multiple chemical sensitivity

Summary

Summary: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)

Top Publications

  1. Bornschein S, Hausteiner C, Zilker T, Forstl H. Psychiatric and somatic disorders and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in 264 'environmental patients'. Psychol Med. 2002;32:1387-94 pubmed
    ..b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI) is defined as an acquired disorder with multiple ..
  2. Park J, Knudson S. Medically unexplained physical symptoms. Health Rep. 2007;18:43-7 pubmed
  3. Caress S, Steinemann A. Prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities: a population-based study in the southeastern United States. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:746-7 pubmed
    ..Our prevalence for MCS is similar to that (15.9%) found by the California Department of Health Services in California and suggests that the national prevalence may be similar...
  4. Wiesmüller G, Ebel H, Hornberg C, Kwan O, Friel J. Are syndromes in environmental medicine variants of somatoform disorders?. Med Hypotheses. 2003;61:419-30 pubmed
    ..pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy, prevention and prognosis of environment-related syndromes like multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), sick building syndrome (SBS), chronic fatigue ..
  5. Bell I, Rossi J, Gilbert M, Kobal G, Morrow L, Newlin D, et al. Testing the neural sensitization and kindling hypothesis for illness from low levels of environmental chemicals. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105 Suppl 2:539-47 pubmed
    ..experiments to determine whether or not sensitization to low-level chemical exposures occurs in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients; and to use animal preparations for kindling and TDS as nonhomologous models for the ..
  6. Hillert L, Jovanovic H, Ahs F, Savic I. Women with multiple chemical sensitivity have increased harm avoidance and reduced 5-HT(1A) receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate and amygdala. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54781 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown...
  7. Mena G, Sequera V, Nogué Xarau S, Rios J, Bertran M, Trilla A. [Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory for use in the Spanish population]. Med Clin (Barc). 2013;140:302-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To perform the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI) for the Spanish population...
  8. Arnold C, Shaw L, Landry G. Using metaphors to study occupational transitions: a case study of an injured worker with multiple chemical sensitivity. Work. 2009;32:467-75 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this case study was to explore transitions of an injured worker suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), and his lived experiences in learning to function in everyday life with this injury...
  9. Fisher M, Rose M. Anaesthesia for patients with idiopathic environmental intolerance and chronic fatigue syndrome. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:486-91 pubmed publisher
    Idiopathic environmental intolerance syndrome (IEI), formerly known as multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCSS), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are controversial diseases and there is little information in the literature ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nogué S, Fernández Solà J, Rovira E, Montori E, Fernandez Huerta J, Munne P. [Multiple chemical sensitivity: study of 52 cases]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;129:96-8; quiz 99 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by a loss of tolerance to various environmental chemicals. The objective of this study was to describe patients with MCS seen in our hospital.
  2. Hausteiner C, Bornschein S, Hansen J, Zilker T, Forstl H. Self-reported chemical sensitivity in Germany: a population-based survey. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005;208:271-8 pubmed
    ..overreaction to small doses of widely used and generally non-toxic chemicals is referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), but no clearly defined clinical syndrome with objective physical findings has been delineated ..
  3. Saito M, Kumano H, Yoshiuchi K, Kokubo N, Ohashi K, Yamamoto Y, et al. Symptom profile of multiple chemical sensitivity in actual life. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:318-25 pubmed
    This study was conducted to confirm the definition of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in actual life: that multiple symptoms are provoked in multiple organs by exposure to, and ameliorated by avoidance of, multiple chemicals at low ..
  4. Lipson J. Multiple chemical sensitivities: stigma and social experiences. Med Anthropol Q. 2004;18:200-13 pubmed
    b>Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), an intolerance to everyday chemical and biological substances in amounts that do not bother other people, is a medically contested condition...
  5. Levallois P, Neutra R, Lee G, Hristova L. Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 4:619-23 pubmed
    ..been reported for more than 20 years, and some authors have suggested some connection with the "multiple chemical sensitivity" illness. We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians...
  6. McKeown Eyssen G, Baines C, Marshall L, Jazmaji V, Sokoloff E. Multiple chemical sensitivity: discriminant validity of case definitions. Arch Environ Health. 2001;56:406-12 pubmed
    ..of Toronto's Health Survey self-administered questionnaire to determine discriminant validity of multiple chemical sensitivity definitions...
  7. Kipen H, Fiedler N. Environmental factors in medically unexplained symptoms and related syndromes: the evidence and the challenge. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110 Suppl 4:597-9 pubmed
    ..have been organized by patients and practitioners into syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, sick building syndrome, Gulf War syndrome, and the like...
  8. Fiedler N, Kipen H. Chemical sensitivity: the scientific literature. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105 Suppl 2:409-15 pubmed
    ..Demonstrating the role of low-level chemical exposure in a controlled environment has yet to be undertaken with this patient group and is crucial to the understanding of this phenomenon...
  9. Miller C, Prihoda T. The Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (EESI): a standardized approach for measuring chemical intolerances for research and clinical applications. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:370-85 pubmed
    The lack of a generally accepted case definition for multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and the absence of a standardized approach for measuring salient aspects of chemical sensitivity that would permit cross-comparison of findings by ..
  10. Skovbjerg S, Brorson S, Rasmussen A, Johansen J, Elberling J. Impact of self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity on everyday life: a qualitative study. Scand J Public Health. 2009;37:621-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a descriptive term covering symptoms attributed to exposure to common airborne chemicals...
  11. Gibson P, Vogel V. Sickness-related dysfunction in persons with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18:72-81 pubmed publisher
    To examine quality of life outcome for persons who self-report chemical sensitivity, often referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity.
  12. Miller C, Prihoda T. A controlled comparison of symptoms and chemical intolerances reported by Gulf War veterans, implant recipients and persons with multiple chemical sensitivity. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:386-97 pubmed
    ..caffeine, alcohol, skin contactants), lifeimpact, and masking (ongoing exposures) in five populations: multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) patients who did (n = 96) or did not (n = 90) attribute onset of their illness to a specific ..
  13. Eis D, Helm D, Mühlinghaus T, Birkner N, Dietel A, Eikmann T, et al. The German Multicentre Study on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS). Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:658-81 pubmed publisher
    In this multicentre study on multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) 291 consecutive environmental medicine (EM) outpatients were examined in several environmental medicine outpatient centres/units throughout Germany in 2000/2003...
  14. Rossi G, Nucera E, Patriarca G, Manicone P, Raffaelli L, Pescolla A, et al. Multiple chemical sensitivity: current concepts. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2007;20:5-7 pubmed
    b>Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MS) is characterized by a wide range of symptoms when affected patients come into contact with several chemical products. Very little is known of either the diagnosis or the suitable treatment...
  15. Pall M, Anderson J. The vanilloid receptor as a putative target of diverse chemicals in multiple chemical sensitivity. Arch Environ Health. 2004;59:363-75 pubmed
    ..peripheral nervous system, is activated by a broad range of chemicals similar to those implicated in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) Syndrome...
  16. Elberling J, Linneberg A, Dirksen A, Johansen J, Frølund L, Madsen F, et al. Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:75-81 pubmed
    ..Exposure to perfume and fragrance products may, in some individuals, cause symptoms from the eyes and airways. The localization, character and risk factors of such symptoms in the general population are unknown...
  17. Sorg B, Newlin D. Sensitization as a mechanism for multiple chemical sensitivity: relationship to evolutionary theory. Scand J Psychol. 2002;43:161-7 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a disorder in humans attributed to prior chemical exposure...
  18. Nordin S, Millqvist E, Lowhagen O, Bende M. A short Chemical Sensitivity Scale for assessment of airway sensory hyperreactivity. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2004;77:249-54 pubmed
  19. Kanaan R, Lepine J, Wessely S. The association or otherwise of the functional somatic syndromes. Psychosom Med. 2007;69:855-9 pubmed
    ..To review the evidence for overlap in the phenomenology of the Functional Somatic Syndromes (FSS). The FSS show considerable comorbidity, leading some to suggest they may be aspects of the same disorder...
  20. Rowat S. Integrated defense system overlaps as a disease model: with examples for multiple chemical sensitivity. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106 Suppl 1:85-109 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are developed from several IDS disease models...
  21. Söderholm A, Söderberg A, Nordin S. The experience of living with sensory hyperreactivity-accessibility, financial security, and social relationships. Health Care Women Int. 2011;32:686-707 pubmed publisher
  22. De Luca C, Scordo M, Cesareo E, Pastore S, Mariani S, Maiani G, et al. Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;248:285-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a poorly clinically and biologically defined environment-associated syndrome...
  23. Berg N, Rasmussen H, Linneberg A, Brasch Andersen C, Fenger M, Dirksen A, et al. Genetic susceptibility factors for multiple chemical sensitivity revisited. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010;213:131-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances...
  24. Sorg B, Tschirgi M, Swindell S, Chen L, Fang J. Repeated formaldehyde effects in an animal model for multiple chemical sensitivity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;933:57-67 pubmed
    Chemical intolerance is a phenomenon observed in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) syndrome, an ill-defined disorder in humans attributed to exposure to volatile organic compounds...
  25. Caress S, Steinemann A. Asthma and chemical hypersensitivity: prevalence, etiology, and age of onset. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009;25:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2% report health problems from air fresheners, and 13.6% report their asthma was caused by toxic exposure. Asthma cases affected each racial/ethic group in roughly the same proportion, with nearly 50% classified as childhood onset...
  26. Fukuyama T, Ueda H, Hayashi K, Tajima Y, Shuto Y, Saito T, et al. Detection of low-level environmental chemical allergy by a long-term sensitization method. Toxicol Lett. 2008;180:1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by various signs, including neurological disorders and allergy...
  27. Black D, Okiishi C, Schlosser S. The Iowa follow-up of chemically sensitive persons. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;933:48-56 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the subjects remain strongly committed to their diagnosis of MCS. Most have improved since their original interview, but many remain symptomatic and continue to report ongoing lifestyle changes...
  28. Hu H, Stern A, Rotnitzky A, Schlesinger L, Proctor S, Wolfe J. Development of a brief questionnaire for screening for multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome. Toxicol Ind Health. 1999;15:582-8 pubmed
    ..set of questions that has high sensitivity and specificity for screening for individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional survey using a case-control design...
  29. Lee H, Hong S, Hong Z, Gil H, Yang J, Lee E, et al. Pesticide-initiated idiopathic environmental intolerance in South Korean farmers. Inhal Toxicol. 2007;19:577-85 pubmed
    ..Another two showed typical multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) or idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)...
  30. Lee Y, Pai M, Chen J, Guo Y. Central neurological abnormalities and multiple chemical sensitivity caused by chronic toluene exposure. Occup Med (Lond). 2003;53:479-82 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a syndrome in which multiple symptoms occur with low-level chemical exposure; whether it is an organic disease initiated by environmental exposure or a psychological disorder is still controversial...
  31. Kolstad H, Silberschmidt M, Nielsen J, Osterberg K, Andersen J, Bonde J, et al. [Multiple chemical sensitivity, a well-defined illness?]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:1116-9 pubmed
    ..They may be diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivity. There is no empirical evidence indicating that this condition is explained by toxicological ..
  32. Hillert L, Musabasic V, Berglund H, Ciumas C, Savic I. Odor processing in multiple chemical sensitivity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2007;28:172-82 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the mechanisms behind the reported hypersensitivity are unknown...
  33. Fox R, Joffres M, Sampalli T, Casey J. The impact of a multidisciplinary, holistic approach to management of patients diagnosed with multiple chemical sensitivity on health care utilization costs: an observational study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007;13:223-9 pubmed
    ..this study was to look at the impact of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and to present preliminary results which compare health care utilization pre- and postmanagement ..
  34. Mazzatenta A, Pokorski M, Cozzutto S, Barbieri P, Veratti V, Di Giulio C. Non-invasive assessment of exhaled breath pattern in patients with multiple chemical sensibility disorder. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;756:179-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex disorder initiated by chemical exposure, particularly through the airways. MCS patients report sensitivity or intolerance to low levels of a wide spectrum of chemicals...
  35. McKeown Eyssen G, Sokoloff E, Jazmaji V, Marshall L, Baines C. Reproducibility of the University of Toronto self-administered questionnaire used to assess environmental sensitivity. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:1216-22 pubmed
    ..69, 0.68, and 0.78). The survey achieved good reproducibility regarding self-report of symptoms described in published case definitions of environmental sensitivity...
  36. Ternesten Hasséus E, Bende M, Millqvist E. Increased capsaicin cough sensitivity in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44:1012-7 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterized by chemically induced symptoms from multiple organ systems. No consistent physical findings or laboratory abnormalities have been determined for the associated symptoms...
  37. Bailer J, Witthöft M, Rist F. The Chemical Odor Sensitivity Scale: reliability and validity of a screening instrument for idiopathic environmental intolerance. J Psychosom Res. 2006;61:71-9 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric qualities of a brief screening measure for idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), the Chemical Odor Sensitivity Scale (COSS)...
  38. Lipson J, Doiron N. Environmental issues and work: women with multiple chemical sensitivities. Health Care Women Int. 2006;27:571-84 pubmed
  39. Bornschein S, Hausteiner C, Drzezga A, Bartenstein P, Schwaiger M, Forstl H, et al. PET in patients with clear-cut multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Nuklearmedizin. 2002;41:233-9 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a controversially discussed symptom complex. Patients afflicted by MCS react to very low and generally non-toxic concentrations of environmental chemicals...
  40. Berg N, Linneberg A, Dirksen A, Elberling J. Prevalence of self-reported symptoms and consequences related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81:881-7 pubmed
    ..To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population...
  41. Cooper C. Multiple chemical sensitivity in the clinical setting. Am J Nurs. 2007;107:40-7; quiz 48 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which people experience a broad array of symptoms in reaction to exposure to trace amounts of common chemicals...
  42. Spencer T, Schur P. The challenge of multiple chemical sensitivity. J Environ Health. 2008;70:24-7 pubmed
    ..b>Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) may be a factor at play in some of these situations...
  43. Miller C. The compelling anomaly of chemical intolerance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;933:1-23 pubmed
  44. Andersson L, Bende M, Millqvist E, Nordin S. Attention bias and sensitization in chemical sensitivity. J Psychosom Res. 2009;66:407-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether persons with self-reported chemical sensitivity (CS) have an attention bias and enhanced sensitization to chemical exposure...
  45. Pall M. NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity. FASEB J. 2002;16:1407-17 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition where previous exposure to hydrophobic organic solvents or pesticides appears to render people hypersensitive to a wide range of chemicals, including organic solvents...
  46. Bailer J, Witthöft M, Paul C, Bayerl C, Rist F. Evidence for overlap between idiopathic environmental intolerance and somatoform disorders. Psychosom Med. 2005;67:921-9 pubmed
    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), also known as multiple chemical sensitivity, is a chronic, polysymptomatic condition that cannot be explained by an organic disease...
  47. Inomata N, Osuna H, Fujita H, Ogawa T, Ikezawa Z. Multiple chemical sensitivities following intolerance to azo dye in sweets in a 5-year-old girl. Allergol Int. 2006;55:203-5 pubmed
    ..Cases of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) have been reported predominantly in adult patients, but pediatric cases have rarely been reported...
  48. Bartenstein P, Grunwald F, Herholz K, Kuwert T, Tatsch K, Sabri O, et al. [Role of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) in so-called "multiple chemical sensitivity"]. Nuklearmedizin. 1999;38:297-301 pubmed
    ..with SPECT and PET is increasingly used to prove evidence for the existence of a syndrome "Multiple Chemical Sensitivity" (MCS) and plays a major role in legal trials to justify compensation for the exposure to ..
  49. Georgellis A, Lindelöf B, Lundin A, Arnetz B, Hillert L. Multiple chemical sensitivity in male painters; a controlled provocation study. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003;206:531-8 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether male painters reporting multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) differ from their matched controls (male painters without such sensitivity) during controlled chamber challenges to ..
  50. Hojo S, Ishikawa S, Kumano H, Miyata M, Sakabe K. Clinical characteristics of physician-diagnosed patients with multiple chemical sensitivity in Japan. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:682-9 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), a syndrome in which multiple symptoms occur with low-level chemical exposure, has not been clarified in detail...
  51. Koch L, Rumrill P, Hennessey M, Vierstra C, Roessler R. An ecological approach to facilitate successful employment outcomes among people with multiple chemical sensitivity. Work. 2007;29:341-9 pubmed
    Many adults with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) must prematurely exit the workforce because of the severity of their MCS symptoms, the resulting disability stigma, and their unmet needs for on-the-job accommodations...
  52. Migliore A, Bizzi E, Massafra U, Capuano A, Martin Martin L. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome in Sjögren's syndrome patients: casual association or related diseases?. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2006;61:285-7 pubmed
    b>Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is defined by multiple symptoms, affecting multiple organs, that wax and wane in response to varying chemical exposures at or below previously tolerated levels...
  53. Bolt H, Kiesswetter E. Is multiple chemical sensitivity a clinically defined entity?. Toxicol Lett. 2002;128:99-106 pubmed
    ..The new situation will call for a re-evaluation of traditional positions...