elapidae

Summary

Summary: A family of extremely venomous snakes which include coral snakes, cobras and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, occurring in the Southern United States, South America, Africa, Southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Like viperids (VIPERIDAE), they have fangs in the front part of the upper jaw which discharge venom that is neurotoxic.

Top Publications

  1. Chaisakul J, Konstantakopoulos N, Smith A, Hodgson W. Isolation and characterisation of P-EPTX-Ap1a and P-EPTX-Ar1a: pre-synaptic neurotoxins from the venom of the northern (Acanthophis praelongus) and Irian Jayan (Acanthophis rugosus) death adders. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of pre-synaptic neurotoxins in Acanthophis sp. venoms indicates that treatment strategies for envenoming by these snakes needs to be reassessed given the likelihood of irreversible neurotoxicity...
  2. Blacklow B, Escoubas P, Nicholson G. Characterisation of the heterotrimeric presynaptic phospholipase A(2) neurotoxin complex from the venom of the common death adder (Acanthophis antarcticus). Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, antivenom failed to reverse neurotoxicity. Early intervention with antivenom may therefore be important in severe cases of envenomation by A. antarcticus, given the presence of potent irreversible presynaptic neurotoxins...
  3. Blacklow B, Konstantakopoulos N, Hodgson W, Nicholson G. Presence of presynaptic neurotoxin complexes in the venoms of Australo-Papuan death adders (Acanthophis spp.). Toxicon. 2010;55:1171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..laevis species, and that early antivenom intervention is important in preventing further development of toxicity...
  4. Leão L, Ho P, Junqueira de Azevedo I. Transcriptomic basis for an antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:112 pubmed publisher
    Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) is a tropical forest snake belonging to the family Elapidae. Its venom shows a high neurotoxicity associated with pre- and post-synaptic toxins, causing diaphragm paralysis, which may result in death...
  5. Sanders K, Lee M. Molecular evidence for a rapid late-Miocene radiation of Australasian venomous snakes (Elapidae, Colubroidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;46:1165-73 pubmed publisher
  6. Bohlen C, Chesler A, Sharif Naeini R, Medzihradszky K, Zhou S, King D, et al. A heteromeric Texas coral snake toxin targets acid-sensing ion channels to produce pain. Nature. 2011;479:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a mechanism whereby snake venoms produce pain, and highlight an unexpected contribution of ASIC1 channels to nociception...
  7. Lillywhite H, Babonis L, Sheehy C, Tu M. Sea snakes (Laticauda spp.) require fresh drinking water: implication for the distribution and persistence of populations. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2008;81:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, metapopulation dynamics of the Laticauda group of sea snakes are expected to change in relation to projected reductions of tropical dry-season precipitation...
  8. Maïga A, Mourier G, Quinton L, Rouget C, Gales C, Denis C, et al. G protein-coupled receptors, an unexploited animal toxin targets: Exploration of green mamba venom for novel drug candidates active against adrenoceptors. Toxicon. 2012;59:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight possible exploitation of ?-Da1a and ?-Da1b in important pathologies...
  9. Churchman A, O Leary M, Buckley N, Page C, Tankel A, Gavaghan C, et al. Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11). Med J Aust. 2010;193:696-700 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kulkeaw K, Sakolvaree Y, Srimanote P, Tongtawe P, Maneewatch S, Sookrung N, et al. Human monoclonal ScFv neutralize lethal Thai cobra, Naja kaouthia, neurotoxin. J Proteomics. 2009;72:270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The mimotope is also similar to peptide sequences found on other snake venom neurotoxins implying a possibility of the HuScFv to exert pan-neutralizing activity against multiple snake neurotoxins...
  2. Morgan D, Borys D, Stanford R, Kjar D, Tobleman W. Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) bites. South Med J. 2007;100:152-6 pubmed
    ..Our goal was to review the largest number of victims of Texas coral snakebites to determine their characteristics, effects, treatment, and outcome...
  3. Ching A, Rocha M, Paes Leme A, Pimenta D, de Fátima D Furtado M, Serrano S, et al. Some aspects of the venom proteome of the Colubridae snake Philodryas olfersii revealed from a Duvernoy's (venom) gland transcriptome. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4417-22 pubmed
    ..the phylogenetic analysis of the CNP precursor showed it as a linker between two related precursors found in Viperidae and Elapidae snakes. We suggest that these precursors constitute a monophyletic group derived from the vertebrate CNPs.
  4. Correa Netto C, Junqueira de Azevedo I, Silva D, Ho P, Leitão de Araújo M, Alves M, et al. Snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of Brazilian coral snakes, Micrurus altirostris and M. corallinus. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1795-809 pubmed publisher
    ..altirostris supports the view of a recruitment event predating the divergence of Elapidae and Viperidae more than 60 Mya. The toxin profile of both M. altirostris and M...
  5. Renjifo C, Smith E, Hodgson W, Renjifo J, Sánchez A, Acosta R, et al. Neuromuscular activity of the venoms of the Colombian coral snakes Micrurus dissoleucus and Micrurus mipartitus: an evolutionary perspective. Toxicon. 2012;59:132-42 pubmed publisher
  6. Skinner A, Donnellan S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson R. A phylogenetic analysis of Pseudonaja (Hydrophiinae, Elapidae, Serpentes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;37:558-71 pubmed
    ..nuchalis lineages, and for the relationships (P. inframacula, P. nuchalis "Southern") and (P. nuchalis "Darwin", P. nuchalis "Orange with black head"--"Pale head, grey nape" )...
  7. Metzger G, Kraus F, Allison A, Parkinson C. Uncovering cryptic diversity in Aspidomorphus (Serpentes: Elapidae): evidence from mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We examine the evolutionary relationships of the venomous snake genus Aspidomorphus (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae), a Papuan endemic, and document extensive cryptic lineage diversification...
  8. Young B, Boetig M, Westhoff G. Functional bases of the spatial dispersal of venom during cobra "spitting". Physiol Biochem Zool. 2009;82:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the ability to "spit" venom is a unique suite of specializations involving both the axial and the cephalic systems...
  9. Kulawickrama S, O Leary M, Hodgson W, Brown S, Jacoby T, Davern K, et al. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum. Toxicon. 2010;55:1510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  10. Ciscotto P, Rates B, Silva D, Richardson M, Silva L, Andrade H, et al. Venomic analysis and evaluation of antivenom cross-reactivity of South American Micrurus species. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1810-25 pubmed publisher
    Coral snakes from Micrurus genus are the main representatives of the Elapidae family in South America. However, biochemical and pharmacological features regarding their venom constituents remain poorly investigated...
  11. Kini R. Structure-function relationships and mechanism of anticoagulant phospholipase A2 enzymes from snake venoms. Toxicon. 2005;45:1147-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, these studies strongly support the target model which suggests that protein-protein interaction rather than protein-phospholipid interaction determines the pharmacological specificity of PLA(2) enzymes...
  12. Herrera M, FERNANDEZ J, Vargas M, Villalta M, Segura A, León G, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of the venom of the taipan snake, Oxyuranus scutellatus, from Papua New Guinea and Australia: role of neurotoxic and procoagulant effects in venom toxicity. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2128-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at high doses, such as those injected in natural bites, intravascular thrombosis due to the action of the prothrombin activator may constitute a potent and very rapid mechanism for killing prey...
  13. Sekhar C, Chakrabarty D. Fibrinogenolytic toxin from Indian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom. J Biosci. 2011;36:355-61 pubmed
    ..Cleavage of di-sulphide bonds by beta-mercaptoethanol or unfolding the protein with 4 M urea caused complete loss of activity of pure Lahirin...
  14. Fry B, Wickramaratana J, Lemme S, Beuve A, Garbers D, Hodgson W, et al. Novel natriuretic peptides from the venom of the inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus): isolation, chemical and biological characterisation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:1011-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, these naturally occurring isoforms provide a new platform for further investigation of structure-function relationships of natriuretic peptides...
  15. Casewell N, Wagstaff S, Harrison R, Wüster W. Gene tree parsimony of multilocus snake venom protein families reveals species tree conflict as a result of multiple parallel gene loss. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:1157-72 pubmed publisher
    ..a consistent topology, and reanalysis of a previously published gene tree parsimony data set, from the family Elapidae, suggested that species tree topologies were predominantly unsupported...
  16. Sanders K, Mumpuni -, Lee M. Uncoupling ecological innovation and speciation in sea snakes (Elapidae, Hydrophiinae, Hydrophiini). J Evol Biol. 2010;23:2685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasion of the oceans has not (by itself) accelerated diversification in Hydrophiini; novelties characterizing the Hydrophis group alone must have contributed to its evolutionary and ecological success...
  17. Pahari S, Bickford D, Fry B, Kini R. Expression pattern of three-finger toxin and phospholipase A2 genes in the venom glands of two sea snakes, Lapemis curtus and Acalyptophis peronii: comparison of evolution of these toxins in land snakes, sea kraits and sea snakes. BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:175 pubmed
    ..It is therefore interesting to examine the evolution of toxins in sea snake venoms compared to that of land snakes...
  18. Cheng Y, Yan F, Chang L. Taiwan cobra chymotrypsin inhibitor: cloning, functional expression and gene organization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1747:213-20 pubmed
    ..atra chymotrypsin inhibitor and beta-bungarotoxin B1 chain genes was up to 83%. These findings strongly suggest that snake Kunitz/BPTI protease inhibitors and neurotoxic homologs may have originated from a common ancestor...
  19. Quinton L, Girard E, Maiga A, Rekik M, Lluel P, Masuyer G, et al. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of AdTx1, a natural peptide displaying specific insurmountable antagonism of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:316-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Venoms are a rich source of ligands for ion channels, but very little is known about their capacity to modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activity. We developed a strategy to identify novel toxins targeting GPCRs...
  20. Norris R, Pfalzgraf R, Laing G. Death following coral snake bite in the United States--first documented case (with ELISA confirmation of envenomation) in over 40 years. Toxicon. 2009;53:693-7 pubmed
    ..The clinical significance of the impending absence of commercially available antivenom for coral snake bites in the U.S. is highlighted...
  21. Chen C, Wu K, Chen C, Wang C. Bacterial infection in association with snakebite: a 10-year experience in a northern Taiwan medical center. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:456-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbiological data of secondary wound infections following snakebites is rarely reported in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the secondary wound infection after venomous snakebites...
  22. Kularatne S, Budagoda B, Gawarammana I, Kularatne W. Epidemiology, clinical profile and management issues of cobra (Naja naja) bites in Sri Lanka: first authenticated case series. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:924-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings highlight the magnitude of local necrosis, respiratory paralysis and antivenom failure in Spectacled cobra bite in Sri Lanka. Coagulopathy requires verification with robust laboratory tests...
  23. Rouget C, Quinton L, Maïga A, Gales C, Masuyer G, Malosse C, et al. Identification of a novel snake peptide toxin displaying high affinity and antagonist behaviour for the ?2-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1361-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, its affinity and atypical mode of interaction open up the possibility of its use as a new pharmacological tool, in the study of the physiological roles of ?(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes...
  24. Sanders K, Lee M, Mumpuni -, Bertozzi T, Rasmussen A. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:575-91 pubmed publisher
    ..5million years. The core Hydrophis group is a young and rapidly speciating clade, with 26 sampled species and 9 genera and dated at only ?1.5-3million years old...
  25. Dokmetjian J, Del Canto S, Vinzón S, de Jiménez Bonino M. Biochemical characterization of the Micrurus pyrrhocryptus venom. Toxicon. 2009;53:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..pyrrhocryptus venom and one of the few fully determined in members of the Micrurus genus...
  26. Birrell G, Earl S, Masci P, de Jersey J, Wallis T, Gorman J, et al. Molecular diversity in venom from the Australian Brown snake, Pseudonaja textilis. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:379-89 pubmed
    ..Indeed two of the identified proteins, a procoagulant and a plasmin inhibitor, are currently in development as human therapeutic agents...
  27. Lukoschek V, Waycott M, Keogh J. Relative information content of polymorphic microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA for inferring dispersal and population genetic structure in the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3062-77 pubmed publisher
    ..laevis have prevented microsatellites from reaching mutation-drift equilibrium and local populations may still be diverging...
  28. Reza M, Minh Le T, Swarup S, Manjunatha Kini R. Molecular evolution caught in action: gene duplication and evolution of molecular isoforms of prothrombin activators in Pseudonaja textilis (brown snake). J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1346-53 pubmed
    ..As vertebrates, the snakes also contain a system to activate prothrombin in their own blood during injury. These hemostatic factors are produced in the liver...
  29. Isbister G, O Leary M, Schneider J, Brown S, Currie B. Efficacy of antivenom against the procoagulant effect of Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) venom: in vivo and in vitro studies. Toxicon. 2007;49:57-67 pubmed
    ..One vial of antivenom appears to be sufficient to bind and neutralise all venom in patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  30. Tamiya T, Fujimi T. Molecular evolution of toxin genes in Elapidae snakes. Mol Divers. 2006;10:529-43 pubmed
    ..A hypothetical evolutionary process for the three-finger-structure toxin genes has also been developed...
  31. Sanchez E, Lopez Johnston J, Rodriguez Acosta A, Perez J. Neutralization of two North American coral snake venoms with United States and Mexican antivenoms. Toxicon. 2008;51:297-303 pubmed
    ..Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (<2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern ..
  32. Kuruppu S, Reeve S, Banerjee Y, Kini R, Smith A, Hodgson W. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of cannitoxin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the Papuan Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:1196-202 pubmed
    ..Thus, cannitoxin is similar in structure and pharmacology to taipoxin, which has been isolated from the closely related Australian species O. scutellatus scutellatus (coastal taipan)...
  33. Rey Suárez P, Núñez V, Gutierrez J, Lomonte B. Proteomic and biological characterization of the venom of the redtail coral snake, Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae), from Colombia and Costa Rica. J Proteomics. 2011;75:655-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Venomics of Micrurus species may provide a valuable platform for the rational design of immunizing cocktails to obtain polyspecific antivenoms for this highly diverse group of American elapids...
  34. Kornhauser R, Hart A, Reeve S, Smith A, Fry B, Hodgson W. Variations in the pharmacological profile of post-synaptic neurotoxins isolated from the venoms of the Papuan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni) and coastal (Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus) taipans. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of alpha-oxytoxin 1 is atypical of most snake venom post-synaptic neurotoxins displaying a 'competitive' mode of action, whereas alpha-scutoxin 1 possesses pseudo-irreversible or non-competitive activity...
  35. Isbister G, White J, Currie B, O Leary M, Brown S. Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12). Toxicon. 2011;58:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  36. St Pierre L, Flight S, Masci P, Hanchard K, Lewis R, Alewood P, et al. Cloning and characterisation of natriuretic peptides from the venom glands of Australian elapids. Biochimie. 2006;88:1923-31 pubmed
    ..The data presented in this study represent a significant resource for understanding the role of various natriuretic peptides isoforms during the envenomation process by Australian elapid snakes...
  37. Wüster W, Dumbrell A, Hay C, Pook C, Williams D, Fry B. Snakes across the Strait: trans-Torresian phylogeographic relationships in three genera of Australasian snakes (Serpentes: Elapidae: Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, and Pseudechis). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;34:1-14 pubmed
    ..In contrast, our Oxyuranus scutellatus samples from Queensland and two localities in New Guinea share a single haplotype, suggesting very recent (late Pleistocene) genetic exchange between New Guinean and Australian populations...
  38. Flight S, Mirtschin P, Masci P. Comparison of active venom components between Eastern brown snakes collected from South Australia and Queensland. Ecotoxicology. 2006;15:133-41 pubmed
    ..88 microg/ml of venom protein compared to approximately 7.5 microg/ml for the SA venoms. It is concluded that geographic differentiation of the Eastern brown snakes results in significant differences venom potency...
  39. Lane A, Shine R. Phylogenetic relationships within laticaudine sea snakes (Elapidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;59:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..saintgironsi. A major divergence in speciation patterns between the two major clades of laticaudine snakes thus correlates with (and perhaps, is driven by) differences in the importance of terrestrial habitats in the species' ecology...
  40. Young B, Dunlap K, Koenig K, Singer M. The buccal buckle: the functional morphology of venom spitting in cobras. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3483-94 pubmed
  41. Méndez I, Gutierrez J, Angulo Y, Calvete J, Lomonte B. Comparative study of the cytolytic activity of snake venoms from African spitting cobras (Naja spp., Elapidae) and its neutralization by a polyspecific antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;58:558-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Results emphasize the need of enhancing the immunogenicity of low molecular mass toxins during antivenom production, as well as to search for useful toxin inhibitors which could complement antivenom therapy...
  42. Junqueira de Azevedo I, Ching A, Carvalho E, Faria F, Nishiyama M, Ho P, et al. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution. Genetics. 2006;173:877-89 pubmed
    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family...
  43. Hart A, Smith A, Reeve S, Hodgson W. Isolation and characterisation of acanmyotoxin-2 and acanmyotoxin-3, myotoxins from the venom of the death adder Acanthophis sp. Seram. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;70:1807-13 pubmed
    ..Future studies will investigate the efficacy of the current antivenom treatment against the myotoxic components of A. sp. Seram venom...
  44. Tanaka G, Furtado M, Portaro F, Sant Anna O, Tambourgi D. Diversity of Micrurus snake species related to their venom toxic effects and the prospective of antivenom neutralization. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e622 pubmed publisher
    ..fulvius) with large distribution in Southeastern United States and Mexico. This study also analyzed the antigenic cross-reactivity and the neutralizing potential of the Brazilian coral snake antivenom against these Micrurus venoms...
  45. Lin L, Zhao Q, Ji X. Conservation genetics of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) investigated with mitochondrial DNA sequences. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Re-introductions or translocations are required to protect or re-establish natural populations of N. atra , but great care should be taken to enhance or retain local genetic variation...
  46. Wüster W, Crookes S, Ineich I, Mané Y, Pook C, Trape J, et al. The phylogeny of cobras inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences: evolution of venom spitting and the phylogeography of the African spitting cobras (Serpentes: Elapidae: Naja nigricollis complex). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;45:437-53 pubmed
    ..Naja nigricollis is polyphyletic, and we therefore recognize N. nigricincta as a separate species, more closely related to N. ashei and N. mossambica than to N. nigricollis...
  47. Carbajal Saucedo A, Lopez Vera E, Bénard Valle M, Smith E, Zamudio F, de Roodt A, et al. Isolation, characterization, cloning and expression of an alpha-neurotoxin from the venom of the Mexican coral snake Micrurus laticollaris (Squamata: Elapidae). Toxicon. 2013;66:64-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The MlatA1 gene was cloned and used to produce recombinant toxin (rMlatA1) that was recognized by rabbit anti-native toxin but was depleted of toxic activity...
  48. FERNANDEZ J, Alape Girón A, Angulo Y, Sanz L, Gutierrez J, Calvete J, et al. Venomic and antivenomic analyses of the Central American coral snake, Micrurus nigrocinctus (Elapidae). J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1816-27 pubmed publisher
    ..nigrocinctus equine antivenom revealed differences in immunorecognition of venom proteins that correlate with their molecular mass, with the weakest recognition observed toward 3FTxs...
  49. Gan M, O Leary M, Brown S, Jacoby T, Spain D, Tankel A, et al. Envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (Tropidechis carinatus): a series of confirmed cases. Med J Aust. 2009;191:183-6 pubmed
    ..To describe demographic, geographical and clinical features of envenoming by the rough-scaled snake (RSS) (Tropidechis carinatus)...
  50. Shek K, Tsui K, Lam K, Crow P, Ng K, Ades G, et al. Oral bacterial flora of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) in Hong Kong SAR, China. Hong Kong Med J. 2009;15:183-90 pubmed
    ..To determine the oral bacterial flora associated with two common local venomous snakes in Hong Kong, namely the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and the bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris)...
  51. Earl S, Birrell G, Wallis T, St Pierre L, Masci P, de Jersey J, et al. Post-translational modification accounts for the presence of varied forms of nerve growth factor in Australian elapid snake venoms. Proteomics. 2006;6:6554-65 pubmed
    ..It is possible that these modifications alter the stability, activity and other characteristics of the snake NGFs. Further characterisation is necessary to delineate the function of the individual NGF isoforms...
  52. Li J, Zhang H, Liu J, Xu K. Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) and function characterization of two recombinant long-chain neurotoxins. Biochem J. 2006;398:233-42 pubmed
    ..This, to our knowledge, is the first observation that recombinant long chain alpha-neurotoxins have a CTX-like cytolytic activity...
  53. Li S, Wang J, Zhang X, Ren Y, Wang N, Zhao K, et al. Proteomic characterization of two snake venoms: Naja naja atra and Agkistrodon halys. Biochem J. 2004;384:119-27 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, these data suggest that post-translational modification may be a significant characteristic of venomous proteins...