scanning calorimetry for the analysis of free enzyme versus enzyme-ligand complexes: in the search of the ligand-free status of cholinesterases. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:442-51 pubmed
    ..To attempt at a description of this one, we investigated the stability of Bungarus fasciatus acetylcholinesterase (AChE), alone or complexed with different inhibitors...
  52. Shan L, Gao J, Zhang Y, Shen S, He Y, Wang J, et al. Proteomic characterization and comparison of venoms from two elapid snakes (Bungarus multicinctus and Naja atra) from China. J Proteomics. 2016;138:83-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Bungarus multicinctus (many-banded krait) and Naja atra (Chinese cobra) are widely distributed and medically important venomous snakes in China; however, their venom proteomic profiles have not been fully compared...
  53. Kohli U, Sreedhar V. Snake bite: an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain. Indian Pediatr. 2007;44:852-3 pubmed
    ..The cause was found to be snake-bite. The child had a stormy course and full recovery...